LAWA Official Site | Airport BasicsAirports Economic Impact
A major international airport is a tremendous “economic engine” for its region and country. According to the Airports Council International (ACI), in 2011 more than 5 billion passengers flew somewhere in the world, aircraft moved more than 94 million metric tons of cargo worldwide and more than 77 million flights conducted all this activity.
In 2007 the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation estimated that each international flight arriving at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) is worth as much as $623 million in economic activity, including the employment, commercial and operational activities associated with the flight, its passengers and its cargo. Based on that calculation, with more than 88,000 such flights arriving or departing at LAX in 2012, the annual impact on the local economy of international arrivals alone at LAX exceeded $27 billion.
On a national scale, ACI also reported that in 2010, between the airport operators, airlines, concessionaires and others, airports directly employed 1.
How Airports Operate
Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA), is a proprietary department of the City of Los Angeles and owns and operates three airports, Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), Ontario International Airport (ONT) and Van Nuys general aviation airport (VNY). LAWA also owns acreage in Palmdale where a small regional airport (PMD) once operated.
An airport operates much like a small city. The airport is responsible for providing services to a variety of users including: passengers, airlines, air freight carriers and private pilots who all use the airport differently. LAX is ranked as the 3rd busiest airport in both the world and the U.S., handling, according to FAA and LAWA data, more than 605,480 flights in 2012 (an average of 1,659 flights per day), carrying an annual total of approximately 63. 68 million passengers and 1.866 million tons of air cargo.
A busy airport such as LAX must meet the needs of airport users in order to remain competitive and to do that it must provide:
Gates/Passenger Boarding Bridges
Runways and taxiways
Aircraft fueling systems
Airline, air freight and passenger facilities
Ground transportation access
Safe operating conditions
LAX is a publically-owned commercial airport which operates on revenues generated at the airport. Municipal airport bonds are also sold to generate funding for airport capital improvement projects. Typically airports own all of their facilities and generate revenue by leasing those facilities to airlines, concessionaires and other tenants. Airports also generate revenue by charging aircraft landing fees, concession fees, and parking fees and through certain passenger facility fees (PFC) collected on airline tickets. Revenues are used to fund the airport’s operating expenses and to pay off bond debt.
Revenue generated by an airport is regulated by federal law and overseen by the FAA. Funds can only be used for operations and development of an airport and are constrained for use on airport-owned property for airport-related uses. Strict sanctions are imposed on the airport if the funds are not used in accordance with federal law (a concept known as revenue diversion).
The evolution of LAX
LAX was established in 1928 as Mines Field and went through five modernization efforts to become the LAX of today. Now, LAX is comprised of over 2,950 acres of active airport and 700 acres of additional airport-owned land including the El Segundo Dunes and the LAX Northside Area.
The runways at LAX were built to embrace the jet age of the 1960s.
Gates/Passenger Boarding Bridges
Gates are where airplanes park adjacent to passenger terminals for the purposes of enplaning or deplaning passengers via passenger boarding bridges. The airport typically leases gates for either exclusive use or joint-use to the airlines and in some cases certain airlines lease an entire terminal containing multiple gates. Maintenance and operation of the gates includes maintenance of the passenger waiting areas, washing, cleaning, stocking and refueling of planes, loading and unloading of baggage and other necessary tasks.
Runways and taxiways
Runways and taxiways are the paved pathways aircraft use to take off and land, as well as to move/taxi around the airport to deliver passengers to terminal gates or access aircraft maintenance facilities.
Runways normally are built to line up with the airport’s prevailing wind pattern. LAX has four runways, two on the north and two on the south. Air traffic controllers collaborate with pilots to determine how flights use the runways. LAX operates on an FAA waiver requiring additional management of airfield operations to ensure safety at all times whenever New Large Aircraft (NLA) such as the Group 6 Airbus A380 or Boeing 747-800 land or take off at LAX because the current runway configuration does not comply with modern FAA spacing standards prescribed for these aircraft.
Airports generate income by charging fees to fuel companies who want to deliver fuel to aircraft, this process is typically accomplished through the use of fuel delivery trucks or underground fuel delivery systems.
Airline, air freight and passenger facilities
A commercial airport such as LAX is a complex collaboration between airport management and the airlines and others who conduct or oversee aviation operations at the facility/airport. They collaborate to design, finance, build, operate and maintain passenger terminals, air freight facilities and aircraft maintenance areas, while commercial terminal concessions and other services for air travelers are largely operated by LAWA. The federal government provides air traffic control, security, safety and customs services.
In addition to the aforementioned gates, passenger terminals include ticketing areas, baggage handling and claim facilities, security and customs screening systems, passenger waiting areas and lounges, retail, food and beverage services and other necessary passenger conveniences.
All of the commercial and private aircraft that use LAX must be properly maintained to operate safely. Airlines and other operators lease property and hangars from the airport to provide this crucial maintenance service. Federal officials periodically inspect aircraft to insure that proper maintenance is being provided.
Ground access is the means by which passengers, employees and visitors gain access to the airport passenger terminals and include multiple modes of transportation such as private automobiles, taxis, buses, shared ride vans, train, or bicycles. For these modes to get into LAX’s central terminal airport, LAWA provides the following:
Roadways – LAX is served by the Interstate 105 and 405 highways that move regional traffic to and from the vicinity of the airport. City built and maintained surface streets bring traffic to the central terminal area and LAWA constantly strives to keep traffic flowing smoothly into and out of the airport.
Drop-off and Pick-up – Curbside passenger drop-off and pick-up areas are provided in front of each terminal making it easier for passengers to get to and from their flights.
Rental Car Companies – Private rental car companies provide shuttle service to their off-site facilities to efficiently and conveniently serve their airport customers.
Shuttle Services – LAX implemented a consolidated hotel shuttle program which offers a reduced airport access fee to hotels using a consolidated shuttle service with three or more hotels rather than operating their own dedicated shuttle services . The program reduces emissions and congestion in the central terminal area. Using low emission Compressed Natural Gas-fueled buses, LAWA provides courtesy shuttle service to and from its off-site parking lots as well as a nearby light rail station.
Public and Private Transportation – Limousines, shuttle vans, taxis, public transit buses and the LAWA-operated FlyAway bus system provide air travelers with multiple modes of airport access. In the future, the regional light rail system serving an airport-adjacent station will provide improved and more convenient access to LAX from downtown Los Angeles, Mid-City Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Southeast Los Angeles County and the South Bay .
Safe operating conditions
Airports may manage their own police, fire and emergency medical services. At LAX, Los Angeles Airport Police, Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) are the first responders to any emergency. These City employees are stationed at the airport. As a major international airport with 63 million passengers annually, LAX maintains a highly secure facility. There are over 1,100 sworn and civilian Airport Police personnel in addition to the Transportation Security Administration, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, US Customs, and Border Control agents monitoring the premises twenty-four hours a day.
Maintenance is a major consideration for the safe and efficient operation of an airport. At LAX, the Maintenance Services Division and Facilities Management Divisions are responsible for daily physical inspections of the runways and taxiways and immediately resolving any issues identified from trash removal to replacing pavement markings twenty-four hours a day. Airport staff also provides ongoing maintenance and custodial service in the passenger terminals, restrooms and public areas and ensures that all areas of the airport are maintained properly to maximize attractiveness and operational safety.
Multigene phylogenetics of euglenids based on single-cell transcriptomics of diverse phagotrophs
Euglenids are a well-known group of single-celled eukaryotes, with phototrophic, osmotrophic and phagotrophic members. Phagotrophs represent most of the phylogenetic diversity of euglenids, and gave rise to the phototrophs and osmotrophs, but their evolutionary relationships are poorly understood. Symbiontids, in contrast, are anaerobes that are alternatively inferred to be derived euglenids, or a separate euglenozoan group. Most phylogenetic studies of euglenids have examined the SSU rDNA only, which is often highly divergent. Also, many phagotrophic euglenids (and symbiontids) are uncultured, restricting collection of other molecular data. We generated transcriptome data for 28 taxa, mostly using a single-cell approach, and conducted the first multigene phylogenetic analyses of euglenids to include phagotrophs and symbiontids. Euglenids are recovered as monophyletic, with symbiontids forming an independent branch within Euglenozoa. Spirocuta, the clade of flexible euglenids that contains both the phototrophs (Euglenophyceae) and osmotrophs (Aphagea), is robustly resolved, with the ploeotid Olkasia as its sister group, forming the new taxon Olkaspira. Ploeotids are paraphyletic, although Ploeotiidae (represented by Ploeotia spp.), Lentomonas, and Keelungia form a robust clade (new taxon Alistosa). Petalomonadida branches robustly as sister to other euglenids in outgroup-rooted analyses. Within Spirocuta, Euglenophyceae is a robust clade that includes Rapaza, and Anisonemia is a well-supported monophyletic group containing Anisonemidae (Anisonema and Dinema spp.), ‘Heteronema II’ (represented by H. vittatum), and a clade of Neometanema plus Aphagea. Among ‘peranemid’ phagotrophs, Chasmostoma branches with included Urceolus, and Peranema with the undescribed ‘Jenningsia II’, while other relationships are weakly supported and consequently the closest sister group to Euglenophyceae remains unresolved. Our results are inconsistent with recent inferences that Entosiphon is the evolutionarily pivotal sister either to other euglenids, or to Spirocuta. At least three transitions between posterior and anterior flagellar gliding occurred in euglenids, with the phylogenetic positions and directions of those transitions remaining ambiguous.
Keywords: Cell motility; Euglenozoa; Phylogenomics; Protozoa; Spirocuta; Symbiontida.
Centre’s Point by Point Rejoinder on Charges of Lax Research on Covid-19 Evolution
Amid reports alleging low sequencing in the country, the government has issued a rejoinder, saying sequencing by the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genetics Consortium (INSACOG) has helped in detection of Variants of Concerns (VOCs) in real time and that the data has been shared with relevant States and UTs.
“The INSACOG is a forum set up under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on 25 December 2020, to study and monitor genome sequencing and virus variation of circulating strains of COVID-19 in India,” the government said.
In the initial phase, the sampling was done with the objective of:
A. Identifying International Travelers who could be carrying the variant strains
B. To find out if the variant(s) are already present in the population
Accordingly, a 2-pronged strategy was adopted:
1. International passengers arriving from selected countries and their contacts were targeted for WGS
2. Community based sampling of 5% of the RTPCR positive cases from each of the States.
“It is important to note that the 5% norm was selected based on the then daily new case load (Approx. 10,000 – 15,000 per day) and the sequencing capacity of the RGSLs at that time. Both the objectives were met when it was conclusively established that International passengers were carrying the variants and the transmission of these had also been established in the community (UK variant) in a few states,” it added.
Subsequently, in line with global sequencing strategy and WHO guidance document, the sampling strategy has been revised by INSACOG with the objective:
1. To detect emerging genomic variants / mutations by prospective sampling
2. To detect the VOCs/genomic variants in special / unusual events like large clusters, unusual clinical presentation, vaccine breakthrough, suspected reinfections etc.
“Accordingly, a strategy has been adopted in view of the increase in the number of new COVID-19 cases, existing capacity of RGSLs and timely detection of Variants of Concerns (VOCs) including other genomic variants being detected in the Country and elsewhere. Strategy was revised on 12th April to “Sentinel Surveillance”. This was also endorsed by WHO which had issued similar guidance,” the government said.
Under the present Sentinel surveillance strategy:
1. States have identified 5 laboratories and 5 tertiary care hospitals each as sentinel sites for sending samples to designated RGSLs.
2. Each of the sentinel sites is sending 15 samples routinely for WGS to the designated laboratories.
The government said that in addition to the sentinel surveillance, an additional event-based surveillance for special/ unusual events like large clusters, unusual clinical presentation, vaccine breakthrough, suspected reinfections etc to detect, investigate and respond to these was also approved.
“As far as the turnaround time is concerned, INSACOG sequencing has helped in detection of VOCs in real time and this was also shared with the relevant States. The present turnaround time for VOCs is only 10 to 15 days,” it said, adding that the the effect of known VOCs on disease transmission and severity are already established, but for new mutations under investigations; for correlation of genomic mutations with epidemiological scenarios, it is important to monitor the epidemiological trends of cases and clinical severity and proportions of samples with genomic variants over a few weeks to generate scientifically valid evidence.
“Regarding enhancing the number and capacity of existing genome sequencing labs, it is informed that in addition to existing 10 labs, 18 other labs have also been approved for incorporation in the INSACOG network,” the government said.
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This article is cited in 2 scientific papers (total in 2 papers)
Integrals of nonlinear equations of evolution and solitary waves
Peter D. Lax
Full text: PDF file (1156 kB)
Original version in (translated by L. R. Volevich):
Citation: Peter D. Lax, “Integrals of nonlinear equations of evolution and solitary waves”, Matematika, 13:5 (1969), 128–150; Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 21 (1968), 467–490
Citation in format AMSBIB
Citing articles on Google Scholar:
This publication is cited in the following articles:
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Weak personality and strength: evo_lutio – LiveJournal
A weak personality is a person who cannot maintain balance and ensure a normal existence for himself.
A weak personality is a suffering personality.
It can already be seen here how much the majority do not know what a personality is?
Suffering is attributed to some external factors, but not to one’s own internal organization.
According to the majority, a person suffers from the fact that she has been infringed on her rights, offended, deceived, disliked or unlucky.
Luck also seems to be something external, so if an ordinary person sees someone successful, he thinks that he was just lucky.
Outside. Luck is not associated with one’s own flow, although this is precisely what brings all the lucky ones on itself.
Because of this gap, there are not even rough guidelines on how to make your life happy.
Or worse, there are landmarks, but they are all turned outward.
Protecting your borders = explaining to others, explaining how they should behave, demanding rights.
Fight for a place in the sun = explain to others, prove who you are and what you are worth.
Gaining life experience = putting losses in the Excel-tree in order to defend your borders in the future at once (see above, how).
Learning from the experience of others = writing down signs of abusers and deceivers in order to identify and protect their boundaries in time (see above for how)
Instead of making their personality even a little stronger than in childhood, many people in the process of life and even aging, become weaker and more infantile, lose even what they had, childish spontaneity, for example.
A person suffering from mental pain is a weak personality.
Sometimes it is a mentally ill person, but if he is organically preserved, it is a matter of a weak personality.
Even the loss of a loved one is tolerated by a strong personality normally, it is easier for her to come to terms with the fact that she does not depend on her in any way and to direct attention to what depends on her.
As for those things that most people suffer from: boredom, disappointment in life and in oneself, restlessness, loneliness, lack of motivation, bad habits and addictions, anxiety, oppressive feelings of hopelessness and pessimism, all these mental pains are due to weakness personality.
Because of the external locus of control, that is, the habit of looking for support not on oneself, but on others and external circumstances.
Because of beefy self-esteem (crown), that is, dependence on someone else’s approval and the habit of the illusion of superiority.
Due to the lack of self-regulation, that is, the skill to switch your attention from harmful to useful things, to steer your energy.
Due to a lack of spontaneity, that is, a reserve of strength, inspiration, motivation, liveliness, interest.
Of all the characteristics of a person’s personality, only the latter is usually of interest. Spontaneity, energy, joy.
Where can I get it?
Why isn’t it?
Probably someone took it away. Parents ruined something in childhood, and then bad friends and partners finished it off. Well, we were not lucky with the state.
From such reasoning, the locus is fixed as external, no reliance on oneself is even foreseen, which means there will be no normal self-esteem, no will, and even less spontaneity.
Spontaneity is high, that is, a supply of energy and inspiration (and talents, too, and creativity, and attractiveness, and magnetism, and luck, all the good things in life, every one of them) is a Blue Bird that flies only into a well-made nest, that is strong, strong, stable, protected personality.
If instead of a personality you have a leaky sieve or a Nif-Nif straw hut, do not dream of any spontaneity and the Queen. So you will beg from others, extorting crumbs, but all your life you will be unhappy.Look at people who have been whining all their lives, from birth to old age. There are many, if not most of them. Do you know a lot of happy people?
Your personality must be strong, only then will energy circulate in you, a constant flow. There will be enough strength for everything. For all 12 resources (and those, in turn, will give strength themselves). Creative inspiration will also be. There will be some more attractiveness. Even the cash flow will connect.
But only if the personality is strong.
I have been describing the technique of building a strong personality in my blog for several years now.
Work begins at the locus of control.
This is the backbone of the basics. This is the beginning of the beginning.
Until you rely on yourself, but look for support (responsible for your well-being) outside yourself, you will not have your own personality.
Most people still live without their personality, grope every morning for some kind of self-identification, remembering who and what they fell asleep with, and somehow live, staggering from thoughts to emotions, now and then collecting themselves into some kind of heap.
Personality is an energy framework that holds you and your energy in the same way a muscle corset holds the body, relieving stress on the joints and providing physical activity and a good metabolism, not to mention attractiveness and strength.
Personality allows you to constantly remember, know and feel who you are and what you need, what you want, why and what you need to do for this. The personality has high self-esteem and good personal boundaries.
It is necessary to constantly move the locus of control inward, catching yourself with claims, expectations, resentments and attempts to pull something out of someone.
If you notice your forceps, the locus of control has moved out.
Many people not only need to learn how to keep the locus of control inside, they need to move it inside at least once. This will already be progress.
I write that it is necessary to start from the locus, although all readers of the blog remember that first the crown must be removed.
But this must be done at the same time, otherwise nothing will work. Remove the crown with one hand, move the locus inward with the other.
To take off the crown means to clearly see that other people and external circumstances are by themselves, you do not reign over them and do not control them.
Without this understanding, you cannot move the locus of control.
Why are offenders waiting for an apology, and beggars waiting for alms? Because they are sure they owe them. They believe that other people obey their will. Because of the crown, people are looking for support outside themselves, it seems to them that they control others, that their expectations and desires somehow affect others, somehow work and influence. They feel themselves and their illusory boundaries far beyond their real boundaries, their real capabilities, they imagine that their will rules the world, that’s why they rummage in search of external supports.
Without a crown, that is, without an inflated sense of importance, power, power, it becomes obvious that no one obeys you by default, everyone cares about themselves, which means it is logical to shift the locus of control (place of support) to where you will have real control , real opportunities – within themselves, within their boundaries.
Without removing the crown, you cannot move the locus of control inward, but if you remove the crown and don’t move the locus, there will be no sense, the crown will grow back in the same or another place.
Many people complain that it is very difficult to move the locus of control inward, but in reality nothing is easier than that.The place of the locus of control is inside, and in order for it to be outside, you have to constantly feed the crown and cultivate illusions. People cannot move the locus of control inward, not because of the complexity of this, but because of unwillingness. It seems to them that if they start relying on themselves, there will be no chance to squeeze something out of others. Under the crown, they do not see what to squeeze out and so nothing will work out, except for crumbs, and live in hope.
A simple example is waiting for material assistance.
Why not stop waiting and start doing something for your own material welfare? Because it seems that expectations are about to be crowned with success, and if you give up the forceps, no one will give anything.
Remember, whenever your locus of control was external, you were sorry to tear your hand away from someone else’s, it seemed to you that a little more and it would be yours, it is almost yours, practically with you.
The larger the crown, the stronger the feeling that someone else’s is yours.
The crown is on the one hand the enemy, and on the other hand – the one whom you yourself call when you want to feel powerful.
All you need to remove the crown is to admit that you are insignificant for others from whom you are trying to get something.
He is a priority for himself, and you are insignificant for him. Even if this is your spouse, he is still more important for himself, you cannot assume that he will put you in the first place. This happens in a big minus, but you cannot get it with the help of forceps, a plus grows from the forceps. And if this is not a loved one, but a stranger, the more foolish it is to think that you have such a high value for him, it is ridiculous to ascribe to yourself such a significance for him.
Modesty allows you to never wear a crown.
And without the crown, the inner locus becomes completely natural. If no one cares about you, if everyone is ready to cooperate with you on the terms of their own benefit and their personal interests, then you should rely only on yourself. This is normal and only twilight infantiles seem cruel. Relying on yourself is not cruel, but normal. It is cruel to rely on others.
Imagine that someone wants to lean on you. No, do not imagine who you yourself want so that saliva flows, imagine unnecessary.So he wants to rely on you, to fuck you from all sides, to impose his will on you, and considers it cruel that he cannot do this.
You do the same when you fumble in search of support outside yourself.
It is possible and necessary to cooperate with people, but this is not relying on them. This is a mutual exchange based on yourself, and you must strive to make your contribution to the common cause more, so you assert yourself and grow self-esteem. Even if you have force majeure and you are forced to seek material or other support from others, you need to remember well that this is someone else’s support, kindly provided to you.Only then will you be grateful, only then will you try to quickly find your support and repay the debt. Knowing this about you, each of your friends will be happy to help you. If you have a reputation as a beggar, weakling and ungrateful child, no one will want to help you even in case of your trouble. Everyone will frown and pretend not to notice. No one wants to feel like a fool that someone else uses because of their own laziness and greed. You provoke aggression if you think you have every right to rely on others.You don’t have. You can be offered this and you should be grateful. But this is possible only if you very clearly see that you have no rights to someone else’s.
If you think that “morality” and “morality”, as well as “humanism” give you the right to open your mouth to someone else’s loaf, you will be despised because you are using important concepts for parasitic purposes. These concepts are needed in order to help others yourself, and not in order to demand help.
After your locus of control fell into place and it became unpleasant for you to pull from others what you want, and you began to rely only on yourself, you may have what we call the King and Queen.Not earlier! Don’t talk about your Queen if your locus of control is in the sky, this is not your Queen, but someone else’s. And you have no King if the locus of control is not in place.
Self-regulation (King) appears only when there is support for oneself. You can only switch your attention when you are leaning on yourself. Otherwise, you will not grab your attention and you will not be able to feel at all where it is – your attention. Your center is shifted beyond the boundaries, you fall into parts, whatever your attention is there. All your energy flows wherever it will be enticed, you are ruled by other people’s figures in the field, which grow like weeds.You cannot switch your attention from one thing to another, you cannot even want to, even speculatively decide. You are not. There is no one to want.
The king, that is, the power over his focus of attention, and with it over his flow of energy, appears only when the locus of control is inside. Here you can divide the boundaries and switch attention and shift the focus. If this is difficult for you, check whether the locus of control is shifting beyond the boundaries, whether the crown is growing. If everything is in order, it is easy enough to manage attention.In addition to the situation when larva already reigns in your field, that is, addiction, but you can get rid of it with the help of the normal locus and dividing the boundaries. Lyarva is gradually losing weight and weakening, and you begin to own your attention.
And then, not earlier, the Queen begins to love you and now you can even say that she is yours. She is with you.
You have a lot of energy. The state is stable, there are many ideas and plans. Your life is wonderful.
And not that there are no illusions, even there is no place for illusions.
Can there be a place for fake landscapes and cardboard decorations, when you see such a bright, lively, responsive world filled with colors and smells?
Illusions are needed when a person sits in a damp pit where he drove himself.
Friends, to what extent do you already understand and know from experience what I have just written about?
the father is strong and the daughter is weak. The oddities of evolution [Fascinating biology]
The deer paradox: the father is strong and the daughter is weak
“Almost like a father” – such a characteristic pleases in childhood, but for a daughter, as she grows up, such a review becomes not entirely pleasant.Who would like a woman with broad shoulders, a strong chin, a deep voice and possibly a mustache ?! Nobody – their chances of acquiring partnerships are zero, because the same signs lead to the fact that the father’s genes make the perfect son, and the daughter looks like an ugly duckling. Both sides hope for the mercy of nature and that she, with the help of genetic intervention, will take care of a girl with fragile shoulders, a ringing voice and wide hips.
In the animal kingdom, scientists have discovered that strong males would like to pass on their strength equally to sons and daughters.A lean torso and gracefulness are not entirely beneficial in the struggle for survival. Evolution seems to have outsmarted itself by creating the deer.
A team of scientists from the University of Edinburgh, led by Katie Forster, studied 3,600 Scottish deer, studying the relationship between parental success and offspring success (and evolutionary biologists usually understand the reproductive quota by success). As a result, it was discovered that the successful older deer created strong sons and graceful but weak daughters.Strong deer rely only on future males to continue the race, but not on future females. This is not at all consistent with the laws of evolution and natural selection, when the best representatives of a species should have a greater number of offspring. Little depends on the strength of the female. Some of them would probably be more willing to inherit their father’s power.
Katya Forster’s explanation of the paradox in deer life is: “Good genes that increase the male’s ability to survive are not quite suitable for the female.We call this sexually antagonistic selection. ” The same thought can be expressed in a slightly different way: “Nature creates this to unite females and males in the struggle for survival.”
We continue to study deer, because they are carriers of unusual traits. For example, the largest of the deer – the elk, with antlers of impressive size, suffers from itching so that it is forced to twist acrobatically to scratch.
In the tundra of Asia, America and Greenland, a deer lives that does not want to be like others – we are talking about the reindeer.The antlers of the reindeer are called antlers – note, this is a plural word.
Antlers are asymmetrically branched – other animals do not have horns of this shape. And the deer themselves seem to perceive this as an essential expression of their individuality.
Even more unusual is the fact that females also wear horns. No other species of deer is similar, and the reason for this phenomenon is not known to anyone. The initial assumption sounds like this: a deer’s horn, the deepest cross-piece of which is complemented by a small horn, works as a snowplow, with which you can find grass and the main food of animals.Thanks to the horns, both sexes can be considered to have an advantage. It is said that reindeer also use their hooves to clean snow. But still it remains a mystery why the female also has horns? When choosing a partner for a male, this decoration does not play a role – here the mass is taken into account. The older deer keeps a harem with him and fertilizes as many females as possible. At the same time, he does not care whether the object of his desire wears a headdress or not.
Males take off their horns in autumn, females in spring.Sometimes the horns first fall from one side, so that the animals run for a while with one barbell on their head.
In order to escape from the Arctic winter, herds of reindeer undertake long-distance migration, up to 5 thousand kilometers long. Among terrestrial mammals, this is the record distance covered by animals. Such results are achieved not only by extraordinary endurance, but also by regular “sports” nutrition, which is rarely found in the tundra. The deer mainly feeds on lichen, moss and mushrooms.This food contains not only few proteins, but also minerals.
Reindeer breeders from Sweden and Finland warn people to urinate in the reindeer territory during winter, as people may stumble upon intruders at this moment. It turns out that the deer, being in contact with people (presumably for about three years), managed to find out that human urine contains enough salts, which they lack so much in winter. Therefore, deer instantly react to the appearance of a person who relieves a small need.They lick the yellow snow, like ice cream, and become so obsessed that they cannot indifferently walk past this place, they remain there and trample for a while. This is why Mongol nomads force their sons to urinate in the forests at an appropriate distance from the nomad.
Will the question remain unanswered, how could reindeer satisfy their need for minerals if they lived away from humans? Would they lie in wait for pissing bears?
We have to agree with the opinion that the reindeer has become completely dependent on humans to provide them with minerals.That is, he relies on a partner who can be very careful to show his sympathy for certain animals.
Nutrition is generally a cardinal problem for reindeer, even if you do not take into account the provision of the animal’s body with minerals. A reindeer weighing about 300 kilograms living in the harsh tundra must first of all be fed. Females meet the winter with pregnant women. In order not to starve to death, they have fat reserves. On the other hand, they must remain mobile in order to protect their offspring from enemies in late spring.They manage to maintain ideal weight and balance thanks to winter subcutaneous fat and mobility. They succeed regardless of the amount of food, which was established by the Norwegian biologist Paul Fauhad. The scientist created favorable conditions for females to feed in the winter – they ate what they wanted. At the end of the observation, it was found that the subjects did not gain a single kilogram, as did the animals in the control group, which were poorly fed.
The rational nutritional program and metabolism typical of female reindeer give them the opportunity to control their own weight.Modern women can only dream of this.
Evolution of the Swedish model
No.1 (2), 2007
Economy of foreign countries
The term “Swedish model” arose in connection with the emergence of Sweden as one of the most developed socio-economic states in the late 1960s, when Sweden began to successfully combine rapid economic growth with an extensive reform policy against a background of relative social conflict-free society.This image of a successful and serene Sweden then contrasted especially strongly with the growth of social and political conflicts in the surrounding world. The Swedish model has been identified with the most advanced form of the welfare state.
However, the term was used in different meanings and had different meanings depending on what was meant by it. On the one hand, the mixed character of the Swedish economy was noted, combining market relations and state regulation, the predominance of private property in the sphere of production and socialization in the sphere of consumption.
Another characteristic feature of post-war Sweden is the specificity of the relationship between labor and capital. For many decades, an important part of Swedish reality has been a centralized wage collective bargaining system with powerful trade union organizations and employers as the main actors, with union policies based on principles of solidarity between different groups of workers.
Another way of defining the Swedish model was that there were clearly two dominant goals in Swedish economic policy: full employment and income equalization.An active policy on a highly developed labor market and an exceptionally large public sector (this refers primarily to the sphere of redistribution, not state property), which is engaged in the accumulation and redistribution of significant funds for social and economic purposes, are considered as the results of this policy.
Economists define the Swedish model as a model that combines full employment (i.e., the official unemployment rate is below 2% of the working population) and price stability through restrictive economic policies, complemented by selective measures to maintain high levels of employment and investment.This model was introduced by trade union economists in the early 1950s and has been used to some extent by social democratic governments.
Finally, in the broadest sense, the Swedish model – the model of socio-economic development – is the whole complex of socio-economic and political realities in a country with its high standard of living and a wide scale of social policy. Thus, the concept of the “Swedish model” is not unambiguous.
The main goals of the model for a long time were full employment and income equalization.Their dominance is due to the unique strength of the Swedish labor movement. From 1932 to the present (with the exception of 1976-1982 and 1991-1994), the Social Democratic Workers’ Party of Sweden (SDLPS) was in power. For decades, the Central Association of Trade Unions of Sweden worked closely with the SDLPS, which strengthened the reformist labor movement in the country. In addition, the Swedish model was based on a spirit of compromise and mutual restraint between the labor movement (trade unions and social democrats) on the one hand and large companies in Swedish industry on the other.This spirit of harmony was based on the realization that little Sweden can survive in a big, fiercely competitive world only when all parties join forces.
Among the general conditions for the creation of the Swedish model that exist in other developed countries of the West, one can single out political democracy, private property, the basic principles of a market economy, and trade unions and business associations independent of the government.
Among the specific factors inherent in Sweden, it is necessary to include the invariable foreign policy neutrality since 1814., non-participation in two world wars, the record-long tenure of the Social Democratic Labor Party in power, historical traditions of peaceful ways of transition to a new formation, in particular from feudalism to capitalism, long-term favorable and stable conditions for the development of the economy, the dominance of reformism in the labor movement, which these principles in their relationship with capital (their symbol was the agreements between the leadership of trade unions and entrepreneurs in Saltshebaden in 1938.), the search for compromises based on taking into account the interests of various parties, the practice of social consensus.
Several national character traits can also be noted: rationalism, self-discipline, careful study of approaches to problem solving, finding consensus, and the ability to avoid conflicts.
In the post-war period, the development of Sweden was favored by numerous factors: the preservation of its industrial potential in conditions of neutrality, a stable demand for export products, a skilled labor force, a highly organized and ethnically homogeneous society and a political system dominated by one large party that followed a pragmatic line and formed a strong government.Under such favorable conditions, during a period of relatively high rates of economic growth (3-5% per year) from the late 1940s to the late 1960s, the private sector grew and the well-being of the population increased.
In these conditions, the popularity of Sweden grew, but rather not the most real model, but its romantic image, which served not only the needs of the creators of the model, but also promoted the interests of the Swedes and those who admired her success abroad. Liberals, Social Democrats and various reformers in many countries around the world pointed to Sweden as an example of the success of democratic social reforms.For the Swedes, it was a kind of advertisement that allowed to strengthen the country’s political and economic influence in the world.
Since the 1950s, successful economic development has been associated with the Swedish model, which has never been precisely defined. This model has been praised by apologists for the welfare state and has become the best alternative to socialism with its totalitarian order or liberalism with its social flaws. Its political system was based on a broad consensus of the main political parties led by the Social Democrats.Gradually, a complex system was created in Sweden, which rested on a large public sector, a high degree of civic trust, a closed circle of private interest groups involved in public decision-making, trust in social reforms, an even distribution of national income, a voluntary peace in the labor market (the so-called spirit of Saltshebaden) and low unemployment – in addition to democracy, prosperity and social security.
The success of the model depended on price dynamics, the competitiveness of Swedish industry and economic growth.After all, inflation is a threat to both equality and the competitiveness of the Swedish economy. Consequently, the model had to use methods of maintaining full employment that did not lead to cost inflation and the opposite effect on the economy. Practice has shown that the dilemma between unemployment and inflation was the Achilles’ heel of the Swedish model.
The Swedish model provided for an active role for the state. The implementation of the Swedish model was the merit of the Social Democrats, who relied on improving living standards through gradual reforms within the framework of capitalism with a pragmatic attitude towards both goals and the means of achieving them, taking into account practical expediency and sober consideration of real possibilities.
After the foundations of the Swedish model were formulated in the trade union movement in the early 1950s, they then became the core of the economic policy of the Social Democrats. The main principle of this policy was: there is no reason for the socialization of the means of production and rejection of the benefits of an effective market system of production for the sake of ideological postulates. The pragmatism of this policy was that “there is no need to slaughter the goose that lays the golden eggs.”
The Swedish model proceeded from the assumption that a decentralized market system of production is efficient, the state does not interfere in the production activities of firms, and an active labor market policy should minimize the social costs of a market economy.The idea was to maximize production in the private sector and a very broad redistribution by the state of part of the profits through the tax system and the public sector to improve the living standards of the people, but without affecting the foundations of production. At the same time, the emphasis was placed on infrastructure elements and collective monetary funds.
This has led to a very large role for the state in Sweden in the distribution, consumption and redistribution of national income through taxes and government spending, which reached record levels.In social democratic ideology, this activity is called “functional socialism”.
What are the results of the Swedish model?
Sweden’s success in the labor market was undeniable. Sweden maintained exceptionally low unemployment in the post-war period until the 1990s, including from the mid-1970s, when severe structural problems led to massive unemployment in most developed Western countries.
There were certain achievements in the long struggle in the field of equalization.Full employment is itself an important factor of equalization: a full-employment society avoids the income and living standards differences that result from mass unemployment, since long-term unemployment leads to income losses. Income and living standards were leveled in two ways in Swedish society. First, the policy of solidarity in the area of wages was aimed at achieving equal pay for equal work. Between the late 1950s and the early 1990s, the differences in wages between different groups in the CSPS were reduced by more than half.They also fell between blue-collar workers and employees. The policy of solidarity in the area of wages was critical in reducing wage differentials in Sweden. Second, the government used progressive taxation and an extensive public service system. As a result, alignment in Sweden has reached one of the highest levels in the world.
Sweden has achieved less success in other areas: prices rose faster than in most developed countries, GDP since the 70s has increased more slowly than in a number of Western European countries, labor productivity has grown weak.Thus, inflation and relatively modest economic growth were the price paid for full employment and equality policies.
The reluctance of the government to apply restrictive tax and monetary measures during periods of high economic conditions has led to failures in maintaining economic stability. This was especially evident since the mid-1980s, when the social democratic government allowed too high profits, excess growth in demand and inflationary growth of costs.Calling on unions to bail out the economy by limiting wage increases is a technique that was considered useless in earlier versions of the Swedish model. But there were other factors that threatened the Swedish model.
The weakest point of the model was the complexity of combining full employment and price stability. Until the 1980s, these difficulties did not manifest themselves as a serious threat to the model as a whole. But problems arose in the field of politics. The Social Democrats had a government based on a minority in the Riksdag, and the party’s position gradually weakened.The government understood the need for a stronger tax policy, but did not find support for this in the Riksdag. Restrictive policies are usually unpopular, and the government’s tenure until 1994 was short: national elections were held three years later, and the government needed firmness and political courage to contain the high business environment.
An integral part of the Swedish model was centralized salary negotiations between the CSP and the SAF. The policy of solidarity in the area of wages was the guiding principle for the unions, and the employers for a long time could not resist the desire of the unions to equalize the incomes.Centralized bargaining was followed by collective bargaining at the local level, where the equalizing effect of the former was somewhat mitigated. However, the end result of this process was a reduction in the wage gap.
In the mid-1980s, entrepreneurs withdrew from nationwide centralized bargaining and forced unions to negotiate at the industry level. Their goal was to decentralize and individualize the wage formation process, which made it much more difficult for trade unions to pursue a policy of solidarity in the area of wages.The withdrawal of entrepreneurs from centralized bargaining was accompanied by a new strategy of introducing profit-sharing and option-sharing systems for their employed, which could then be converted into shares. High profits in the 80s made it possible to do this. The principled point of view of the trade unions that such events are incompatible with the philosophy of solidarity, however, did not prevent local trade unions from accepting these privileges. In this way, the position of the trade unions weakened, and the policy of solidarity in the field of wages was undermined.The trade unions were faced with the need to develop a new strategy in line with the new developments in the Swedish economy.
High wage slips, profit-sharing systems, options and fringe benefits and privileges indicated that the policy of solidarity in the area of wages was no longer in line with market demands. This was also a definite omission of the trade unions. Indeed, back in 1951, with the introduction of the policy of solidarity in the field of wages, it was simultaneously noted that the trade union movement must find generally accepted norms for differences in wages.All attempts to find such a labor appraisal system have been unsuccessful. Until this is done, entrepreneurs, using the forces of the market, will bypass trade unions and weaken their positions in the wage formation process.
At one time, the successful functioning of the Swedish model depended on a number of domestic and international factors. The main and most important prerequisite was a high and constant rate of economic growth, which made it possible to expand personal and government consumption. The second prerequisite was full employment and the fact that the state was supposed to provide social security to only a very small proportion of citizens.Therefore, the welfare system could be financed through taxation. The third premise was that in the labor market people were employed on a regular basis throughout the working day. These prerequisites persisted from the mid 50s to the mid 70s.
When these factors began to change, the model inevitably had to adapt to new conditions. Since the mid-70s, due to the aggravation of competition in foreign markets and a deep crisis in production, the country’s economic situation has become noticeably complicated.At the same time, some branches of industry, caught in a deep structural crisis, began to receive state aid, and on a huge scale. In this regard, some writers have talked about the collapse of the Swedish model, the crisis of the welfare state, excessive personal taxation, and a rapidly expanding public sector crowding out private firms. The Social Democrats, the leading political factor in the Swedish model, found themselves in opposition in 1976-1982 when bourgeois parties came to power.However, the development in the 1980s – and the economic recovery continued from 1983 to the end of the 1980s – showed that the Swedish model was able to adapt to the changed conditions and showed its viability.
For the second time, foreign and local analysts started talking about the crisis and the collapse of the Swedish model since the early 90s, when new acute social, economic and political problems arose in the country. The public sector, which was effective in the 50s and 60s, found itself in a state of permanent crisis.Unemployment reached 13%, an exceptionally high figure by Swedish standards. Strikes have become more frequent. The size of the national debt approached the volume of the annual GDP, and the state budget deficit reached 11%. Strong contradictions arose between the previously united trade unions and the social democrats. Public finance problems and increased political divisions have been accompanied by rising ethnic tensions in the country, controversial decisions to join the European Union and constant debates about the meaning of Swedish neutrality.
By the mid-1990s, when the Social Democrats returned to power, the situation in Swedish society changed as well. As a result of a significant decline in the share of industry in the economy, Sweden has become a country predominantly of the middle class, and the Social Democrats – a party of “white collars” rather than workers, which led to an exacerbation of their previously close relations with workers’ unions.
Since the 70s, the dissatisfaction of the heads of large industrial companies with their insignificant participation in government decision-making has increased.Their role was underestimated in the creation of national wealth that was redistributed in the welfare state. By the 1980s, they began to fear for their very existence: high taxation levels, huge growth in the public sector and fear of creeping nationalization caused by the creation of “workers’ funds” and other proposals by trade unions led them to launch a powerful neoconservative counteroffensive against the fundamental foundations of state policy.
The Swedish model, at least in its idealized form, assumed the existence of a society with a high degree of ethnic and religious homogeneity, a highly organized system led by a political and economic elite and a significant proportion of citizens following this elite.Nowadays, the population has become much less homogeneous. Significant post-war immigration of workers, primarily from European countries, followed by very large immigration seeking political asylum, mainly from non-European countries, led to problems of assimilation and increased latent xenophobia in Swedish society.
Obviously, it is easier to maintain control over the development of events with a limited number of persons exercising such control. Already at the end of the 60s, the first inclinations to this power appeared in the form of the demand of the new leftists to intensify the struggle against the bureaucratization of society and to strengthen the foundations of democracy.The first social conflicts also arose, the most significant manifestation of which was the strike at the LKAB mine in Kiruna. Then there were other signs of a weakening of consensus, such as divergences over the use of nuclear energy and then EU membership, for which rarely held referendums were used. A further sign of changes in the electorate’s mood was the appearance in the Riksdag of representatives from the Green Party in 1988 (for the first time in 70 years, a new sixth party in parliament appeared) and the openly populist New Democracy Party in 1991.
Finally – and this was probably the most significant point – the Swedish model assumed the existence of an internal “arena” that would be largely shielded from external influences and trends, which would allow the Swedish elite to exercise control over the main directions of domestic economic policy. Over the decades, the situation has radically changed: the internationalization of economic life, the emergence of large European groupings such as the EU and revolutionary changes in global communications have forever buried the illusion that the so-called sovereign state can now exercise full control over the implementation of its political decisions.The harsh reality is that the space for political and economic maneuver inside the country has been sharply reduced as a result of external influences in the form of exchange rate fluctuations, changes in the global economic environment, capital flows, faxing or Internet communications, or decisions of the Brussels European bureaucracy.
As soon as the Swedish model in its classic version began to malfunction, the government began to take various measures to “repair” the model. Most of these measures were temporary improvisations.However, the devaluation of the krone, the growth of employment in the public sector and anti-crisis packages could not really reduce the state budget deficit, the growth of public debt and rising unemployment. The strength of the Swedish model made it possible to hold out until it became apparent that the problems were deep and structural and, to some extent, common to most European countries. Under these conditions, it would be very difficult to find exact solutions.
Many of the shortcomings that commentators began to note in the 1980s and 1990s were nothing more than the result of exaggerated expectations that had surrounded the Swedish model for a long time: as a rule, the more expectations, the deeper the disappointments.
What can you take from the experience of the Swedish model? Some analysts believe that the Swedish experience and methods can be easily exported and used in other countries. However, it is very difficult to mechanically transfer even the most progressive experience to foreign soil. Each country has its own traditions, history and institutional structures, and much of what attracts attention in Swedish society is based on specific traditions and institutions that have emerged a long time ago.
Still, some benefit can be gained from the Swedish model for other countries as well.First, learning from other people’s mistakes. For example, the Swedish government repeated the mistake several times, seeking to shift the responsibility for price stability to trade unions, although it is clear that the responsibility for stabilizing the economy lies with the government. Trade unions are organized to protect the interests of their members, and are not an instrument of public policy. With the growing demand for labor in the market economy, wages will rise regardless of what union leaders promise to the government.Income policy is useless, at least in the long run – this is the Swedish lesson.
Secondly, the experience of active labor market policies – an essential part of the Swedish model – can be used by other countries, namely: it is better to retrain the unemployed and return them to work, in particular by providing subsidies for moving to a vacant job, than spending huge the amount of benefits for the unemployed as compensation for lost income. In addition to the adverse consequences for humans, unemployment is a very expensive method of fighting inflation and solving structural problems.A significant part of the costs of labor market policy in Sweden is returned to the state in the form of taxes and social security contributions. The net costs for it are noticeably less than the figures in the budget. The Swedish experience is that strong and well-organized labor market policies are highly productive and in fact an effective way of using taxpayer money. Social policy and regulation of the labor market both attract primarily attention in the Swedish model.
In general, the assessment of the Swedish model largely depends on the meaning of this term.Those who single out only certain features of the Swedish reality that corresponded only to the special conditions of the post-war period, with the onset of crisis phenomena in this area, begin to talk about the crisis or the collapse of the Swedish model. But if we consider the Swedish model as the whole complex of socio-economic and political realities in the country in their constant development, then in this case it is necessary to draw the following conclusion: the Swedish model is not something immutable and final and has been constantly undergoing changes over time.This is the process of evolution of the Swedish model and the possibility of its adaptation to constantly changing conditions, including in the course of leveling the national characteristics of socio-economic development within the framework of European integration.90,000 Experts: the weak activity of the Sun allowed to preserve the nitrogen atmosphere of the satellite of Saturn – Science
KRASNOYARSK, November 20. / TASS /. The nitrogen atmosphere of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has survived to this day due to the weak activity of the Sun.Such conclusions were reached by an international group of researchers, which included scientists from the Siberian Federal University, the press service of the university told TASS.
The nature of the origin and evolution of Titan’s nitrogen atmosphere, which is thicker than the Earth’s atmosphere, remains the topic of scientific discussions. Scientists believe that these processes are strongly influenced by hard ultraviolet radiation coming from the Sun. However, until now they did not know exactly how intense this radiation was at the very beginning of the evolution of the atmosphere of the satellite planet of Saturn.Participants of scientific work using mathematical modeling were able to find the answer to this question. For the first time, the authors used a mathematical model of the upper atmosphere of Titan for three possible evolutionary paths of the young Sun, characterized by low, moderate and high activity of the star.
“Scientists have determined the loss of atmospheric gas throughout the history of Titan. The mathematical model created showed a very low rate of atmospheric loss today, but very high – in the early period of the history of the solar system.The most intense reduction in the nitrogen atmosphere took place at the earliest stage, when the hard ultraviolet radiation of the Sun was hundreds of times higher than modern radiation, which accelerated the movement of atmospheric particles flows many times over, “the SFU press service told TASS.
In their calculations, scientists started from the fact that Titan acquired an atmosphere immediately after the formation of the planet. The researchers concluded that depending on the behavior of solar activity, the process of contraction of Titan’s atmosphere could be high in the period from 100 to 1,000 million years after the formation of the solar system.Calculations have shown that only in the case of the scenario of a weakly active Sun in the past, the atmosphere had a chance to survive to the present time.
“Since Titan now has a reliably dense atmosphere, the authors concluded that the young Sun evolved according to a scenario of weak activity. The performed studies also clarify the question of the original origin of Titan’s atmospheric nitrogen. They support the hypothesis of the origin of Titan’s nitrogen, mainly from ammonia ice in the process of its decomposition “, – the press service of the Siberian Federal University quotes the words of one of the authors of the work, Professor of the Department of Applied Mechanics of the Siberian Federal University, Chief Researcher of the Institute of Computational Modeling of the SB RAS Nikolai Erkaev.
Experts from the USA and Austria also took part in the study. The results of the scientific work are published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS).
Weaknesses in biocenotic regulation of evolution
Coherent (slow and predictable) and incoherent (explosive, unpredictable, at a high taxonomic level) evolution – the terms of V.A. Krasilov, who develops similar ideas of evolutionary regulation “from above” – from processes at the level of the biosphere in general, before the differentiation of individual species, in contrast to the usual STES interpretation “from below”.They say that species are first formed as geographic or ecological isolates, become isolated, looking for their environment, and in the process of such a search they form communities, ecosystems. In this case, the latter are not integrity, but only an epiphenomenon of the history of interaction of different species on the same territory, that is, the biogeocenosis of a spruce or oak forest, which has a unique appearance, specific structure and many emergent properties, is less independent than a water vortex that occurs when the plug is removed. from the bathroom.
The reason for the gradual attenuation of the rate of formation and the decrease in the taxonomic status of differentiating forms as the organization of the cenosis becomes more complex is simple – the species forming a community more and more “divide” resources among themselves, the ecological niches of the species are “packed” more and more densely, the species begin to depend more on biotic relationships with each other – with specialized predators, distributors or competitors, rather than from adverse environmental conditions. In this case, special adaptations that adapt your biology to confront a specific predator or competitor, to the consumption of certain special types of food, are much more profitable than adaptations of a wide significance.
Consequently, as the differentiation of niches becomes more and more subtle, more and more taxa are entering the path of narrow specialization instead of progress, and in the structure of the community there are fewer and fewer opportunities for “increasing professionalism” of species, and even less for “creating a new specialty” [ the metaphor is related to the fact that in the context of considering the evolution of communities, the ecological niche of a species is better understood according to Elton – as a “profession” or specialization of a species, similar to the specialization of firms in a market economy in the provision of certain goods, services and information, and not according to Hutchinson – a hyperspace of habitats, occupied by a certain species in communities of a certain territory].
As a result, ecosystems turn out to be “ hard, but fragile ”: on their territory they successfully prevent the invasion of new (foreign species), even if in pair comparison they turn out to be more competitive than “native” species from the structure of the community. But every system has “its weak point” – spots of disturbances created by external forces: erosion and landslides from the geological work of rivers, spots of drying out from local outbreaks of insect reproduction, areas of fires and windblows, etc.Or, on the contrary, “spots of increased productivity”, like the places of abundant ripening of fruits or the breeding of termites in the rainforest, where all and sundry are concentrated and feast.
Each community, in addition to coenotic mosaics, is characterized by such a mosaic of disturbances, the spatial pattern of which and the rate of recovery of “spots” characterize a certain community, allows them to be classified according to their stability as the ability to provide a continuous turnover of populations of species – edificators (in forests these are trees of the 1st tiers, in savannas – hoofed megafauna, etc.). Or by the stability of the preservation of the mosaic structure of the cenosis during the restoration of disturbance spots. As long as the mosaics of disturbances are small, communities can control them, in the sense that they ensure the restoration of the same indigenous communities as around them through a series of intermediate stages of restoration succession.
Man of violations, of course, adds, but in a qualitative sense they do not go beyond the natural range – and felling, and fires, and cattle grazing in the forest, and even pollution with heavy metals – all have their natural counterparts.But in quantitative terms, a person brings together, fragments and transforms communities at a significantly faster rate than processes that generate disturbances in nature do, so that the “continents” of forest or grass biomes turn into “archipelagos”.
But if the mosaic of violations is developed beyond a certain limit, the community ceases to control this “archipelago”. Nonspecialized alien species settle there that are not related to the indigenous communities of the territory (not participating in its restoration even at the pioneer stages of succession).The accumulation and reproduction of such species in places of disturbance and their naturalization in natural communities causes an ecological crisis through a positive feedback mechanism.
Reproduction of alien-cenophobes disrupts the restoration of the community in the very spot of disturbance and on a certain border of undisturbed territory around (edge effect), this expands the spot of disturbance, new cenophobes settle in it, spots of disturbance merge … And so on until the indigenous communities proper there will be no small and so fragmented territory – an “archipelago”, not a “mainland” that the largest and most specialized species, coadapted to each other, will begin to die out en masse.The last remnants of intact taiga forests of the north of the European part of Russia, and even more deciduous forests and steppes, have long been transformed into such an “archipelago” by human activity.
As the analysis of V.V. Zherikhin and A.S. Rautian shows, the extinction proceeds immediately by the “structural blocks” of the community, or consortia. “Gaps” appear in the structure of a community, the appearance and expansion of which triggers an explosive evolution of groups capable of filling these “gaps”, and at a high taxonomic level – new genera, families, orders, and not just species, appear.
That is, from the model of biocenotic regulation of evolution follows the empirical fact of the integrity of ecosystems, which inhibits this very evolution, and makes plant and animal species not free in their relationships with the territory of the globe, but rigidly attached to their communities, more precisely to biocenotic partners, on which they are coadapted. Even non-specialized, cenophobic species are affected by this “serfdom”, only of a different kind – the need to constantly “jump” between the spots of violations that appear and overgrow not by themselves, but under the influence of the endogenous dynamics of the given community (of course, until it is violated, – in intact forests of the temperate zone, a mosaic of disturbances is created by the dumping of old specimens of edificator trees with successive overgrowing of emerging windows – and populations of pioneer species have to constantly “jump” from “window” to “window”).
In addition to this fact , from the concept of biocenotic regulation of evolution follow two assumptions , which, fortunately, can be verified on modern material (the concept itself was created by paleontologists to explain the abrupt changes of fauna and flora at the boundaries of periods). Consequence 1 – the expansion of disturbances and the influx of alien species that penetrate through disturbances and then naturalize in natural communities, causes an ecological crisis, blocking the restoration of indigenous communities in a given territory, destroying the normal successional dynamics, that is, fragmentation and biological pollution, introductions trigger a positive reverse a connection leading to the expansion of violations, the increasing aggression of introduced species and, ultimately, to the loss of the integrity of ecosystems even in the territory “controlled by them”.
Consequence 2 – destruction of ecosystems during an anthropogenic ecological crisis according to the mechanism described in “ 1 “, begins to accelerate the evolution of , that is, it pushes all species occupying territories in the crisis zone to rapidly evolve, form new species and (what the hell is not joking!) genera, families, etc. The author himself, V.V. Zherikhin, applying the model of biocenotic regulation of evolution to the problems of nature protection, believes that when natural ecosystems are destroyed, the rate of speciation of the “remaining” forms occupying the formed gaps and such promising landscapes as modern cities will jump by 1-2 orders of magnitude.And this is the most dangerous thing for humans – the massive and unpredictable appearance of forms of plants and animals with new properties.
It is clear that human activity since the beginning of the Great Geographical Discoveries and the Industrial Revolution has provided a lot of factual material for checking consequences No. 1 and 2. The modern economy with its transcontinental transportation not only destroys the living cover of the biosphere, creating the necessary spots of disturbance, isolating the last surviving “islands ”, But promotes long-distance transport of introduced species, makes their entry to the“ islands ”of indigenous communities from a random and rare event a natural and massive process.
Now we can confidently say – yes, investigation No. 1 is being carried out , naturalization of introduced species in places of disturbance threatens the integrity of indigenous communities, contributes to the territorial expansion of groups that form in places of disturbance, with a decrease in the ability of reproduction of indigenous biogeocenoses.
This is how this process went in the Hawaiian Islands in connection with the introduction of the shrub Mirica faya , which has active nitrogen-fixing symbionts (it was studied in detail by the group of Stanford University professor Peter Vitousek, cit.according to the book by E.A. Schwartz “ Conservation of biodiversity: communities and ecosystems ” M., 2004).
“This plant, introduced at the end of the 19th century by the Portuguese from the Canary, Azores and Madeira Islands, successfully took root on the 5 largest islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, rapidly growing in open places of poor volcanic soils, occupying areas of seasonally moist mountainous areas damaged by volcanic eruptions. and rain forests. In contrast to the local species Metrosideros polymorpha and Vaccinium reticulatum , the introduced species Myrica faya and Buddeleja asiatica have nitrogen-fixing abilities.
As a result, they quadruple the nitrogen content of the soil and change the chemical composition of the litter. Nitrogen fixed by introduced plant species is quickly involved in the cycle of substances and becomes available to all plant species. These changes in the soil attract those species of earthworms that were also introduced by humans. As a result, the biomass of earthworms becomes 3 times higher in comparison with natural forests, and the soil becomes more suitable for receiving new introduced species.
Observations of the relationship between Myrica faya and birds revealed that although 4 species of local avifauna perch on bush branches, they rarely eat its fruits. At the same time, out of 7 exotic bird species visiting Myrica faya , 5 species enjoy its fruits. The most common species on the branches of the shrub is the Japanese white-eye Zosterops japonica , which is also the main distributor of seeds Myrica faya (47% of the feces of captured Japanese white-eyes contained bush seeds).Germination of seeds Myrica faya is faster with little shade. Therefore, when seed-spreading birds fly away from closed forests and land on solitary trees of local origin Metrosideros polymorpha , forming a thin canopy in disturbed areas, they increase the chances of seed germination Myrica faya .
When studying the effect of Myrica faya on the germination and development of local woody plant species, it was found that litter Myrica faya in most cases limits the germination of seeds of the local tree Metrosideros .The development of the latter can occur only when soil areas are cleared from litter Myrica faya . As already noted, Myrica faya does not penetrate into closed, mature forests, but it successfully develops in sparse forest areas disturbed as a result of a volcanic eruption and quickly forms single-species plantations, under the canopy of which the renewal of other trees and, in particular, Metrosideros , excluded.
It should be noted that the destruction of Myrica faya by all possible means does not lead to the restoration of the natural vegetation cover as a result of the capture of the soil previously transformed by shrubs by introduced grasses, which are more competitive on it than local species.It is interesting to note that a similar story with another introduced shrub spreading by the introduced Indian myna took place in Hawaii more than a quarter of a century before the Myrica faya expansion.
Another important aggressor for disrupting natural successions and destroying tropical rainforest ecosystems in Hawaii is feral pigs . They trample vegetation, make pores, mud baths, cut down tree ferns and eat away at their core.All this leads to disturbances and clarification of ancient primary forests, in which there is an opportunity for the development of introduced species. The most dangerous of these is Passiflora molissima – a vine from South America. It grows rapidly, braiding and shading adjacent tree ferns, and bears fruit abundantly. Its fruits and seeds are also readily eaten and carried by pigs and introduced birds.
Some damaged ecosystems can still be restored by isolating the most destructive species from them .For example, in the cleared of pigs and fenced areas of the rain forest on the island of Hawaii, after 7 years, the number of endemic collembolans inhabiting soil increases 10 times, and the number of cosmopolitan species decreases 3 times.
But the fulfillment of investigation No. 2 was not detected even once . The anthropogenic transformation of indigenous communities, the formation of new anthropogenic landscapes (from fields, gardens, rural settlements to a modern city, areas of which have been equal in area for 200 years to areas of natural biomes) has never been followed by an outburst of speciation (and even more so the formation of new childbirth).
Well-known “urban races” of different animal species, from mosquitoes Culex pipiens to “urban” starlings, blackbirds, pigeons, canary finches, magpies, etc., these are only ecotypes, albeit demographically isolated from “non-urban »Populations, but not even subspecies. The classic case, when the ecological differentiation of forms under the influence of natural selection, associated with the need for the rapid development of historically atypical landscapes, was not accompanied by formation even to the subspecies level, but remained only adaptation.That is, new species are formed by themselves – either slowly and gradually, due mainly to geographic isolation, differentiation on the islands, or quickly “in acute experience” under the influence of stress, but these events of shaping are not associated with environmental events in the life of biogeocenoses of the Earth ( even in the same or in a close area), with the appearance of “licenses” for the species in the structure of the community, if it is stable and developing, or “lacunae”, if it is destroyed by the crisis.
In my opinion, from the more than 50-year history of tracing the reaction of indigenous ecosystems to the invasion of introduced species (or the natural dispersal of many “wild” species, also noted in the 20th century), it follows that the concept of biocenotic regulation of evolution is exactly correct in the “forbidding part “, And is most likely incorrect” in the resolution “.That is, the formation of a stable niche structure of the community and its diversification in the process of specialization of species and their co-adaptation to each other – yes, it hinders evolution, but the destruction of this complex structure does not stimulate it. That is, there is no “serfdom” of the evolution of a species on the evolution of the community, in the structure of which it is included, even if the species is specialized. The species evolves by itself and in its range, due to the reasons that STE studies in the classical version of E. Mayr.
But the species living in a certain territory, with a certain intensity of the flow of resources through it, a certain level of instability of environmental conditions, with specific relief forms, are formed into communities (regardless of when and how they came here), which, once arisen, have the opposite effect on the processes of specialization of species, but not on the formation of forms.
That is, a kind of “dialogue” between a species existing in its range and a community reproducing in a certain territory – just as I assumed it for the relationship between the individual and society or population.
WORLD DEVELOPMENT CHINA
China is the great civilization of the East with a population of over 1.3 billion. Now the country is taking broad steps along the path of modernization. The world, closely following the process of China’s development, is asking the following questions: What path of development has China chosen? How important is the development of China for the whole world?
China has repeatedly declared to the world that it is steadily following the path of peaceful development.Carrying out the peaceful development of the country, he also makes efforts to ensure world peace, actively contributes to the joint development and prosperity of all countries of the world. Having entered the second decade of the XXI century. and marking the 90th anniversary of the establishment of the CCP, China has repeatedly solemnly declared that peaceful development is a strategic choice made by China to realize modernization, achieve enrichment and enhance the country’s power, and make an even greater contribution to world civilization.Going forward, China will steadily adhere to the path of peaceful development.
I. THE BEGINNING OF THE WAY OF PEACEFUL DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA
For more than 5,000 years of historical development, all the nationalities of China, demonstrating amazing diligence and wisdom, have created a brilliant Chinese civilization and a single multinational state. The Chinese civilization has a unique length, comprehensiveness and openness. In the course of foreign exchanges and contacts spanning many years, the Chinese people diligently learned from other nations and borrowed their positive and useful qualities, as well as strengthened their own strengths and abilities, making a huge contribution to human civilization.
In the middle of the XIX century. the Western powers began to try to “open up” China, isolated from the outside world, with the help of cannons. Internal unrest with an impending external threat led to the fact that China gradually found itself in a semi-colonial-semi-feudal position; the country became impoverished and weakened, wars and chaos did not subside in the country, and the people endured countless sorrows and torments. At a time when the country was practically on the verge of national collapse, selfless fighters and patriots zealously rushed into the struggle, trying to save the dying country through revolutionary transformations.The 1911 Xinhai Revolution ended the autocratic monarchy that had existed for several millennia and inspired the Chinese people to fight for national independence and consolidate state power. But, unfortunately, these attempts failed, ultimately, to change the semi-colonial-semi-feudal state of society and alleviate the bitter fate of the Chinese people. Therefore, all national hopes were placed on the CCP. It was the CPC, which led the Chinese people, took the path of a stubborn and intense struggle.founded the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and achieved national independence and people’s liberation, thus initiating a new era in Chinese history.
In the more than 60 years since the founding of New China, and especially in the 30 years since the beginning of the reform and opening-up policy, China has tirelessly made efforts to develop a path of socialist modernization that meets the Chinese realities and the requirements of the era. Despite the historical ups and downs, the Chinese people, keeping pace with the era, continuously learned and generalized the lessons accumulated in the course of the development experience of China itself and other countries.The country also constantly deepened understanding of the laws of development of human society and contributed to the self-improvement and development of the socialist system. Through painful efforts, China has found a path of development that fully meets the realities of the country, namely, the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Speaking from the standpoint of world history, the path of peaceful development can be characterized as follows: through the protection of peace throughout the world to engage in self-development and through self-development to preserve peace throughout the world; simultaneously with the implementation of development by emphasizing the need, at the expense of our own forces, reforms and innovations, to defend external openness, to learn and borrow the favorable experience of other countries; in accordance with the development of economic globalization, strive for mutual benefit and mutual benefit with other countries, as well as for joint development; together with the international community to promote the construction of long-term peace, shared prosperity and harmonious peace.The most striking features of this path are scientific development, independent development, open development, peaceful development, development based on interaction and joint development.
– Scientific development. Scientific development is respect and adherence to the laws of development of society, economy and nature. The country firmly places an emphasis on economic construction, devotes all its energies to construction, focuses on development, and continuously releases and develops social productive forces.China considers the concept of scientific development as the main guiding course in the course of socio-economic development, considers the task of development as the primary task of the ruling party in the process of governing the country and reviving the country, implements the concept of “Man Above All”, comprehensively coordinates all aspects of sustainable development and tries pay attention to all relevant areas. Defending the concept of “Man Above All”, China invariably observes human rights and respects human values, satisfies the growing needs of the people in the field of material culture, follows the path of universal enrichment, stimulates the all-round development of people, realizes development for the people and relying on the people making it so that the whole people can enjoy the fruits of development.China comprehensively coordinates all aspects of sustainable development, comprehensively promotes economic, political, cultural and social construction, as well as the construction of an ecological civilization, stimulates the modernized construction of each of the links and each of the areas, achieving their comprehensive coordination. China pays attention to all relevant areas of state life, correctly approaches and properly regulates important aspects of socialism with Chinese characteristics, plans the development of cities and villages, various regions, economy and society, the harmonious development of man and nature, as well as internal development and external openness in a unified manner …
– Self-development. China, being a developing country with such a large population, has always believed that it is necessary to develop on its own. China has always defended independence and independence, putting forward the main provisions and accents of national development within the country, and not abroad, proceeding from the realities inside the country, promoting socio-economic development, relying mainly on its own forces, reforms and innovation, and never at the same time shifted his problems and contradictions onto the shoulders of other countries.In the context of economic globalization, China, only by defending independent development, can effectively participate in the international division of labor, as well as conduct mutually beneficial cooperation with the countries of the world in the best way.
– Open development. From the experience of its own development, China has deeply realized that it cannot carry out construction, isolating itself from the outside world. Therefore, China, considering the policy of reforms and opening up as the main state development strategy, combined internal reforms with external openness, upholding independence with participation in economic globalization, inheriting the traditions of the Chinese nation with borrowing the useful fruits of human society, and the internal market with the external one.By thus combining two sources of resources, the country, on the basis of the principles of openness, began to join the international community, continuously expanding the scale and depth of external openness, strengthening exchanges and cooperation with other countries, improving interaction between internal and highly efficient economic system of open type. China’s policy of openness to the outside world will never be interrupted, and the level of openness will keep getting higher and higher.
– Peaceful development. The Chinese people love peace because, with the tragic experience of war, humiliation and poverty behind them, they deeply realized the value of peace and the relevance of development. He deeply believes that only in conditions of peace can people live and work in peace, and only in conditions of development can people live in satiety and prosperity. Therefore, the government considers the main task in international work to be the creation of a peaceful and stable international environment favorable for state development.At the same time, China makes an active contribution to the cause of peace and development throughout the planet, never pursues external expansion, never fights for the establishment of hegemony and does not proclaim itself a hegemon, always acting as a firm front in protecting peace and stability both in the region and and all over the world.
– Development based on interaction. Competition and contradictions have always existed in the international community. All countries should, in conditions of favorable competition, demonstrate their advantages and neglect their disadvantages, continuously seek opportunities for cooperation, expand areas of cooperation and increase the sphere of common interests.China, through interaction, tries to work for the good of the world, stimulate development and reduce divisions; Together with other countries, it creates and develops cooperation relations in various forms, makes efforts to effectively resolve the growing challenges posed by globalization every day, through the continuous expansion of mutually beneficial interaction between countries, and also on the basis of joint coordination with other countries, solves important problems concerning economic development of the world and progress in the life of mankind.
– Joint development. Relations and interdependence between different countries of the world have been constantly deepening in recent years, only if the joint development of all countries of the world is realized and more people are given the opportunity to share the results of development, peace and stability in the whole world will receive a solid foundation and effective support, and the development of all countries of the world will become long-lasting and stable. Therefore, China has invariably pursued a strategy of openness, characterized by mutual benefit and joint gain, upholding the unity of its own interests and the common interests of all mankind.Striving for its own development, the country makes efforts to achieve favorable interaction between the process of its own development and the development of other countries, and also promotes the joint development of all countries and regions of the world. China sincerely hopes to fulfill the goal of shared prosperity and development by working hand in hand with other countries.
China has had to go through massive and profound changes on its path to peaceful development. He has made significant progress in development, has made important contributions to the prosperity and stability of the world, and has established even closer ties with the world.
China is undergoing a massive rise in the country’s integrated power. The volume of the economy for the period from 1978 to 2010 increased more than 16 times and reached 5.88 trillion. US dollars, the share in the world economy increased from 1.8% to 9.3%. The material base for the construction of modernization in China has become more solid; the processes of industrialization, informatization, urbanization, marketization and internationalization are developing deeply, thanks to which the work of building socialism is being comprehensively promoted.A historic leap has taken place in the life of the people, marking the transition from the lack of food and clothing to a moderately prosperous society; average per capita income increased from 24.9% in 2005 to 46.8% in 2010. There was also a great historic transition from a highly concentrated centrally planned economy to a socialist-type market economy with a vibrant vitality; as a result of this, a basic economic system was formed, where the main form of ownership is the social form of ownership with the joint development of many forms of ownership; the basic role of the market in the allocation of resources has significantly strengthened, the system of macroeconomic regulation is improving every day.A social security system is gradually being created, covering the population of cities and villages; culture, education, science and technology, medicine, sports and other areas of public life are being fully developed.
China is making a great historic transition from an isolated and semi-isolated state to an all-vector openness. From the creation of special economic zones to the opening of zones of coastal seas, coastal rivers, border and inland regions, from attracting foreign capital to encouraging Chinese enterprises to invest abroad, from opening a country and conducting rapid construction to joining the WTO, China participates in economic globalization and regional economic cooperation, continuously increasing the level of external openness.The volume of exports and imports increased from 20.6 billion US dollars in 1978 to 2974 billion US dollars in 2010. the total volume of foreign direct investment involved by China reached 1,048.38 billion US dollars. To date, China has created bilateral mechanisms for trade and economic interaction with 163 countries and regions, signed 10 agreements on the creation of free trade zones, signed agreements on bilateral investment protection with 129 countries, and also signed agreements on the avoidance of double taxation with 96 countries, becoming active practitioner in the field of liberalization and comfort of trade and investment.China, in accordance with the promises made when joining the WTO, is gradually reducing tax duties: the overall level of tax duties has dropped from 15.3% (before joining the WTO) to 9.8%; most of the non-customs duties have been canceled. China is actively creating a framework for relations with other large countries characterized by general stability, uniform development, mutual benefit and mutual benefit, promotes the formation of an environment of cooperation with surrounding countries on the basis of joint chances and joint development, strengthens and strengthens traditional friendship, coordination and interaction with developing countries. deepens contacts based on interdependence and mutual interests, as well as expands exchanges and cooperation with all countries of the world.
China is making a significant contribution to the sustainable development of the world economy. After joining the WTO in 2001, the annual volume of Chinese imports amounted to almost 750 billion US dollars, more than 14 million jobs were created for the respective countries and regions. Over the past 10 years, foreign-owned enterprises in China have generated more than $ 261.7 billion in profits from China, with an average annual growth rate of 30%. For the period from 2000 to 2010.China’s annual non-financial investment abroad from US $ 1 billion increased to US $ 59 billion, which effectively contributed to the economic development of the respective countries. In 2009, overseas-based enterprises with Chinese capital paid taxes to the respective countries totaling US $ 10.6 billion and employed 439,000 local employees. In recent years, China’s annual contribution to the world economy has exceeded 10%. After the outbreak of the 1997 Asian financial crisis caused large-scale currency devaluations in surrounding countries and regions, China maintained a stable Renminbi exchange rate, which contributed greatly to the stabilization and development of the regional economy.When the international financial crisis hit the world in 2008, China began to actively participate in the creation of mechanisms designed to streamline the world economy, such as the G20, etc. in the development of plans for the accumulation of capital in international trade and in international financial cooperation; he has dispatched large-scale groups to procure overseas, lending a helping hand to struggling countries.China diligently implements the UN Millennium Development Goals, becoming the only country in the world to achieve the goal of reducing the poor by half, and provides assistance to foreign countries based on its own capabilities. As of the end of 2009, China provided a total of US $ 256.3 billion in aid (161 beneficiary countries and more than 30 international and regional organizations), reduced or completely canceled 380 debts of the 50 poorest beneficiary and least developed countries , trained 120 thousand specialists for developing countries.person-times, sent 21 thousand medical workers as part of medical teams and almost 10 thousand teachers to provide assistance to foreign countries. China is actively promoting the expansion of imports of goods from the least developed countries, and also promised to abolish customs duties on 95% of goods exported to China by the least developed countries that have entered into diplomatic relations with China.
China plays an important role in protecting the world and confronting global challenges. China is the only nuclear-weapon country that has openly pledged not to be the first to use nuclear weapons, nor to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon countries and non-nuclear regions.China has sent 21,000 peacekeepers to participate in 30 UN peacekeeping missions, and has become a permanent member of the UN Security Council, which sent the most peacekeepers to participate in such operations. China is actively involved in international cooperation related to the fight against terrorism and the prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, provides humanitarian assistance to countries affected by serious natural disasters, and dispatches rescuers there, and sends warships to suppress piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the waters of Somalia.China is a member of over 100 intergovernmental international organizations; he has signed more than 300 international conventions, long ago becoming a full member and builder of the international system, making a due contribution to the affairs of the world community. China was the first developing country to develop and implement the “National Plan to Combat Climate Change”; it has become one of the countries that in recent years have the fastest and largest reduction in energy consumption and emissions of toxic substances into the atmosphere, as well as work on the study of new energy carriers and renewable energy sources.China plays a constructive role in resolving urgent and pressing problems of the world and the region: with regard to the nuclear problem of the Korean Peninsula, the nuclear “dossier” of Iran, etc., China encourages negotiations, upholds the need to ensure peace in the region and promotes the six-party nuclear talks mechanism. the problem of the Korean Peninsula. China, together with 12 countries with which it borders by land, settled border issues left by history, adhering to the position that through negotiations and dialogues, territorial disputes over land and water areas should be resolved with neighboring countries.On the basis of a constructive approach, he put forward the call “Set aside contradictions and strive for joint development” and is doing his best to maintain peace and stability in the South China Sea, East China Sea and adjacent waters. China, through the development of bilateral cooperation, participates in regional and sub-regional cooperation, and makes efforts to promote shared development and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.
After the formation of the PRC, and especially after the implementation of the policy of reforms and opening up, which has already been carried out for more than 30 years, historical facts testified that China is an important member of the international community and a country that makes great efforts and makes a huge contribution to the promoting the development of the international political and economic order in a fairer and more rational direction.
II. GENERAL WORLD DEVELOPMENT GOALS OF CHINA
China’s relentless pursuit of peaceful development is as follows: the pursuit of development and harmony within the country, as well as the desire for cooperation and peace in the course of overseas contacts. It is thanks to the tireless struggle of the Chinese people, reforms and innovations, as well as thanks to friendly coexistence with all countries of the world and the development of equal mutually beneficial cooperation with them, the life of the Chinese population has improved in many respects, which in turn has duly contributed to the fact that humanity was able to gain development and progress. …This became the national idea of China, which was embodied in the plan of national development and the general political course of the country, as well as realized in the course of the practice of China’s development.
Realization of the country’s modernization and joint enrichment of all the people has become the main task in the process of China’s development. In the late 70s. XX century, when the country began to pursue a policy of reforms and openness, China developed and began to implement the strategy of modernization development “Three steps”. The “first step” implied a 2-fold increase in GDP compared to 1980.and solving the problem of clothing and food for the people. The “second step” meant an increase in GDP by the end of the 20th century. 2 times more, while the life of the people had to reach the level of a moderately prosperous society. These two “steps” have already been implemented. “The third step” – by the middle of the 21st century, when the PRC turns 100 years old, the GDP per capita should reach the average level of developed countries, the life of the people will be quite prosperous, the country as a whole will be modernized, and China will become a modernized socialist country with developed democratic culture.The central task set within the framework of the Three Steps strategy is to increase the levels of spiritual and material cultures of citizens, to enrich the population while strengthening the country’s power. In the process of strengthening the comprehensive capabilities of the country, China intends to fulfill all international obligations and bear the corresponding responsibilities assigned by the international community.
Comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society, which is aimed at raising the standard of living of more than 1 billion.population, is the medium and long-term goals of China’s peaceful development. By 2020, China will complete the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society, as a result of which the standard of living of more than 1 billion Chinese will noticeably improve. Thus, China will become a country where industrialization has been carried out on the whole and the complex forces of the state have noticeably strengthened, and will also enter the first row of countries in terms of the overall scale of the internal market. In addition, China will become a country where the level of prosperity of the population will increase everywhere, the quality of life and the ecological situation will significantly improve, whose people will enjoy greater democratic rights, have higher spiritual aspirations and cultural level, where systems in all areas will be improved, and society will be demonstrate active vitality and consolidation in an environment of calm and stability.That is, China will become a more open and attractive state, which will make an even more significant contribution to human civilization.
The implementation of the 12th Five-Year Plan is one of the short and medium-term goals of China’s peaceful development. Under the motto of the all-round construction of a moderately prosperous society in the 12th Five-Year Plan for the Social and Economic Development of the PRC, the guiding ideas, general concept, goals, objectives and important steps of the socio-economic development of China during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) were approved …). In the next 5 years, the socio-economic development of China will take place under the slogan of scientific development, choosing the acceleration of the process of transformation of the method of economic growth as the leading line. Its main goals are sustainable and fairly rapid economic development, great progress in the field of strategic adjustment of the economic structure, a significant increase in the level of education in scientific and technical fields, effective resource conservation and environmental protection, further improvement of people’s lives, significant strengthening of the construction of all aspects of public life. , the continuous deepening of reforms and opening up.Thanks to the efforts of all the people, real progress will be made in the process of transforming the model of economic development; the aggregate power of the state, international competitiveness and the ability to withstand risks will be noticeably strengthened; the all-round construction of a moderately prosperous society will receive a solid foundation. At the same time, China will actively develop international exchanges and cooperation, expand and deepen the points of coincidence of interests with the relevant parties, and promote the joint development of all countries.
The process from solving problems with clothing and food to achieving an average living standard and beyond the average level of developed countries is aimed at making the life of the people richer. This process in a concentrated form reflects the strategic concept of China’s peaceful development. To realize the above goals, China is ready to take decisive steps in the following directions.
– Accelerate the transformation process of the economic development model
China views strategic adjustment of its economic structure as a major focus of efforts.It expands domestic demand, and especially consumer demand, through various channels strengthens the purchasing power of the population, regulates and optimizes the structure of domestic investment, gradually promotes industrialization, urbanization and modernization of agriculture, in the field of economic growth drivers it stimulates the transition from reliance on investment and export to a coordinated one. reliance on consumption, investment and export, from reliance on a second industry to a comprehensive reliance on the first, second and third industries, from increasing expenditure of material resources to reliance on scientific and technological progress, raising the level of culture and education of workers and innovative methods in the field of management.China is comprehensively pursuing a strategy for raising the country based on science and education and a strategy for strengthening the country at the expense of talented personnel, and is directing efforts to building an innovative type of state. China is committed to a renewed mindset and system, pays great attention to adopting the best practices of other countries in technology and management, and continuously improves the quality and efficiency of economic growth.
China is working hard to overcome the resource and environmental constraints that are holding back development: it is promoting green economy and low-carbon economy as guiding concepts, focusing on energy conservation and reducing toxic emissions, accelerating the creation of a way of production and consumption patterns characterized by resource conservation and environmental protection.China promotes the recycling development of the economy, improves the quality of the environment, creates a modern energy industry characterized by safety, stability, efficiency and non-pollution of the environment, optimizes the resource supply system, stimulates the harmonious development of man with nature, and achieves the coordination of economic development with the population at its disposal resources and the state of the environment, developing a new type of industrialization path with Chinese characteristics, characterized by high scientific and technical content, high economic efficiency, low resource consumption, minimal environmental pollution and all-round development of the advantages of human resources.The Chinese economy, demonstrating comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable growth, will provide the world economy with a broader development space.
– Further disclose and develop own resources and market advantages
China has rich human and material resources, as well as a fairly perfect industrial production system. In the future, he will continue to follow the path of modernization development, relying mainly on his own forces.It is expected that by 2015 the Chinese human resources will reach 156 million people, of which part of the working-age people who have received higher education will reach 15%; the contribution of human resources to economic growth will be 32%, thus, human resources will provide first-class labor resources to ensure the continued development of the Chinese economy. China is among the countries with the largest mineral resources and arable land; in the field of cereals, self-sufficiency was realized in the country.Although the amount of resources per capita in China is very small, thanks to the full development of market distribution functions and the promotion of scientific and technological progress, the government was able to significantly reduce the dependence of national socio-economic development on resources. China will further develop its industry strengths in primary raw materials, equipment manufacturing and consumer goods to meet the material needs of the country’s population and provide high-quality goods and services to the world market.
The size of the population and the size of the economy determine a huge potential for domestic demand. China is preparing to create a larger market space and create new points of economic growth in the wake of constantly increasing incomes of the population, stable growth of investments within the country and deep development of its regional development strategy. In the next 5 years, the structure of consumption in China will significantly improve, the potential for consumption of the population will be released, in terms of the overall scale of the domestic market, China will take one of the first places in the world, and the total volume of imports is expected to reach 8 trillion.US dollars, which will bring the world a wide variety of chances.
– Accelerate the creation of a harmonious society
China will accelerate and promote construction in all aspects of public life with a focus on improving the people’s well-being, laying a solid foundation for the people’s well-being based on the principles of social harmony. The government promotes the reform of the social system, improves the system of basic public services, renews the mechanism of control over social processes, increases the level of control over social processes, improves the system of income distribution and social security, makes efforts to ensure that citizens have the opportunity to receive a good education, decent pay for their work, proper treatment in case of illness, a pension upon reaching old age and having normal housing, creates an environment where all members of a harmonious society bear appropriate responsibility and share the benefits of a harmonious society, and the results of development bring new opportunities to the entire population of the country.
China accelerates the construction of a democratic political system of the socialist type, actively and steadily promotes the reform of the political system, develops socialist democracy, and also builds a socialist state governed by laws, giving the people the right to be the masters of their country. China will continue to conduct lawful democratic elections, make decisions and exercise governance and oversight in a democratic manner, guaranteeing the people’s rights to awareness, participation, expression and oversight, and enhancing the orderly participation of citizens in the political life of the state.China will continue to pursue a policy of equal rights for all national minorities and national regional autonomy, ensure freedom of religious belief in accordance with the law, and fully respect and protect fundamental human rights and other legitimate rights and interests of the people.
– Implement a win-win and win-win strategy of openness
China pursues a policy of external openness, adheres to a strategy of openness characterized by mutual benefit and joint gain, makes full use of various favorable circumstances provided by economic globalization and regional economic cooperation, realizes the transformation of external openness from exports and unilateral attraction of foreign investment to the joint development of exports and imports , attracting foreign investment and at the same time encouraging Chinese investment abroad.At the same time, China is continuously expanding new spheres of openness and the corresponding space, improving the open economic system, increasing the level of openness of the economy and stimulating development, reform and innovation through openness.
China is accelerating the transformation of the way foreign trade is developed. It continues to actively participate in the international division of labor, facilitating the transformation of foreign trade from a simple expansion of volume to an increase in quality efficiency, from a cost advantage to a complex advantage in the course of international competition, etc.e. China also develops trade in services with all its might, expands the scale of imports, helps to establish a balance in the payment and settlement system of trade, and also opposes trade protectionism and appropriately regulates international tensions in the spheres of trade and economy.
China is diligently increasing the level of use of foreign investment: it tirelessly optimizes structure, enriches methods, expands channels, improves quality, speeds up the process of attracting and using knowledge, personnel and technology, and also directs foreign investment in key industries and areas.It protects the legitimate interests of foreign-owned enterprises in China, is open to international capital and advanced technology, while creating a fair and orderly investment environment. The government is implementing a strategy for the protection of intellectual property rights, by all means increasing the ability to create, implement and protect intellectual property rights and the ability to establish control in relevant areas.
China began to pay more attention to foreign investment and cooperation with foreign countries.It encourages various enterprises to orderly conduct external investment and develop cooperation with foreign partners, support overseas cooperation and investment in technical research and development, contract overseas and cooperate in labor force, expand international cooperation in the agricultural industry. and also deepens international mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of energy resources.China promotes cooperation in the field of projects that contribute to improving the people’s well-being in the host country and strengthening the host country’s ability to develop independently, respects local religious beliefs and customs, strictly observes local legislation, assumes appropriate social responsibility and a duty to society. stimulating the development of the country where the cooperation project is being implemented. It also streamlines the structure of aid to foreign countries, creates new ways of delivering aid, and increases the effectiveness of such aid.
China is orderly expanding the external openness of the financial market and the financial industry, creating a financial system characterized by high service efficiency and the ability to control risks, improving the controlled floating exchange rate system of renminbi based on market demand, and gradually realizing capital assets convertibility in renminbi “. This not only provides great convenience for other countries cooperating with China in the field of trade and investment, but also creates favorable conditions for protecting the stability of the international foreign exchange market and promoting the healthy development of economic globalization.
– Create a peaceful and favorable environment
China is developing friendly cooperation with all countries based on the five principles of peaceful coexistence. With developed countries, he focuses on strategic dialogue, strengthening strategic mutual trust, deepening mutually beneficial cooperation, resolving contradictions, establishing and developing a new type of relations between powers, as well as promoting long-term, stable and healthy development of mutually beneficial relations.China is pursuing a course of good, partner and friendly relations with neighboring countries, developing friendly interaction with surrounding countries and all Asian countries, actively pursuing bilateral and regional cooperation, together with the respective countries creating a peaceful and stable environment characterized by equality, mutual trust and mutually beneficial cooperation. With regard to a wide range of developing countries, in relations with them, China emphasizes unity, deepening traditional friendship and expanding mutually beneficial cooperation; through the provision of aid or investment, he wholeheartedly helps developing countries pursue independent development and defend their due rights and interests.China actively participates in multilateral affairs and the settlement of global problems, assumes international responsibility, demonstrating a constructive role and helping to ensure that the international political and economic order develops in a more just and rational direction. China develops various exchanges and interactions with other countries between parliaments, political parties, regions, non-governmental organizations, etc., expands external contacts in humanitarian fields, and strengthens mutual understanding and friendship between the Chinese people and the peoples of other countries.
China is pursuing a defense policy of a defensive nature. China possesses vast territories and vast water areas: the state border by land is over 22 thousand km, the coastline of the continental part is more than 18 thousand km. China faces complex and diverse challenges in the field of traditional and non-traditional security threats, the country has to confront threats from separatist and terrorist forces. The advancement of defense modernization is dictated by the practical necessity of national security and is a necessary support in the process of China’s peaceful development.The main goal of the modernization of the Chinese army is to protect state sovereignty, security, territorial integrity and national development interests. Defense spending is reasonable and justifiable and meets the country’s security needs. China will never enter an arms race with any of the countries and will not threaten anyone with military force. China upholds the principle “As long as others do not attack me, I do not attack others” and seeks to peacefully resolve all international conflicts and pressing problems.China attaches great importance to international military exchanges, promotes international and regional security cooperation, and opposes all forms of terrorism without exception.
III. FOREIGN COURSE IN THE WORLD DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA
China, as a member of the international community, hopes for a wonderful future for the whole world and adheres to the concept of international relations and foreign policy that correspond to the country’s peaceful development.
– Assistance in building a harmonious world
The main goals of Chinese diplomatic policy are to protect world peace and promote joint development. China calls on all countries of the world to build a harmonious world characterized by sustainable peace and shared prosperity, considering this both a long-term goal and an urgent task. According to China, in order to build a harmonious world, efforts should be made in the following areas:
In the realm of politics, countries must respect each other, consult on an equal footing, and jointly promote the democratization of international relations.Countries are not divided into large and small, strong and weak, or rich and poor: they are all equal members of the international community and should be properly respected by the international community. States all over the world must defend the central role of the UN in international affairs, adhere to the attitudes and principles of the UN Charter, as well as comply with international law and generally recognized rules of international relations. In the field of international relations, states must proclaim a spirit of democracy, good neighborliness, cooperation and common gain.The internal affairs of each country should be decided by the people of the particular country itself, and affairs concerning the whole world should be discussed by all countries on the basis of equal consultations; it is necessary to respect and protect the right of each country to participate in international affairs.
In the economic sphere, countries should cooperate, complement each other due to their advantages and joint efforts to promote economic globalization in the direction of equitable development, characterized by common benefits and bringing universal benefit.Countries are working to build a fair, open and sustainable multilateral trading system that is non-discriminatory so that economic globalization can benefit all countries in the world. States must work together to implement the UN Millennium Development Goals so that people across the planet in the 21st century can benefit from the fruits of development.
In the field of culture, countries should borrow from each other and learn from each other, striving for common values while maintaining their individual differences.They must respect the diversity of the world and work together to achieve the prosperity and progress of human civilization. Countries should call for dialogue and exchange between different cultures, as well as the elimination of ideological biases and barriers so that humankind can live in a more harmonious, richer and more diverse world.
In the field of security, countries must trust each other, strengthen interaction and resolve international tensions and conflicts through peaceful methods, and not with the help of armed force, jointly maintaining peace and stability on the planet.Through coordination and dialogue, countries must build trust, reduce contradictions, resolve differences, avoid the use of military force and not threaten the use of military force.
In the field of ecology, countries must help each other and move forward in a coordinated manner, together protecting the planet Earth, which provides living conditions for all mankind. Countries should call for the creation of new development models, the choice of the path of sustainable development, and the stimulation of the harmonious development of people and nature.Countries must adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and intensify international cooperation in the field of environmental protection and the fight against climate change.
– Implementation of an independent and peaceful diplomatic policy
China is firmly following the path of development chosen by the Chinese people and adheres to the social system chosen by the Chinese people, not allowing external forces to interfere in the internal affairs of the country.The Chinese government, based on the five principles of peaceful coexistence, develops friendly cooperation with all countries, does not enter into alliances with any of the countries, and never considers differences in the field of social structure and ideology as determining factors in relations. China respects the right of the people of each country to choose their social system and path of development, does not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries, protests against large and strong countries oppressing small and weak countries, and also opposes hegemonism and the policy of force ; he believes that by looking for common ground while maintaining differences and through dialogue and consultation, countries can resolve any contradictions and conflicts without imposing their will on other countries.China, proceeding from the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the common interests of the peoples of the whole world, as well as in accordance with the specific circumstances of a particular issue, determines its position and policy, while adhering to the principles of universal justice and playing a constructive role in international affairs.
China protects the fundamental interests of the state. China’s fundamental interests include the following basic guarantees: national sovereignty, national security, territorial integrity, the country’s unity, China’s political system enshrined in the Chinese Constitution, social stability, and sustainable socio-economic development.
China respects the legitimate rights of each country to protect its fundamental interests; in realizing his own development, he also fully takes into account the concerns and interests of other countries, never sacrifices the interests of others and does not dig a hole for others for his own personal gain.
China unites the interests of the Chinese people and the common interests of all the peoples of the world, expanding the points of intersection of the interests of all parties; Together with other countries and regions, it creates and develops communities of interests in various fields and at various levels, contributes to the realization of the common interests of all mankind, making it so that everyone can share the fruits of the progress of human civilization.
– Promotion of a new concept of security based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and interaction.
China promotes a new concept of security based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and interaction, and seeks to implement comprehensive global security based on the principles of cooperation.
China places great emphasis on integrated security. In the new historical conditions, traditional and non-traditional security threats are intertwined with each other, so the content of security began to cover large areas.The international community needs to strengthen the understanding of integrated security, implement appropriate policies and combine radical and palliative measures to jointly respond to the diverse security challenges facing humankind.
China is committed to achieving universal security. In the context of economic globalization, the destinies of countries are closely related to each other, therefore, the international community must strengthen the awareness of universal security, i.e.e. Countries, in their concern for their own security, must also take into account the security concerns of other countries. Countries should put aside the notion of the Cold War era and the unification of opposing alliances, they need to protect global security through multilateral cooperation and join forces to end conflicts and wars. China believes that it is necessary to fully demonstrate the role of the UN in protecting peace and security, as well as to create a fair and effective mechanism for cooperation in the field of global security.
China Promotes Cooperative Security. War and antagonism create a vicious circle in which violence generates a new outbreak of violence, so dialogue and negotiation are the only effective and reliable way to overcome contradictions. It is necessary to strive for a cooperative peace, through cooperation to protect security, avoid armed conflict and promote harmony, and oppose countries rattling or threatening to use military force.
– Adhere to the concept of responsibility to the international community
As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China is diligently going about its business and solving its problems, which is the most important manifestation of China’s responsible approach to the entire world community. As a responsible member of the international community, China abides by international law and generally accepted attitudes in international relations and has due international responsibility in good faith.China actively participates in the development of reforms of the international system and international rules, as well as in the ordering of global problems, supports the development of developing countries and safeguards peace and stability on the planet. The situation and level of development in each of the countries are much different from each other, therefore, it is necessary, on the basis of the principle of responsibility, rights and real opportunities, as well as based on the strength of the country itself, to take on the corresponding international responsibility and to show a constructive role in the name of the common interests of your country and of all mankind.Following the continuous strengthening of the country’s power, China will, to the best of its strength and capabilities, take on even greater responsibility.
– Adhere to the concept of good neighborly and friendly regional cooperation
China is actively developing good-neighborly and friendly cooperation with surrounding countries, jointly promoting the construction of a harmonious Asia: it advocates that all countries in the region respect each other, strengthen mutual trust, strive for common goals while maintaining differences, through negotiations, dialogue and friendly coordination resolved various contradictions and issues, including disputes over territorial rights and rights to sea areas, and jointly defended peace and stability in the region.China intensifies trade and economic contacts and mutually beneficial cooperation, promotes the process of economic integration of the region, improves existing regional and sub-regional mechanisms of cooperation, takes a position of openness regarding plans for cooperation with other regions, invites other countries outside the relevant region to play a constructive role in the maintenance of peace and development in the region. China does not seek to establish hegemony in the region and does not suppress other countries; China’s prosperity, development and long-term stability bring the surrounding countries new opportunities for development, and do not pose any threat at all.China has always adhered to the “Asian spirit” characterized by relentless pursuit of new goals, determination, openness, inclusiveness and a desire to share all difficulties and overcome them together. He was, is and will be a good neighbor, friend and partner for all Asian countries.
IV. THE WAY OF PEACEFUL DEVELOPMENT IS AN INEVITABLE HISTORICAL CHOICE OF CHINA
The path of peaceful development is a brilliant tradition of Chinese culture inherited by the Chinese government and the Chinese people, a strategic choice made by China in accordance with the trends of the modern era and the fundamental interests of China, as well as the internal need for China’s development.
– Peaceful development is a cultural heritage of China
Since ancient times, Chinese culture has represented the world as a harmonious unity. Such beliefs have deeply influenced the thinking and deeds of the Chinese and have become important values on the basis of which they govern the relationship between people, between man and nature, and between countries.
The Chinese people have long proclaimed the ideas of “Maintaining harmony while preserving differences”, “The unity of heaven and man” and “Harmony is the greatest value”, striving on the basis of harmony to unite families and neighbors, and also treat others kindly.The culture, the central concept of which is precisely harmony, has brought up in the Chinese such a national trait as an ardent love of peace. The famous Great Silk Road was “great” in many areas: in the areas of trade and culture, as well as in the promotion of China’s ideas of peace; it became a vivid historical evidence that the ancient Chinese always sought to establish friendly contacts with other countries and conduct mutually beneficial cooperation. The famous seafarer Zheng He, who lived during the Ming Dynasty of China, visited more than 30 countries and regions of Asia and Africa: this demonstrates not only the brilliant Chinese culture and the advanced scientific and technological level of Chinese civilization, but also the peace and friendship that the Chinese have carried through the generations.
The Chinese nation, adhering to the principle “Just as the sea contains hundreds of rivers, so culture must demonstrate tolerance and inclusiveness,” has never accepted foreign cultures with hostility and has always promoted the synthesis of Chinese and foreign cultures, as evidenced by numerous sayings that have come down to us. The Chinese people have always placed a high value on the concept of collective consciousness and were distinguished by a sense of responsibility towards society, proclaimed the policy of “Do not do to others what you don’t want for yourself,” respected foreign cultures and other people’s views, infected their own people with a good example and took into account the interests of others, never at the same time. imposing your will.Since ancient times, China has shown respect for foreign cultures and maintained good neighborly relations with surrounding countries and favorable exchanges with distant countries.
The Chinese people, whose culture is more than 5000 years old, inherited the brilliant traditions of the Chinese civilization and enriched these ancient traditions with the content of a new era.
– Peaceful development is a requirement of the realities of the country
China has a huge population, but the material base of the country is rather weak: with the help of 7.9% of the world’s arable land and 6.5% of the world’s fresh water reserves, China has to feed almost 20% of the world’s population.How to make sure that the population of more than 1.3 billion people can share the results of socio-economic development, while the government is able to meet the constantly growing needs of the life and development of citizens, has become a big problem. In 2010, China’s GDP per capita was approximately US $ 4,400; according to this indicator, China ranked 100th in the world. The development of towns and villages, as well as the development of various regions, is very uneven; structural contradictions in socio-economic development are heating up more and more; resource and environmental constraints hampering the development process are becoming more evident, and economic growth continues to be overly dependent on material inputs and resource costs; therefore, transforming the model of economic development seems to be an urgent task.China’s ability to innovate independently is rather weak; in the international structure of production and the division of labor in trade, China, as before, is at the bottom of the industry chain. The standard of living of the Chinese people is still low, the social security system is far from perfect; in these two aspects, the difference between China and the developed countries appears to be enormous.
The modernization of China is the modernization of one fifth of the world’s population, therefore it is a long and complex historical process.All the difficulties and problems that arise in the course of this process, be it the scale or the very degree of difficulty, are unprecedented in the modern world and extremely rare even for the history of mankind. China will be a developing country for quite a long time, therefore, China needs to concentrate efforts to promote modernization and resolve issues of development and people’s well-being, it needs a peaceful and stable international environment in order to intensify exchanges and cooperation with foreign countries.China will strengthen its strength and capabilities in all areas; peace will always be the main prerequisite for development, and the country will never deviate from the path of peaceful development. The country’s realities, cultural traditions, the country’s fundamental interests and long-term interests are the decisive factor and the main driving force in the process of China’s peaceful development.
– Peaceful development is a choice in line with theera
Peace and development are the two main leitmotifs of the modern era; peace, development and cooperation are the irresistible flow of an era.Now the world is diversifying more and more, economic globalization has entered a stage of deep development, the need for change has become urgent in international relations, and the international community is faced with numerous historical problems. Therefore, all peoples hope that their countries will take advantage of the opportunities presented by the development process and will jointly confront various risks.
Economic globalization is becoming a major trend influencing international relations.Countries undergoing different stages of development, belonging to different groups and differing in different socio-political systems, are in interdependent relationships, and their interests intersect, resulting in the formation of a community characterized by common interests and high interdependence. Humanity cannot bear another world war: if a comprehensive conflict and confrontation matures in the world, then everyone will become its victims.
Challenges from globalization have become the main threat to the modern world.Problems in the field of security of all mankind are becoming more and more urgent; such vital problems of humankind as terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the financial crisis, serious natural disasters, climate change, energy security, food security and the security of public medicine, and the issues of maintaining sustainable socio-economic development around the world are increasing day by day. None of the countries can solve such problems on their own, the international community needs to join forces and counter these challenges by joint efforts.If, through comprehensive international cooperation, it is not possible to contain the spread of adverse factors, then the processes of peace and development throughout the planet will face enormous obstacles and even possibly collapse.
The development process of global diversification is unstoppable. The strengths of emerging market economies, regional groupings and regions such as Asia are constantly being strengthened; the actions of non-state associations seem to be more and more mature; due to the expanding influence of economic globalization and social informatization, they are becoming important forces in each of the countries and in the international arena.
Only following the trends of the modern world and era can lead to development and prosperity. The international community must eradicate the outdated model of antagonistic struggle in international relations, discard the dangerous thinking of the Cold War and military sentiments, and completely forget about the old path that constantly draws humanity into countless wars. Countries should, from the standpoint of a community bound by vital interests, arm themselves with new concepts of common overcoming difficulties and win-win interaction, strive to create a new environment characterized by the interaction of diverse cultures and borrowing valuable experience from each other, and new content that embodies the common interests and values of all mankind, as well as embark on a new path, characterized by comprehensive development and joint confrontation with urgent challenges.Humanity needs peace and does not need war, development is necessary and stagnation is not needed, dialogue is necessary and opposition is not needed, understanding is necessary and barriers are not needed: this is the great trend of modern development, which the peoples of all countries want to follow. The path of peaceful development followed by China is an inevitable choice made by China in the context of the era.
V. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHINA’S PEACEFUL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE WHOLE MANKIND
The path of peaceful development is a new type of development path developed by the world’s largest developing country, i.e. China. Over time, this path will demonstrate increasing global importance. For this path to be successful, the tireless efforts of the entire Chinese people are required, as well as understanding and support from the outside world.
China’s peaceful development has debunked the traditional myth that, having strengthened its state power, the country always turns into a hegemon. Colonization, the expansion of its influence, the spread of military power, etc. – all this refers to the old path, which many powers have embarked on after their rise in the period of modern history.This was especially evident in the 20th century, when hegemonic sentiments, confrontation of power camps and armed clashes led to two world wars. China has chosen peaceful development and mutually beneficial cooperation as the main way of modernizing the country, participating in international affairs and regulating international relations: this choice was made on the basis of the cultural and historical traditions of Chinese civilization, dating back several millennia, understanding the essence of economic globalization, understanding the changes that have occurred in international relations and in the architectonics of international security in the XXI century., as well as based on an understanding of the common values and common interests of all mankind. The practical experience accumulated over the past few decades has proved that the path of peaceful development chosen by China is absolutely correct and correct, and the country has no reason to deviate from this path.
Economic globalization and the scientific and technological revolution have provided an even larger number of countries with historical conditions for realizing revival through economic development and mutually beneficial cooperation; thus, many developing countries were able to take the path of rapid development.It is thanks to this that the scale of the world economy and the space for development have increased, the ability of the international community to withstand economic and financial risks has increased, and the reform of the international economic system has received a new engine of progress. China’s peaceful development is fully in line with the general development trend of the whole world, China supports developing countries in their intention to take fate into their own hands and carry out the necessary transformations, and also supports developed countries in their intention to continue development and achieve greater prosperity.
Today, when the world is undergoing unprecedented changes, all “-isms”, scales, models and paths are being tested by the era and practice. The realities of countries are very heterogeneous, there is no ideal and omnipotent development model in the world that would remain unchanged: countries need to choose the development path that best suits their realities. The path of China’s development was formed based on the realities of the country. China has deeply realized the importance and long-term path of peaceful development, as well as the depth and complexity of the changes taking place at home and abroad, so it will pay even more attention to generalizing and implementing its own successful experience, borrowing the useful experience of other countries and studying new issues and new challenges. that await him ahead in order to broaden the prospects for further peaceful development.
In its development, China cannot do without peace, and China is also necessary for the prosperity and stability of the world. The development results achieved by China are closely linked to China’s friendly cooperation with all countries in the world. In the future, China will need even more understanding and support from the international community. We are sincerely grateful to the countries and their peoples for the understanding, care, support and assistance provided to China in the development process. The path of peaceful development chosen by China, with a population of over 1 billion.man is the result of great research and practice in the history of human development, and since our deeds and actions committed on this path cannot be absolutely ideal and perfect, we invite everyone to express friendly comments and suggestions. We sincerely hope that the international community will be able to more comprehensively understand the traditions of ancient Chinese culture, respect the respect with which the Chinese people treat national sovereignty, security, territorial integrity and social stability, and realize that, as the largest developing country in the world, China needs to gradually resolve development problems and that the Chinese people dream of getting rid of poverty and living a comfortable life as soon as possible, believe in the sincerity and determination of the Chinese people on the path of peaceful development, and support the process of China’s peaceful development, and not create unnecessary obstacles.
Looking back in history and thinking about future prospects, we firmly believe that a developing and prosperous, democratic and legal, harmonious and stable China will certainly make an even greater contribution to the development of the entire world. The Chinese people will work tirelessly with the peoples of all countries to realize the glorious hopes of humankind.90,000 50th Anniversary of Queen: Evolution of Music and Evolution of Image
- Alexander Kahn
- Cultural Observer
Photo by Richard E.Aaron / Redferns
50 years ago, on March 1, 1971, the fourth, John Deacon, joined the three aspiring London rock musicians Freddie Mercury, Brian May and Roger Taylor. And although the trio had already managed to acquire the name that glorified her even before the Deacon joined, it is this date, when the classic Queen line-up was finally formed, is considered the day of the founding of one of the brightest and most popular groups in the history of rock music.
Strictly speaking, Queen’s 50th anniversary should have been celebrated on July 18 last year.It was on this day 50 years ago that Smile, founded back in 1968 by astrophysics student at Imperial College London and aspiring guitarist Brian May, took a new name for itself to perform at May’s alma mater – Queen.
On this occasion, in March 2013, a plaque was erected on the wall of Imperial College London in the presence of Brian May and Roger Taylor in honor of this concert.
Photo by Ben A. Pruchnie / Getty ImagesCaption,
Roger Taylor and Brian May unveil a plaque commemorating Queen’s first performance at May’s alma mater, Imperial College London.March 5, 2013
A new name for the group was invented by its rookie – who replaced the former vocalist of Smile Tim Staffel, an extravagant and expressive young native of Zanzibar with an exotic mixed Persian-Indian origin Freddie Bulsar (his parents gave him the name Farrukh, already at school he preferred to call himself Freddie).
Before joining Queen, Freddie had already managed to try his hand at a pair of groups that had never made it to colorful clothes for hippies, musical instruments, oriental souvenirs and other countercultural paraphernalia.
There was a market in the arcade on High Street Kensington – it has not been there for a long time, but when I settled nearby upon my arrival in London in 1996, I still found it and I well remember the enfilade of shops with colorful treasures, for the most part, however, completely inexpensive.
A few blocks from the market in the building of the Imperial College, the group Smile was based, whose drummer Roger Taylor came to the market from time to time to earn money.
Through Taylor, Freddie got to know Smile, and when Staffel, a fan of classical rhythm and blues, left, dissatisfied with the band’s shift towards growing hard rock and, most importantly, the lack of success and prospects, Freddie offered his services as a vocalist …
Having played only one concert with Smile on June 27, 1970 at a charity event in the small provincial town of Truro, Bulsara offered the band a new name – Queen.
Photo author, Michael Ochs Archives / Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
One of the earliest photographs of the classic Queen line-up.Left to right: John Deacon, Freddie Mercury, Brian May, Roger Taylor. 1971
Veterans May and Taylor were at first far from enthusiastic about the idea. And not because they didn’t like the queen. It’s just that the word “queen” in English since the 19th century has meant extravagant, feminine-looking men, usually gay.
And although Freddie was still far from coming-out, and, moreover, at that time he himself, apparently, was not yet fully aware of himself as a homosexual, he was certainly both extravagant and feminine.
And he, of course, was impressed by the subversive meaning hidden in the new name, such a fig in the pocket of the British society, which in 1967 had just legalized homosexual relationships and was still far from getting rid of homophobia.
“This is great, my dears, people will like it,” Freddie assured his new partners. And he convinced. Well, at the same time he changed his name to himself, replacing the strange sounding for the English ear of Bulsar with a sonorous Mercury, associated with both fluid silver mercury and the swift-footed Roman god of trade Mercury.
So Queen, with increasingly highlighted vocalist Freddie Mercury, played their debut gig at Imperial College.
Six months later, on March 1, 1971, tired of the succession of bass players who replaced each other, Queen, after listening to several new candidates in the lecture hall of the same Imperial College, finally accepted John Deacon into the group, who had previously played nothing and unsuccessful group The Opposition and whom May and Taylor were recently introduced by their mutual acquaintance.
And although, as I already wrote, the first concert with Deacon Queen was played only in July, it is on March 1 – the day of the final formation of the composition that has become a classic – that we celebrate as the half-century anniversary of the group.
With teeth and nails
The next two years passed in a difficult struggle – not even for success and recognition, but only for weak hints of this still ghostly recognition, that is, for at least some full-fledged concerts and the opportunity to record and release first album.
Both were given with colossal difficulty, and it is difficult to imagine how the musicians had the patience and persistence not to send their whole venture to hell in despair.
Lucky at first. A sound engineer he knew got a job in a new studio on the outskirts of London, and he needed a group to test the newly installed new equipment.
Queen grabbed a lucrative offer to be guinea pigs and, as compensation, get the opportunity to make their own demos.This is how the first heels of original songs appeared.
They were written for the most part by Mercury, who turned out to be not only a bright and expressive vocalist and a pianist quite adequate for rock, but also a completely original and confident songwriter.
However, there was still no contract – negotiations with various labels for one reason or another broke down. One of them, however, while the search for a contract is underway, offered the group his own studio – during those hours when it was not involved by other performers who had a contract.
These hours turned out to be a completely inhuman time – from three to seven in the morning. But, as the English proverb says, beggars can’t be choosers – the beggars have no time for choice, and Queen were happy about that too.
Moreover, the concert prospects looked even more depressing. Their performance in one of the London colleges in early 1972 was attended by … six people. After several more unsuccessful attempts, the band stopped all live performances for eight months and focused entirely on studio work – during those very morning or, more precisely, night hours.
By the end of autumn, the album, which turned out to be a bizarre mixture of prog rock and heavy metal, was ready. Only there was still no one to release it – the long-awaited contract never came.
Photo author, Michael Ochs Archives / Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
Promo photo before the 1975 tour in Japan
In November and December, they played a couple of concerts in London clubs, including the legendary Marquee, having managed to attract to the attention of the BBC. In February 1973, an unreleased and even unpublished album was played on the waves of the BBC Radio 1 music channel, which appeared several years earlier.
And a month later the contract was signed – and not with anyone, but with the main and most powerful whale of the British record business, the EMI concern, in the stable of which were both The Beatles and Pink Floyd, not to mention dozens and hundreds of less famous artists.
So, clinging to the teeth and nails, clinging to success, not giving up and not losing faith in themselves, Queen made their way to the long-awaited “start in life”. True, it was just an entrance ticket to the big music business, and only the future could show what place the young daring group would be able to take in it.
The first, with such difficulty, recorded album, simply called Queen, was released in July 1973, and a week before it a single appeared with one of the songs included in it – Keep Yourself Alive. Neither the album nor the single had much success, although they did not go unnoticed either.
Rolling Stone magazine even called the album “excellent”. Only over time, after the group achieved worldwide fame, the album received belated recognition – in 2011 New Musical Express included it in its list of “100 best albums that you have never heard”, and Keep Yourself Alive in 2008 made it to the list ” Top 100 Guitar Songs of All Time. “
But that was still in the future, and Queen, stagnant in a long wait for the opportunity to record and release the material they had accumulated at that time, practically without interruption, immediately, in August 1973, sat down to record their second album.
Having retained the same combination of hard rock and progressive, the band finally found their “chip” – the repeated overlay of instrumental, and, most importantly, vocal parts, which has become a trademark of its sound. As a result, the composition and arrangement of the album sounded much more diverse.
“In Queen II, you can probably easily find influences from Led Zeppelin and The Who, which is not surprising – they were our favorite bands, but we tried to differ from them by creating a multi-layered sound. We wanted to use studio possibilities to the limit”, – said about this album by Brian May.
Released just six months after its debut, Queen II has moved significantly higher than its predecessor, reaching the fifth place on the British album lists of popularity, and the single Seven Seas of Rhye entered the tenth place in the British Top 20.
But most of all, perhaps, Queen II is remembered today for its design. Using the iconic photograph of Marlene Dietrich from the 1932 film Shanghai Express as a model, the artist Mick Rock placed the faces of four musicians in a diamond combination against a black background, and in the foreground, Mercury crossed his arms, just as the great actress.
“This image claimed to be stardom, which they did not yet possess at that moment,” Mick Rock admitted many years later in his memoirs.Which, however, did not bother the musicians themselves. Rock recalls that Mercury liked to quote Oscar Wilde: “Often what seems pretentious today, tomorrow becomes the standard of taste. The main thing is to be noticed.”
The composition of the photograph, borrowed by Mick Rock from Marlene Dietrich, has become no less iconic for Queen than for herself. It was this gigantic image that was projected on screens for many years during a concert performance of the most famous hit of the group Bohemian Rhapsody – in those fragments of it where complex multiple studio overdubbing did not lend itself to live playback.
“Strike the iron while it’s hot” – using this already Russian proverb, the group did not slow down the pace of the offensive for a minute and already in June 1974 got down to writing a new album.
To a large extent, this decision was forced – in May, in the midst of the American tour to promote Queen II, released in March, Brian May collapsed with hepatitis. The tour had to be interrupted, everyone returned home, the guitarist was hospitalized for several weeks, and the rest suddenly had free time.
“Nobody could have guessed that we would suddenly have two weeks to write Sheer Heart Attack. We had no choice but to use this time, we still could not do anything else – Brian was in the hospital,” Mercury recalled.
By July, May recovered, recording began, and on November 8, 1974, Sheer Heart Attack was released, becoming the band’s third album to be released in less than a year and a half.
Music came to us, in the USSR, in its bizarre ways, often completely ignoring the true chronology of releases.And so it happened that Sheer Heart Attack was the first Queen album I heard.
Part of this was probably an element of chance, partly (and probably mainly) it was due to the fact that the group was rapidly gaining popularity. To a large extent, this newly achieved popularity was due to the unprecedented success for the group, which appeared two weeks before the album, the single Killer Queen, which reached second place in the British charts and became the first full-fledged hit of the group overseas, which finally turned it into the most whatever is the mainstream of world rock.
I am nevertheless very glad that I started listening to Queen with some delay. I’m not sure that I would have flared up with sympathy for the group, if I started my acquaintance with it from one of the first two albums.
I then ranked myself among the host of advanced rock connoisseurs, and in the center of my and my associates’ interests was prog-rock, which gained strength in the first half of the 70s – the most complex vocal and instrumental compositions of Emerson, Lake, deployed almost for an entire disc and Palmer, Yes, Pink Floyd, Jethro Tull, King Crimson and other masters of the genre, in which the techniques and methods of classical music, jazz, baroque and English-Celtic folklore lay on the fatal basis.
This music was breathtaking, each new album opened up new horizons. But at the same time, she smelled of excessive severity – the flip side of those grandiose, serious, to match the best examples of classical music, ambitions that fed these musicians.
Queen looked like funny, mischievous guys against this background. Yes, they embraced the compositional sophistication of the progressive, absorbed and developed the most complex and exciting vocal polyphony, which was still open by The Beatles and Beach Boys, but they did all this with charming, disarming ease.
The album was full of a variety of light, unassuming genres – music hall, ragtime, Caribbean rhythm. And most importantly, he exuded an incendiary humor, almost completely absent in progressive.
It was impossible without a smile to listen to the main hit of the Killer Queen album – a song, as its author Freddie Mercury said, about a prostitute from a secular society. “I wanted to say that there are whores in the upper class, although I would prefer the listener to interpret this song himself, to find in it the meaning that is closer to him.”
The song sounds like a sarcastic advertising brochure for a heroine who keeps expensive Moët et Chandon champagne in her boudoir, like Queen Marie Antoinette, condescendingly advises the poor to “eat cakes”; knows all the rules of etiquette, speaks like a baroness, feasts on caviar, and her perfume comes directly from Paris.
In general, “a means to relax people of the class of Khrushchev and Kennedy.” “An insatiable appetite, playful like a kitten, guaranteed to blow your mind. Recommended at a bargain price.”
The entire album was imbued with grace and lightness, musical ingenuity and incredible freshness. And the cherry on top was the programmatic, almost like a manifesto, the inscription on the cover: “No synthesisers!”
At a time when their colleagues were filling the texture of their albums with electronics that are rapidly entering the arsenal of rock musicians, Queen ironically teased competitors, emphasizing the direct, natural sound of their albums.
The pinnacle of success and fame
The success of Sheer Heart Attack and Killer Queen propelled the group into the major league of world rock, and their next album, A Night at the Opera, with the title, alluringly ingeniously borrowed from the Marx brothers’ comedy masterpiece “Night in opera, “eagerly awaited on both sides of the ocean.
There were both witty-playful vignettes like Lazing on a Sunday Afternoon, Seaside Rendevouz and I’m in Love with My Car, in the best traditions of Sheer Heart Attack, and straightforward to frustratingly primitive rockers like Sweet Lady, You ‘ re My Best Friend, and even a short instrumental version of the national anthem God Save the Queen, placed in the finale in the form of a final code, in which, of course, a pun with the name of the group was played.
Despite this stylistic variety, it is difficult to say to what extent the album would have lived up to expectations if it had not been for Bohemian Rhapsody.Queen’s most famous, most grandiose and most popular hit deserves a separate detailed article. The song, alas, is overplayed and overwritten beyond any measure, which, however, does not detract from its generally quite outstanding artistic merit.
Here is one quote from my BBC colleague Tom Service, the host of classical music programs on BBC Radio 3:
” her lofty, rhapsodic, quasi-improvisational fantasies, as, say, in the piano works of Schumann or Chopin or in the symphonic poems of Strauss and Liszt, and on the other hand, in her contemporary prog-rock of the mid-70s. “
“With dexterity and skill inherent only to real masters, the songwriters create the illusion of a wide range of styles: an introduction, a ballad, an opera feast, hard rock, a thoughtful coda, everything is fused together, into a whole composition, which somehow miraculously suddenly makes sense, “says Tom Service.” This is a classic example of the unity of diversity that can be compared with Beethoven’s symphonies or Mozart’s operas. This is how Bohemian Rhapsody is perceived: as a miniature opera-rhapsody-symphonic poem. “
The verbal meanings inherent in the song were no less varied than the musical ones: from the poetic interpretation of the novel by French existentialist Albert Camus “The Stranger” to the confessional expression of Mercury’s childhood psychological traumas and his veiled coming-out.
The last version, in particular, very reasonably, parsed line by line, was presented in connection with the 40th anniversary of the release of Bohemian Rhapsody by Mercury’s friend Tim Rice, a famous librettist and constant co-author of the composer Andrew Lloyd Webber.
In particular, the shocking line “Mama, just killed a man, put a gun against his head, pulled a trigger, now he’s dead” now he is dead “), in his opinion, is nothing more than the separation of Mercury from his former, heterosexual” I “.
The composition stretched for six minutes, only overcoming the resistance of the EMI bosses, who considered it both too long and too difficult to release on a single, became not only the first No.1 Queen, not only captured the “holy grail” of British pop music, being place in the Christmas charts, but for an unprecedented nine (!) weeks did not leave the top of the charts.
There is no point in listing all the countless titles and awards that both the song and the band that created it have been awarded over the decades. I will only say that in 2018, after the release of the film of the same name, Universal Music Group announced that Bohemian Rhapsody was ahead of all other songs of the twentieth century in terms of the number of online streams.
And Queen musicians have since become megastars of pop music and show business. They achieved what they wanted – climbing to the top of success. This ascent coincided with their musical peak Bohemian Rhapsody.
And if along the path of success – commercial, fame, stardom – they climbed higher and higher, into truly transcendental heights, then from the top of the musical there was only one way – down. So, in my opinion, the creative decline of the group began.
Kitsch and decadence
From album to album the songs became simpler, more direct and more predictable. They had less and less, as it seemed from the first albums, of inexhaustible ingenuity and captivating freshness.But it became more and more pomp. Such a pretty subtle irony was replaced by haughty self-praise (“We Are the Champions”).
Habitat and performance environment changed. Queen now invariably performed in huge stadiums, where music, by definition, had to be loud and accessible.
The appearance has also changed. Mercury cut his long hair, acquired a black mustache, and began to appear on the stage exclusively in white jeans tight-fitting his slender body and the same white T-shirt that almost bare his torso.
If Queen as a group did not really fit into the glam-rock aesthetics that dominated British pop music of the 70s, then Mercury himself, gradually replacing the group’s image in the eyes of the public with his own image, became one of its most striking manifestations … And for glam rock, camp, kitsch and decadence were characteristic in different proportions.
But if the founders of the camp Oscar Wilde, Noel Coward, Quentin Crisp or their followers, contemporaries of Mercury David Bowie, Roxy Music, Boy George wore an aesthetic, ironic, playful character, then, in general, not stupid Mercury lost this self-irony.
For all his unconditional talent, in the last years of his life, and even more so after his death, through the efforts of unbridled PR campaigns, his camp began to go – at least in my perception – beyond the bounds of good taste.
That, however, did not in the least reduce the worldwide popularity of Queen, and over time, more and more separated from the image of the Mercury group.
Photo author, FG / Bauer-Griffin / Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
Queen’s triumphant performance at Live Aid at Wembley Stadium.July 13, 1985 From left to right: John Deacon, Freddie Mercury, Roger Taylor, Brian May.
For Queen, another apotheosis was the performance at the Live Aid concert in support of the hungry children of Ethiopia hosted by Bob Geldof on July 13, 1985 at Wembley Stadium in front of a global television audience of almost 2 billion people.
Queen, led by the irrepressible Mercury, eclipsed all the stars of the highest level who shared the stage with them, including Elton John, Madonna, Mick Jagger, David Bowie and even Paul McCartney.
For Mercury, already as a solo artist, the pinnacle was perhaps his recording of the song Barcelona with the Spanish opera diva Montserrat Caballe, which became, after the singer’s death, the culmination of the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games in Barcelona in 1992.
Photo author, FG / Bauer-Griffin / Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
Freddie Mekuryuri and Montserrat Caballe perform Barcelona in Ibiza. May 29, 1987
Freddie Mercury died as a result of complications from AIDS on November 25, 1991.His last tour with Queen took place five years earlier – in 1986, although the last album, Innuendo, recorded by the already sick Mercury with the group, was released in the year of his death – in 1991.
In 1995, May, Taylor and Deacon put the missing instrumentation on Mercury’s vocal and piano parts, which were not finished to the level of finished songs, and released the Queen album with the symbolic title Made in Heaven.
In January 1997, three Queen musicians performed with Elton John and Maurice Béjart’s ballet in Paris at the Mercury Memorial Concert.This was the last appearance on stage of John Deacon, who decided to leave music.
Elton John, however, strongly urged May and Taylor not to end the band’s history. “You guys need to keep playing. It’s like keeping a lovely Ferrari in the garage, waiting for the driver,” he told them.
May and Taylor obeyed and have been performing under the Queen name with other vocalists for many years now. At first, it was a veteran of the British rock scene Paul Rogers, who became famous back in the 60s and 70s as a member of the cult bands Free and Bad Company.
Then in 2009 May and Taylor performed as guests on the finale of the popular American TV show American Idol, along with its winner Adam Lambert, who since 2011 has become the permanent vocalist of the new group, called Queen + Adam Lambert.
Photo by Marc Grimwade // WireImage / Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
Roger Taylor, Adam Lambert and Brian May at the Queen’s Rhapsody Tour in Brisbane, Australia. 13 February 2020
I may be a purist, but I still prefer the position of Led Zeppelin, who, after the death in 1980 of drummer John Bonham, who played a huge, but still not so prominent role in the image and sound of the group, once and for all left their glorious name in the past, having revived it only twice in the past 40 years – in special, unique circumstances.
However, the Queen entered the history of rock music precisely in its classical line-up, the half-century of which this article was devoted to.