Glossary & Acronyms – California High Speed Rail
California State Transportation Agency (CalSTA)
CalSTA is a cabinet-level agency focused solely on addressing the state’s transportation issues. The Authority is located within CalSTA.
California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)
Legislation enacted in 1970 to protect the quality of the environment for the people of California by requiring public agencies and decision-makers to document and consider the environmental consequences of their actions. CEQA is the state equivalent of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
California Public Records Act
The California Constitution and the California Public Records Act (CPRA) (Government Code §6250 et. seq.) stipulate that members of the public have a right to inspect records maintained by state government, including the California High-Speed Rail Authority. Under the CPRA, the public has the right to inspect or obtain a copy of any public record, except those records that are legally exempt from public disclosure (Gov. Code § 6253).
The Cap-and-Trade Program is a key element of California’s climate plan in which the state sets a limit, or cap, on statewide sources that are responsible for 85 percent of California’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Cap-andTrade is a market-based policy in which the state sets a cap on emissions and then creates a financial market in which companies can purchase or trade permits or “allowances” to emit those gases. The program establishes a price signal needed to drive long-term investment in cleaner fuels and more efficient use of energy, spurring technological innovation and investments in clean energy. The California Air Resources Control Board (ARB) administers the program and the proceeds generated through the Cap-and-Trade. In 2014, with the passage of Senate Bill 862, the Legislature approved an annual appropriation of 25 percent of the annual Cap-and-Trade proceeds on a continuous basis to fund high-speed rail, beginning in FY15/16.
Central Valley Wye
The Central Valley Wye serves as the backbone of the High-Speed Rail system connecting the San Francisco Bay Area to Southern California. The Merced to Fresno project section, where the Central Valley Wye is located, generally parallels State Route 99 through the northern stretch of the San Joaquin Valley from the city of Merced to the city of Fresno. The Central Valley Wye is located near the City of Chowchilla and will serve as the junction for the high-speed rail system connecting San Jose to Fresno, San Jose to Merced, and Merced to Fresno.
Civil works generally refers to the portions of the high-speed rail system that are not directly related to rail operations i.e., bridges, viaducts, grade separations, roads, etc. Civil work represents the majority of the work taking place within the program today in the Central Valley.
Community Benefits Agreement (CBA)
The Community Benefits Agreement (CBA) is designed to assist small businesses and job seekers in finding or obtaining construction contracts, jobs and training opportunities for residents who live in economically disadvantaged areas. The CBA supports employment of individuals who reside in disadvantaged areas and those designated as Disadvantaged Workers, including veterans. It also helps remove potential barriers to Small Businesses to participate on the program. The CBA is a cooperative partnership and commitment between the Authority, skilled craft unions and contractors. All construction contracts have a CBA. CBA is a cooperative partnership and commitment between the Authority, skilled craft unions and contractors. It is based on the Community Benefit Policy (Policy), which promotes employment and business opportunities during the construction of the high-speed rail project. The Policy was approved by the Authority’s Board of Directors and signed by the Authority’s Chief Executive Officer in December 2012.
Connectivity projects refer to rail systems throughout the state that will be upgraded to enable them to connect with the high-speed rail system. These projects were allocated funding by Senate Bill 1029. They will be funded through a mix of federal, state (Proposition 1A) and local funds. These funds will strengthen and improve existing rail networks, while also connecting them with California’s future high-speed rail system. Senate Bill (SB) 1029, passed by the California Legislature and signed by Governor Brown in July 2012, invests almost $2 billion from the Safe, Reliable, High-Speed Passenger Train Bond Act for the 21st Century (Proposition 1A) into transit, commuter, and intercity rail projects across the state. This funding leverages approximately $5 billion in additional funding for these projects.
- SF Muni – Central Subway
- Caltrans – Capitol Corridor (Amtrak), Oakland to San Jose
- Caltrain – Advanced Signaling System (Positive Train Control)
- Caltrans – San Joaquin Corridor (Amtrak), Merced to Le Grand
- Sacramento Regional Transit (RT) – Sacramento Intermodal Facility Improvements
- Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (SCVTA) – Caltrain Advanced Signaling System (Positive Train Control)
- Southern California Memorandum of Understanding
- Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority (METRO) – Regional Rail Connector
- Southern California Regional Rail Authority (METROLINK) – New or Improved Locomotives/Cars
- San Diego Metropolitan Transit System (Trolley) – Blue Line Light Rail Improvements
- San Diego North County Transit District (Coaster) – Advanced Signalizing System (Positive Train Control)
Construction Package 1 (CP 1)
Construction Package 1 (CP 1) is an approximately 32-mile stretch of the project between Avenue 19 in Madera to East American Avenue in Fresno. Tutor Perini/Zachry/Parsons (TPZP), a Joint Venture, is the design-build contractor for Construction Package 1 and Wong+Harris is the Project and Construction Manager (PCM).
Construction Package 2-3 (CP 2-3)
Construction Package 2-3 (CP 2-3) is an approximate 65-mile stretch of the project, which runs from East American Avenue in Fresno (the terminus of CP 1) to one mile north of the Kern/Tulare County line. Dragados-Flatiron (DF), a Joint Venture is the design-build contractor and Arcadis, Inc. is the Program and Construction Manager.
Construction Package 4 (CP 4)
Construction Package 4 (CP 4) is approximately 22 miles from the terminus of CP 2-3 to Poplar Avenue north of Bakersfield. California Rail Builders is the design-build contractor and HNTB is the Project and Construction Manager. California Rail Builders is a special purpose entity of Ferrovial Agroman US Corp and Euroestudios.
Los Angeles Airport LAX
Los Angeles International Airport is the primary international airport that serves Los Angeles, California, and its surrounding metropolitan area. It is known as LAX airport, the identifier code for the airport. The Airport is located in the Westchester neighborhood of Los Angeles, 18 miles (30 km) southwest of Downtown Los Angeles. The airport covers 3,500 acres (1,400 ha) of land and has four parallel runways.
LAX Airport currently serves more than 109 nonstop domestic destinations and 93 nonstop international destinations, including cities in Mexico, London, Hong Kong, Sydney, Tokyo, Vancouver, Toronto, Taipei, and many more. With over 85 million passengers annually, LAX is one of the fastest-growing airports in the USA.
Airport Facts & Stats
- LAX is the fourth busiest airport internationally and the second busiest in the world.
- LA airport is the biggest airport on the West Coast, connecting America with Asia and Oceania.
- More than 80 million people travel into or out of LAX annually.
- Over 2 million tons of cargo pass through the airport every year.
- The LAX Airport has a Pets Unstressing Passengers (PUP) program that uses specially-trained therapy dogs to help nervous passengers relax.
Airport Traveling Tips
- The airport is chaotic around the clock. Avoid peak travel hours from 6 am -9 am, 11 am-2 pm, and 7 pm-10 pm)
- Arrive 2 hours before the scheduled domestic flight departure and 3 hours before an international flight departure to account for TSA security wait times and any possible flight delays.
- Take a few minutes to look at the Los Angeles Airport map before traveling to the airport to board a flight.
- LAX Airport is open 24/7, airline check-in counters and security checkpoints open between 4am-5am and close 11:30pm-2:30am, Pacific time, depending on each terminal’s flight schedules.
- If dropping off a passenger, use the Cell Phone Waiting Lot at 96th Street /Vicksburg Av. (free for 2 hrs; stay with your car until your party calls to be picked up at the curb). For transport options refer to ‘Transportation Buses & Trains’
Passenger Pickup and Drop off:
Passengers leaving LAX can board buses on the Lower/Arrivals Level in front of each terminal at the blue FlyAway® columns.
Park either at the parking available at the center of the horseshoe across from each terminal for $4 per hour or remote Economy Parking Lot C for $4 per hour.
If dropping off a passenger or waiting to retrieve guests, use the Cell Phone Waiting Lot at 96th Street /Vicksburg Av. on the outskirts of the LAX airport.
LAX Airport has nine passenger terminals. These terminals are connected by a U-shaped, two-level roadway. To see the terminal locations and get additional information, please refer to the Los Angeles International Airport terminal map.
Tom Bradley International Terminal (TBIT) is the main terminal that hosts most of the major international airlines, except those housed in Terminal 2. The terminal has 18 gates, nine of which are on the north concourse, and the other nine are on the south concourse.
There are additional nine satellite gates at the American Eagle satellite terminal for international flights on the west side of the LAX Airport. Passengers are transported to these gates by bus.
The Los Angeles Airport serves over 70 different airlines. It also serves as a hub for Allegiant Air, Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Qantas, United Airlines, Volaris, and Southwest Airlines.
Check out the full list of airlines served at LAX Airport.
Short-term and Long-term Parking
Short -term Parking at LAX Airport is provided at all lots. The charges are $5 for one hour. Then, it costs $4 for every half an hour after at all parking lots. Parking charges at Economy Lot E $4 for one hour and then $4 for each hour.
There are many off-site parking lots near LAX Airport. Most of these facilities are open 24/7 and provide a shuttle service to and from the airport.
After arriving at Los Angeles Airport, passengers have many options for ground transportation. These options include airport shuttles, buses, car rentals, and trains. Passengers can also choose ride services like Lyft, Uber, and taxis.
LAX Car Rental: Many car rental companies serve passengers with pick-up and drop-off services. These companies include Avis, Almano, Fox, Hertz, Sixt, Thrifty, to name a few.
LAX Airport Shuttle: A free airport shuttle service connects the Los Angeles International Airport with the Metro Rail Green Line railway facility. Also, the airport avails free shuttle buses to transport passengers between airline terminals. LAX-it is the new service that guests arriving at the LAX Airport can choose to connect to their Taxi, Opoli, Lyft, and Uber rides when exiting the Airport.
Buses & Trains: Many schedules service buses that provide service from the Los Angeles Airport to all areas across Los Angeles and surrounding regions. The LAX FlyAway Buses is another popular and convenient mode of nonstop transportation between LAX and regions throughout the city. It tickets $9.75 each way.
Amenities & Services at LAX
To help you enjoy your stay, Los Angeles International Airport provides visitors with many different amenities and services including:
- Trained therapy dogs to comfort nervous and stressed passengers
- Restaurants, cafes, and bars
- Spa and massage facilities
- Public art exhibitions, media walls, video installations, sculptures, and paintings
- Airport lounges
- Layover and family facilities
- Flight Path Museum and Learning Center
- Free Wi-Fi internet throughout the terminals
- Numerous public transportation options
- Currency exchange
- Airport police
- Medical and first aid
The Los Angeles Airport is owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA), which is an agency of the government of Los Angeles.
Address: 1 World Way, Los Angeles, CA 90045, United States
Website: https://www. flylax.com/
Phone: (855) 463-5252
Have you lost your belongings at the LAX Airport? Lost & found.
Los Angeles International Airport: A Brief History Timeline
- The LAX airport, known as Mines Field, started its operations on 1 October 1928. The airport was actually opened in 1930.
- Before the 1930s, the airport uses “LA” as the designation for Los Angeles Airport. In 1947, it became “LAX.
- The name became LAX Airport in 1941 and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949.
- Commercial airline service at the LAX airport started December 1946.
- In April 1957, the airport had 66 departures during weekdays on United Airlines, 32 Western Airlines, 32 American Airlines, 27 TWA, five Bonanza Air Lines, nine Southwest, and three Mexicana Airlines.
- The LAX terminal complex was constructed in 1961 with a 172ft control tower.
- Since 1972, LAX has only adopted the ‘Preferential Runway Use Policy’ to overcome the noise pollution.
- In 1981, a $700 million expansion project started at the airport in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics. During this project, the U-shaped roadway got a second level. Terminal 1 and the Tom Bradley International Terminal were built while Terminal 2 was rebuilt.
- In 1996, a 277-foot-tall air traffic control tower was constructed near the Theme Building.
- In 2008, the Tom Bradley International Terminal underwent a $4.11 billion renovation and improvement program to accommodate the next-generation aircraft. The project also included the development of the Central Terminal Area (CTA) in order to streamline passenger processing and public transportation. In 2013, LAX Airport became the biggest airport in CA.
- In February 2017, officials announced a $1.6-billion Midfield Satellite Concourse as an expansion of Tom Bradley International Terminal.
- In 2018, it was serving over 87 million passengers and over 2 million tons of freight and mail.
LAX Airport FAQs
What is the meaning of “X” in LAX?
A. Before the 1930s, LA was used as an acronym for Los Angeles. With the rapid growth in the aviation industry, the designation became LAX. The letter ‘X’ does not have any specific meaning in this identifier.
Q. Does the Los Angeles airport have a Pet Park?
A. Yes! There are multiple LAX Airport Pet Parks on the Lower/Arrival Level of the Central Terminal area. Pets can take a potty break in these parks.
Q. Does LAX provide parking for the disabled?
A. The Los Angeles Airport provides extra-wide parking spaces for disabled marked “Disabled Parking” immediately adjacent to elevators on every parking level. Additionally, there are economy-rate parking and free shuttle bus service to and from all terminals, available for disabled.
Q. Can you sleep at LAX Airport?
A. Yes, passengers can sleep at LAX Airport. These are specialized sleeping furniture and designated rest areas provided at all terminals. Check out these awesome LAX layover ideas.
Q. What cities can I fly nonstop from Los Angeles?
A. You can fly to hundreds cities worldwide without a stopover. Check out our direct flights page to see where you fly to.
Q. How many airports are in Los Angeles?
A. There are five airports in Los Angeles. These are:
- Los Angeles International Airport (LAX)
- John Wayne Airport (SNA)
- Ontario International Airport (ONT)
- Long Beach Airport (LGB)
- Hollywood Burbank Airport (BUR)
|AGA||Atlanta, Georgia, USA||North America: East US|
|AGB||Atlanta, Georgia, USA||North America: East US|
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|AKL||Auckland, New Zealand||Asia|
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|CHA||Chicago, Illinois, USA||North America: Central US|
|CHB||Chicago, Illinois, USA||North America: Central US|
|CHD||Chicago, Illinois, USA||North America: Central US|
|CHE||Chicago, Illinois, USA||North America: Central US|
|CMC||Chicago, Illinois, USA||North America: Central US|
|CNJ||Newark, New Jersey, USA||North America: East US|
|DAA||Dallas, Texas, USA||North America: Central US|
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|DAC||Dallas, Texas, USA||North America: Central US|
|DCB||Ashburn, Virginia, USA||North America: East US|
|DCC||Ashburn, Virginia, USA||North America: East US|
|DCD||Ashburn, Virginia, USA||North America: East US|
|DNA||Denver, Colorado, USA||North America: Central US|
|DNM||Denver, Colorado, USA||North America: Central US|
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|DTW||Detroit, Michigan, USA||North America: Central US|
|EZE||Buenos Aires, Argentina||Latin America|
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|HKN||Hong Kong SAR||Asia|
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|MEX||Mexico City, Mexico||North America|
|MIB||Miami, Florida, USA||North America: East US|
|MIC||Miami, Florida, USA||North America: East US|
|MID||Miami, Florida, USA||North America: East US|
|MIM||Miami, Florida, USA||North America: East US|
|MIN||Miami, Florida, USA||North America: East US|
|NYA||New York, New York, USA||North America: East US|
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|NYD||New York, New York, USA||North America: East US|
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|ORD||Chicago, Illinois, USA||North America: Central US|
|OXR||Los Angeles, California, USA||North America: West US|
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|PHD||Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA||North America: East US|
|PHX||Phoenix, Arizona, USA||North America: West US|
|PIT||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA||North America: East US|
|PVR||Guadalajara, Mexico||North America|
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|SEC||Seattle, Washington, USA||North America: West US|
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|SPB||Sao Paulo, Brazil||Latin America|
|UAE||Fujairah, United Arab Emirates||Europe|
|VAP||Santiago, Chile||Latin America|
|VNY||Los Angeles, California, USA||North America: West US|
LAX’s therapy dogs help stressed passengers one pet at a time
Most families who have just taken a cross-country flight can’t get out of the airport fast enough. But D.C. residents Charles and Shalini Kapur, and their daughters Kiran and Alisha, happily delayed their vacation for a few minutes when they arrived at Los Angeles International Airport in July.
That’s because there was a surprise awaiting them near their gate: cuddly canines waiting for some love.
“It sort of re-centers you after you’ve had a long flight,” Charles Kapur said as his daughters stroked Coco, a fluffy white standard poodle, and a kind-eyed labradoodle named Tucker.
Since 2013, LAX has gone to the dogs. Although it has plenty of the spa stations, high-end shops, outposts of local restaurants and other touches that so many airports have incorporated through recent remodels, one of the country’s busiest airports also relies on cold noses to help travelers who are stressing over TSA screenings, oversized bags and overbooked seats.
The furry emissaries come courtesy of the Pets Unstressing Passengers program — otherwise known by its acronym, PUP. Under its auspices, brigades of as many seven or eight red-shirted dogs and their similarly attired volunteer owners walk through terminals and offer passengers their pets’ unwavering love for a couple of hours a day (even on weekends). Although PUP volunteers say they encounter the occasional shy or standoffish stranger, most affection is reciprocated. Maria Miller said that Penelope, her Chihuahua-Jack Russell mix, had pink lipstick on her forehead a mere 15 minutes after a recent visit to the terminal.
Penelope, a Chihuahua-Jack Russell mix, makes new friends: PUP volunteers must be at least 2 years old and have at least a year of therapy experience. (Heidi Huebner)
It “de-stresses you” before you board, said Andrea Marr, a Navy dentist based in San Diego. Especially passengers like her: She missed her flight the previous day and had to pony up for new tickets, but she melted when she saw the sweet, goofy face of Rusty, a chocolate-colored pit bull.
Michelle Sanchez of Connecticut, who was traveling home with her mother and 3½ -year-old daughter, Ashley, says their surprise encounter was a parent’s dream come true. “Having her be happy and relaxed and occupied, it takes that stress off of me,” Sanchez said of her daughter’s fascination with Coco, who reminded her of their own dog, Peanut.
Like true Angelenos, the dogs know all about branding and marketability; they will happily pose in your selfies and request that you follow them on social media as their owners hand out baseball-style trading cards with their pictures and account handles. Bathroom breaks are handled discreetly, thanks to the animal-relief stations that are now in the post-screening areas at each terminal. While there are occasional and inevitable run-ins with their brethren working on the Transportation Security Agency’s canine teams, the PUP volunteers try to keep things professional and leave quickly so as to not distract them.
“We laugh that this is the only job you can fall asleep in,” said PUP Program Director Heidi Huebner as Rusty, dozed on the floor near his owners, Lillian and Chris De Groof. Huebner chooses volunteers based on the temperament of both the canines and the humans who own them because, she said, “even if they’ve already worked as a therapy dog somewhere, the airport’s completely different. ”
To be considered, dogs must be privately owned, be at least 2 years old and have at least one year of experience working with a recognized dog-therapy organization. Huebner conducts an initial meet-and-greet. The teams must then pass three tests to be registered with the Alliance of Therapy Dogs by paying another visit to the airport to see how they interact with other dogs and their handlers, and making two test runs at hospitals that have volunteer programs.
Owners must also agree to undergo a background check at LAX and be fingerprinted and badged. There will be 72 dogs involved in LAX’s PUP program by the end of the summer — including Huebner’s own husky mix, Chance — and they can be found at various terminals throughout the day.
Huebner and the PUP program have assisted 50 airports around the country in setting up similar programs. These programs have different names and, more important, not all their animals are dogs. While Huebner says it would take a special kind of cat to join a roaming canine cavalry in a crowded airport, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport has miniature therapy horses and San Francisco International Airport has a pig.
Coco, a standard poodle, strikes a pose. PUP-program dogs have their own social media accounts and will happily appear in travelers’ selfies. (Heidi Huebner)
There is currently no such therapy-animal program at Dulles International Airport or Reagan National Airport, although a Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority media relations spokesperson said that it is under consideration and noted that some airlines have brought animals in for passengers during high-stress travel times.
The program has helped break down stereotypes and cultural divides. The De Groofs said that people have been pleasantly surprised with their pit bull’s low-key demeanor and initiated discussions about the breed. Ellen Lee, who owns Coco, and Jena Williams, who owns Tucker, said that they like working in the Tom Bradley International Terminal because they can work to curb what Williams calls “the canine biases” sometimes seen in less dog-friendly cultures, as well as help grateful parents calm their tantruming children.
But what human would want to volunteer to spend time in an airport, even if a beloved pet got to come, too?
Miller said that volunteering feeds her personal fascination with airports and helps quell her fear of flying, and that it is confidence-building for Penelope, who was once a skittish shelter dog. Now she loves to go to LAX, although it may or may not be because they both get some Taco Bell on the ride home.
Who doesn’t appreciate a drive-through run after a day at the airport?
Friedlander is a writer based in Los Angeles. Her website is whitneyfriedlander.com. Find her on Twitter: @Loislane79.
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Shooting at Los Angeles airport, flights delayed | News | DW
LA officials told a press conference after the “lone shooter” was taken into custody Friday that they saw no further threat to the United States’ third largest airport. The gunman was identified as 23-year-old Paul Anthony Ciancia, who reportedly harbored anti-government views.
LAX is a major hub for flights to Asia, Australia and New Zealand.
The gunshots were reported at Terminal 3, which services airlines such as Virgin America and Alaska Airlines.
Travelers described chaotic scenes as airport security staff evacuated terminals. Some people spilled onto tarmacs, while others were told to stay in airport restaurants and lounges.
A Transportation Security Administration (TSA) agent died in the shooting. At least seven people were wounded.
The Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center said it received “three male victims from the LAX Airport shootings.”
One had arrived in “critical” condition and two were listed in “fair condition,” the medical center said.
Los Angeles Airport police chief Patrick Gannon said that the shooter, who was carrying a high-powered “assault rifle,” was wounded by police before being taken into custody.
Gannon added that authorities believed there had only been a “lone shooter.”
“As you can imagine, a large amount of chaos took place in this entire incident,” he said.
The administration of the airport, known by its acronym LAX, also said on its Twitter account that the suspect was “now in custody” and that there were “multiple victims.”
Earlier, the airport had tweeted: “Ground stop now in effect at LAX after shooting in terminal.”
The incident was first reported after 9:30 a.m. local time (16:30 UTC).
At a press conference later, a LAX spokeswoman told passengers awaiting departure to expect delays.
Witnesses Brian Keech told AP that he heard “about a dozen gunshots” from inside the security gate at Terminal 3.
One eyewitness quoted by AFP said a shooter dressed in greyish-green clothing with an assault rifle opened fire as he went up an escalator and through a security check area.
Nationwide, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) grounded flights that had not yet departed for LAX.
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Los Angeles International Airport
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Laboratory for Architectural Experiments
City, Technology, Award
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|LAX||Lacrosse+ 1 variantLacrosse, Lacrosse, Sports||Lacrosse, Lacrosse, Sports|
|Lax||LacrosseSport, Sports, Athletics||Sport, Sports, Athletics|
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|LAX||LaxmanniaceaeBiology, Plant Family, Plant||Biology, Plant Family, Plant|
|LAX||Long-axis+ 1 variantRadiology, Medical||Radiology, Medical|
Medical, Medicine, Treatment
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8i Acquisition 2
Identifier for Los Angeles
|LAX||Latin-American Xchange+ 1 variantAmerica, Wrestling, American||America, Wrestling, American|
Latin American Xchange
America, Music, American
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Latin American Exchange
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|Lax||LaxityMedical, Medicine, Healthcare||Medical, Medicine, Healthcare|
Least Acidic Xylanase
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Military, Ministry Of Defence, Government
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Linker For Activation Of X Cells
Allergy, Immunology, Medical
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Live Arts Exchange
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90,000 Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Assessment (NPS, CSI) – NAFI
Studies of satisfaction levels of and of customer loyalty are necessary to make decisions on further steps in the development of both individual products and services, and the company as a whole. These studies help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the company’s activities, to determine the degree of influence of various factors on the overall satisfaction and customer loyalty to the company.
Research includes calculation of CSI (measures the level of satisfaction) and NPS (measures the level of loyalty, willingness to recommend).
Expressing the level of loyalty and satisfaction in index indicators allows you to assess the dynamics of changes in indicators over time, as well as compare the company’s indicators with competitors and average indicators in a particular industry.
(Customer Satisfaction Index)
NPS (Net Promoter Score)
The index allows you to assess the level of satisfaction of customers after interacting with the company.The calculation of the index is based on the idea that customer satisfaction depends not only on the characteristics of the product / service, but also on how important these characteristics are for the consumer.
CSI is a versatile tool that can be used in both the B2C market and B2B.
The index allows you to assess the degree of commitment and loyalty of customers, their willingness to recommend a company or brand to friends based on their customer experience.
NPS is considered to be one of the best tools for measuring the effectiveness of a company’s growth.
When calculating the index, it is possible to single out the shares of loyal and disloyal customers, to determine the factors that largely determine the overall level of loyalty. NPS is a versatile tool that can be used in both B2C and B2B markets.
Download detailed presentation
CSI & NPS are best paired to better understand whether high customer satisfaction leads to loyalty and therefore long-term relationships.
What is CSI & NPS
measuring the level of customer satisfaction in general, as well as for individual processes, products, services
measuring the level of satisfaction with products / services of competing companies and comparing the obtained indicators
assessment of the risk of potential customer churn and its obvious and latent reasons
comprehensive analysis of factors affecting customer loyalty and satisfaction
preparation of a training program for staff, taking into account the identified shortcomings of client work
Advantages of CSI & NPS with NAFI
only interviewers with many years of experience with CSI & NPS methods are involved in work on projects (due to the specifics of the methods and work with open-ended questions)
NAFI analysts will help to correctly build a sample in which the data obtained will have statistical significance at optimal project costs
to identify the key factors that influence the level of loyalty and satisfaction, mathematical methods are used, including regression and correlation analyzes, gap analysis paired with CSI & NPS methods
own base of benchmarks based on the NPS methodology in the financial services markets (banks, insurance, leasing), construction, telecommunications
developed and tested tools and methods for calculating the index (customer satisfaction questionnaire)
if it is necessary to promptly obtain benchmarks for certain brands, products, services, NAFI can include relevant questions in the NAFI Business Omnibus free of charge.
This research solution has already been used by NAFI
Other research methods used by NAFI
90,000 SWOT analysis of an enterprise – an example of a SWOT analysis – SKB Kontur
SWOT analysis of the external and internal environment of the organization
Internal environmental factors include strengths and weaknesses.That is, these are any characteristics of a future project that add the chances of success and give advantages in the market and what the project lacks, but what competitors have. That is, strengths can be, for example, super-professional team members, personal connections of the founder with potential customers (buyers) or the presence of a client base. This also includes a good financial resource, a profitable loan or the possibility of using an investment cushion. Weak points also need to be written honestly.Here, directly opposite factors may appear, for example, the impossibility of completing the product due to a small amount of financial resources or the lack of a customer base.
The environmental factors include the categories of opportunity and threat. This is all that influences the project from the outside, gives additional advantages to the business idea or reduces its chances. For example, the growth or decline of the market segment in which it is planned to start working, a favorable economic situation in the country, increased investor interest in this market segment, or, conversely, a crisis and fading attention.
Factors are written in the table in the following form:
|Positive impact||Negative impact|
|Indoor environment||Strengths (properties of a project or team that provide advantages over others in the industry)||Weaknesses|
|External environment||Opportunities (external probable factors that give additional opportunities to achieve the goal)||Threats (external probable factors that may complicate the achievement of the goal)|
That is, among the external factors may be market trends, sales structure, competitive environment, barriers to market entry.As well as legislation and political situation, economic situation of the country, region, socio-demographic factors, changes in technology, international environment, ecological environment.
Internal factors should be looked for in the following list: management, marketing, personnel, analysis of the company’s sales system, analysis of the product portfolio, analysis of competitors’ activity, the presence of a sustainable competitive advantage, analysis of pricing policy. SWOT analysis does not imply the mandatory use of specific financial or economic categories.Therefore, this method is applicable in a variety of situations, to build strategies for any kind of organization.
Example SWOT Analysis
Suppose an individual entrepreneur plans to sell homemade pies to grandmothers in small wholesale so that they can then resell them at retail.
A SWOT analysis of this business idea might look like this:
It is important to note that if the target audience is not grandmothers, but, for example, schoolchildren and pies are sold to them personally, the SWOT analysis must be repeated, as the factors may be different.
What is the convenience of SWOT analysis?
The convenience of SWOT analysis lies in the fact that, having formulated potential problems for the business, it is possible to adjust the strategy and eliminate the obstacles. For example, before you start baking pies, you can take a month to meet grandmothers who want to make money. You can also look for acquaintances who have connections with the supervisory authorities. That is, it is important to consider interference not as a final judgment, but as tasks that need to be addressed. Of course, if objectively the external environment leaves no chance for a business idea, then most likely the idea will have to be changed.Only large corporations and associations of representatives of specific industries can influence legislation, customs duties or industry control rules. Unfortunately, small businesses cannot do this.
90,000 PESTLE (Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Legal, Environmental): what is
PESTLE is an analysis tool for building a long-term business strategy.Allows you to assess the position of the company in the market and identify strengths and weaknesses, as well as possible factors hindering development.
IT Service Management
PESTLE is an abbreviation that lists the main factors that influence or may affect in the future the activities of the company. There are other similar tools. For example, PEST, STEEPLE, SLEPT. There is no fundamental difference, the only difference is that some factors can be excluded from the analysis or added to it (depending on the specifics of the company’s activities or on the ideological principles of the person who conducts this analysis).
- P – political
Political environmental factors, including industry regulation or government competition policy. When these factors change, the company’s activities can vary greatly, they must be taken into account when planning activities, allocating the budget.
- E – economical
Economic factors include changes in the exchange rate of the national currency, the level and possible changes in demand, trading cycles and other processes, the impact of which on the activities of any company is obvious.
- S – social-culture
Socio-cultural factors do not change so quickly, but they affect all spheres of human life very strongly. It is important to take them into account and track them, since the influence of the media, changes in basic human values have the most powerful effect on the needs and pains of customers, as well as consumption practices.
- T – technological
Technological factors are very clear: their influence on any sphere of production of goods or services is difficult to overestimate, and over time this influence will only grow.The IT industry, of course, has to pay particular attention to these factors. They include the emergence of new technologies, and new patents, and new products, as well as everything related to the Internet and mobile devices.
- L – legal
Legal factors include both the specific laws of the state in which the company operates and its internal corporate policy. Labor regulation, safety standards, consumer rights are all legal factors.
- E – environmental / ecological
Speaking of environmental factors, they do not mean the rescue of endangered animals, but everything that affects the company’s activities under the guise of the environment. For some industries, this may be a key factor (tourism, farming, agriculture). Weather, climate, landscape – these are all environmental factors.
This analysis is especially valuable when a company plans to enter a new market or create a new project / product / service.Obviously, in order to draw up a company’s development strategy, you need to understand what external factors exist that the company cannot influence, but they must be taken into account, since they can ruin the best of the projects. Some factors can help in development, but they also need to be known in order to use them wisely for maximum benefit.
PESTLE analysis helps to create a basic picture of the company’s position in the market and the state of the market itself in order to successfully carry out strategic planning, build a marketing plan, and accept organizational changes.
Neurologist for parents about children
What do a child who is afraid to go to the blackboard and an excellent student with skin allergies and tics have in common?
Between an impulsive child who is rude to teachers and beats his classmates, and a fearful and insecure C grade with headaches and impaired attention?
Between a restless, irritable, nervous child for any reason and his deskmate suffering from sleep disorders and enuresis, who is not interested in anything, who is not affected by shouts or deuces?
Many of these behavioral manifestations in children are based on disorders of the mechanisms of development of the nervous system …
What is the explanation for the disturbances in the nervous activity in the baby, if no visible changes in the brain are determined?
The fact is that an outwardly well-formed brain is not yet a guarantee of its normal functioning.Having experienced unfavorable influences in a critical period (in utero, during childbirth or in a newborn), the brain “leaves the schedule” of its development in the most critical phase. The formation of the most important functions does not have time to “fit” into the optimal age period allotted for this, in a kind of peak of the plasticity of the nervous system, and then, in addition to what has already been said, irreversible conditions may develop in the baby ….
But if everything that happens in childhood was irreversible, then childhood diseases of the nervous system would be incurable …
And this is not so!
How are brain diseases treated? Our children’s neurologists and psychoneurologists will answer this.
A child psychoneurologist, in contrast to an adult neuropathologist, has to deal with almost all pathology inherent in the body:
- damage to the nervous system in utero and during childbirth as a result of various adverse factors
- disorders of motor development (from tempo delays in the formation of initial motor skills to paresis and paralysis)
- birth and household traumatic brain injury and their consequences
- epilepsy, etc.convulsive conditions
- sleep disorders, including paroxysmal
- cerebrovascular accidents (strokes) in both acute and chronic stages
- Congenital and acquired hydrocephalus
- “rejuvenated” multiple sclerosis, brain tumors and other progressive diseases of the nervous system
- pains of various origins
- hereditary neuromuscular diseases, etc.genetic diseases with damage to the nervous system
- behavioral disorders, adaptation problems, neurotic reactions and habits (tics, stuttering, urinary incontinence, obsessions, fears, etc.)
- mental illness (early childhood schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation – intellectual disability of varying severity)
- disorders “accompanying” chronic somatic diseases
and many other disorders, except perhaps a very small range of age-related genetic conditions, but they also tend to rejuvenate …
Perinatal damage to the nervous system is a collective diagnosis, implying a violation of the function or structure of the brain (encephalopathy) and the spinal cord of various origins, arising in the perinatal period (from 28 weeks of intrauterine development, including childbirth, to the period corresponding to the first week of a child’s life with processes characteristic of it adaptation of a newborn to environmental conditions).The reasons influencing the onset of PPNS symptoms can be:
- intrauterine infections (rubella, herpes, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, etc.)
- exacerbation of chronic diseases of the expectant mother with unfavorable changes in metabolism
- action of various types of radiation
- genetic condition
- long dry period
- absence or weak severity of contractions and inevitable in these cases, stimulation of labor
- insufficient opening of the birth canal
- Rapid labor
- the use of manual obstetric techniques
- Caesarean section
- umbilical cord entanglement of the fetus
- large body weight and size of the fetus
The consequence of these reasons is a violation of breathing and blood circulation (asphyxia, hypoxia), energy deficiency of the heart and brain, failure of individual organs or functional systems (multiple organ failure), leading in some cases to irreversible phenomena.
Birth trauma of newborns is damage to organs and tissues of the fetus, which occurs during childbirth as a result of a discrepancy between the birth expelling forces (contractions, attempts) and the elasticity of the fetal tissues. Predisposing reasons include: toxicosis of pregnant women, cardiovascular diseases of the mother, infections suffered during pregnancy, metabolic disorders, undermaturity and prolonged pregnancy, etc. Intrauterine asphyxia (hypoxia) of the fetus plays a special role in the occurrence of birth trauma.
Sometimes injuries are accompanied by intracranial hemorrhages, cerebral edema with increased intracranial pressure, with the development of hydrocephalus (dropsy of the brain), fractures of the clavicles and humerus bones, spine, facial nerve injuries and paralysis of the brachial plexus, etc.
Traumatic brain injury (including household). Head injuries can be very different in severity, ranging from minor contusions to the soft tissues of the head to severe injuries to the skull and brain.In young children, even sometimes outwardly “harmless” falls from a small height can hide fractures of the skull, its inner platinum with damage to the brain tissue. Mechanical trauma to the skull leads to compression of the brain tissue, tension and displacement of its layers, and a temporary sharp increase in intracranial pressure. The displacement of the medulla may be accompanied by rupture of the brain tissue and blood vessels (hemorrhages), brain contusion. Usually, these mechanical disorders are complemented by complex changes in the brain and their consequences.
Epilepsy, a chronic neuropsychiatric disease characterized by a tendency to recurrent sudden seizures. There are various types of seizures (convulsive and non-convulsive), but all of them are based on very high electrical activity of the nerve cells in the brain.
Epilepsy has been known since ancient times. Epileptic seizures were noted in many prominent people, such as the Apostle Paul and Buddha, Julius Caesar and Napoleon, Handel and Dante, Van Gogh and Nobel.Its prevalence reaches 15–20 cases per 1000 people. In addition, about every twentieth child has had convulsions at least once with a rise in temperature. Distinguish between epilepsy as an independent disease, epileptic syndromes (in various diseases of the brain) and epileptic reactions to sudden external stimuli (poisoning, intoxication, the influence of environmental conditions, trauma, stress, etc.)
Paroxysmal sleep disorders (parasomnias).Paroxysmal sleep disorders have been known since antiquity and are described in the writings of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Some of them have similarities with epilepsy, both in manifestations and in diagnostic characteristics. To date, a large number of independent syndromes that arise in sleep are known, which are associated with the peculiarities of the development of the child’s nervous system (including general medical, neurological, emotional, social problems, environmental factors). These are enuresis, night fears and nightmares, autonomic disturbances (excessive sweating, respiratory disturbances, attacks of suffocation and palpitations), bruxism (teeth grinding), excessive motor activity during sleep, flinching, sleeping, sleeping, paroxysmal night pains, convulsions in the extremities, disorders of awakening after sleep.
Along with these sleep disorders, there are also disturbances of the “sleep-wakefulness” rhythm associated with sleep disorders (dyssomnia), as well as sleep disorders with concomitant diseases (ARVI, rhinitis, various pain syndromes, teething period in children, etc.), sleep disorders can also occur in psychiatric diseases, etc.
Cerebral circulation disorders in children. In children, it is possible to develop all types of cerebrovascular accidents, starting from their initial manifestations (in the form of headaches, dizziness, disorders of consciousness, delays in intellectual development, etc.).) and ending with strokes. Diseases of the blood, brain tumors, abnormal development of the walls of the cerebral vessels themselves (aneurysms), diabetes mellitus, alcohol and drug use can lead to vascular diseases of the brain, both in adults and in children. The likelihood of their development is quite high in heart disease, heart rhythm disturbances, heart defects and inflammatory diseases of the heart muscle. Inflammatory diseases of the cerebral vessels – vasculitis – can also cause cerebrovascular accident.In children, vasculitis is more common with rheumatism. Cerebral circulation disorders of the brain and spinal cord in children can also be a long-term consequence of the birth trauma of the spine.
A nervous child is an irritable, naughty child who cannot and does not want to control himself. Moreover, almost 90% of completely different children fall under this parental “diagnosis”. The birth of a nervous child may depend on the fact that the expectant mother was nervous, suffered from toxicosis, and had a hard time giving birth.But even in the case when there is none of the above reasons, and your child was born and grows up in favorable conditions, congenital insufficiency of certain brain structures can become the cause of nervousness. From the point of view of medicine, the concept of a “nervous child” can mean a child with increased emotional sensitivity, as well as with anomalies in character development, neurosis, and organic disorders of the brain.
A child also becomes nervous when he does not sleep enough, watches TV all day, listens to horror films, when the house is very noisy and crowded, the family quarrels when he is the only child in the family, and the adults who love him fulfill his every whim or desire, thinking that in this is true love.
If something worries you in the behavior of a nervous child, be sure to consult a doctor: a neurologist, neuropsychiatrist, clinical psychologist. In most cases, we are not talking about serious mental abnormalities, but about ordinary ailments, which, if they are “captured” in time, are quite easy to correct. Specialists will be able to find out the cause using various types of examination – ultrasound examination (ultrasound), electroencephalography (EEG), laboratory tests, neuropsychological and pathopsychological examination.Treatment of a nervous child is complex – medication (psychopharmacotherapy), psychosocial treatment (aimed at correcting the microsocial environment surrounding the child, at forming support and helping relationships), psychotherapy (aimed at correcting behavior),
Neurotic reactions are psychogenic disorders that appear due to quarrels, conflicts, “gnawing” feelings of loneliness, any fears. A neurotic reaction easily arises due to an experienced sad or terrible event for a person.The intense rhythm of modern life and school loads are also pushing them towards them, and more and more often they are found in the most unprotected – in our children. Of course, the life of a little man is not without problems. But the problems of children are different. It is one thing when they fit into the framework of the age norms of development. But some baby problems can only be solved by specialists, such as tics, stuttering, enuresis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder sucking fingers and tongue, rocking the body and head (yakation), masturbation (masturbation), which arose in pre-pubertal age, nail biting (onychophagia) , hair pulling (trichotillomania), etc.
With mental retardation, assistance is provided by a child neurologist, neuropsychiatrist, and psychiatrist. Parents do not always realize the desirability of early contact with these specialists, although they can provide assistance in the child’s problems, including behavioral and emotional ones. Consultation of an endocrinologist, cardiologist is obligatory, because the reasons for the delay may lie in neurological, hormonal disorders, diseases of the cardiovascular system. The child may need additional studies – MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (ultrasound), EEG (electroencephalography).For a more accurate understanding of the causes of the origin of the child’s problems.
According to indications, medications can be prescribed that improve memory and attention, reduce excitability and develop perseverance. Children, unlike adults, have more reserves and capabilities of the body. With timely assistance, the phenomena of mental retardation are noticeably smoothed out in the future, good adaptation in everyday life occurs
What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
“Hyperactivity” – this is restlessness, inattention and impulsivity, frequent night awakenings, occurs most often in childhood and affects the general atmosphere in your family and the social future of your child.This syndrome is a “hodgepodge” of various diseases, their cause must be found out.
Early organic brain damage in the perinatal period (for example, complications during pregnancy, birth trauma, hypoxia during childbirth), as well as genetic and socio-psychological factors (family conflicts, defects in upbringing, acute and chronic stresses that reduce the resistance of the nervous system to external and internal influences).
“Disaster children”, “difficult children” – this is how children with ADHD are called.Indeed, they cause so much trouble to their parents, they constantly find themselves in some kind of unpleasant situations, since they often do not have a developed sense of self-preservation and control over behavior. At school, they can not assimilate the educational material, be at the desk during the entire lesson. Moreover, such children most often do not show mental retardation or severe neurological disorders, although increased excitability can also manifest itself with various early lesions of the nervous system (head trauma, neuroinfection, etc.).etc.). Such children require an individual approach in the educational process, therefore, the recommendations of the teacher are important. These children should not be considered aggressive and dangerous to other children. With age, in the process of social interaction, the phenomena of hyperactivity become less pronounced. Sometimes such people become leaders, have increased efficiency.
With ADHD, a neurologist, neuropsychiatrist, psychiatrist, medical psychologist (clinical psychologist) can help, and even better – all together, because then doctors will have the opportunity to discuss a comprehensive treatment regimen that will be most effective.
So, it is imperative to find out what the state of physical health is, whether the characteristics of the child’s behavior are the result of organic disorders in the brain, ultrasound examinations (ultrasound), EEG (electroencephalography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), consultation of a neurologist.
It is important to assess the state of the cardiovascular system (consult a therapist, cardiologist), determine the level of hormones and consult an endocrinologist.
Treatment is complex – biological, psychological and social. Drug treatment (psychopharmacotherapy) is aimed at reducing motor restlessness, improving the functions of cognition of the surrounding world, and normalizing sleep.
Enuresis (the second name is urinary incontinence) is the inability of a person to “endure” the toilet, a constant struggle with wet sheets.
Potty training is one of the stages in the general mental and physical development of the child.The age at which it is already possible to talk about enuresis in a child should be at least 4-5 years.
The causes of enuresis are very different – mental trauma, anomalies in the development of the urinary tract, underdevelopment of the lumbosacral spine, improper daily routine, inappropriate nutrition, endocrine disorders, delayed maturation of the nervous system.
Enuresis can be either an independent disease or a manifestation of any other disease.Distinguish between day and night enuresis, primary and secondary. In primary enuresis, there is a lack of prior control over the emptying of the bladder. Secondary enuresis is spoken of if a person controlled the urination process for at least 6 months, and then again began to urinate in his pants or bed, due to the influence of urological, neurological, mental or endocrine diseases.
With enuresis, persistent sleep disturbances, problems with falling asleep and waking up, excessively deep sleep, night fears, sleep-speaking and sleepwalking are noted.If such a child is woken up by force, then you can observe a violation of orientation with motor excitement, fears.
Who will help with enuresis?
With enuresis, a neuropsychiatrist will help. Additionally, you need to be examined to exclude malformations of the urinary tract and spine, diabetes mellitus, and diseases of the central nervous system. You will need consultations with a pediatrician, endocrinologist, laboratory tests, ultrasound examination of the kidneys and bladder (ultrasound), EEG (electroencephalography).
Treatment of bedwetting is complex. Drug treatment (psychopharmacotherapy) is aimed at eliminating anxiety and fears, stabilizing mood. Psychotherapy – to eliminate emotional disorders and change behavior, in particular, adherence to the daily routine, eating and drinking regime – limiting fluids, eating foods with only a low fluid content. Other non-drug methods of exposure are acupuncture, manual therapy.
Children often complain of headaches.For the most part, it is, as doctors say, benign and only in rare cases does it become a manifestation of a serious general or neurological disease. Therefore, it is important not to dismiss the timid complaint of the child, who sometimes still cannot clearly articulate what hurts him. The parental anxiety that prompts them to go to the doctor to identify the causes of the child’s ill health is understandable and justified.
Why do children have headaches?
Acute headache in children is primarily one of the main symptoms of acute neuroinfectious diseases, as well as paroxysmal conditions, while chronic headache is a frequent manifestation of vegetative dystonia and neuroses.
The most common VOLTAGE HEADACHE. It is based on painful contraction of the muscles of the soft tissues of the head (scalp) or cervico-occipital region. Tension headache is usually associated with emotional stress. And what are the stresses of the child? They are countless. This, for example, preparing for a test or exams, the disappearance of a beloved pet, a quarrel with a friend … A fat child who does not want to undress in the presence of classmates often complains of a headache before physical education lessons.The duration of such pain usually does not exceed 1 to 2 hours. Of course, the doctor cannot cancel the tests and exams at school, but parents, teachers, and a doctor must work hard to eliminate and mitigate stressful influences. The doctor usually prescribes prophylactic agents.
The most common type of vascular headache is MIGRAINE. This disease is associated with genetically determined changes in cerebral vessels. Migraine attacks in children, as in adults, provoke physical and mental overload, emotional stress, changes in atmospheric pressure, weather conditions, allergic reactions: for example, the cheese and chocolate loved by a child can cause headaches.
More often, children have a simple form of migraine. The phase preceding the onset of a pain attack includes irritability, malaise, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision or spots in front of the eyes, and a sudden change in mood.
Parents should know: a child suffering from migraines has a particularly sensitive type of nervous system, which reacts to various stimuli with painful sensations along the vessels of the brain and scalp.Therefore, it is very important, with the help of a doctor, to identify as much as possible all the factors provoking seizures, and, if possible, exclude them from the life of children.
Often, children are diagnosed with PSYCHOGENIC HEADACHE. It can be associated with depression, fear of going to school, increased with difficulties in mastering the school curriculum and lack of contact with peers or parents. Such children require the consultation of a neuropsychiatrist and a psychologist.
It happens that parents fear that their child’s headache is caused by BRAIN TUMOR.Although this is the most rare cause, it should be ruled out with careful examination. In children, tumors are localized mainly in the posterior cranial fossa, cause difficulty in the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid, increase its pressure. The pain is felt in the back of the head or neck, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The child often looks lethargic, indifferent. There is unsteadiness in gait. The development of hemiparesis (weakness in the muscles of the left or right extremities) may indicate the development of a tumor in one of the cerebral hemispheres.The most informative diagnostic procedure for confirming or excluding a brain tumor is computed tomography, which is usually referred to the patient.
It is extremely rare in children that there is neuralgic pain that has a paroxysmal nature. These are short, consecutive attacks of piercing, cutting, burning pain localized in the face area (cranial neuralgia or prosopalgia) with the presence of zones, the irritation of which provokes an attack (touching, washing, eating, etc.)in particular, trigeminal neuralgia.
In addition, a medicinal headache caused by taking certain medications, such as antihistamines, antibiotics, etc., is isolated.
Headache associated with the abuse of various analgesics, more often non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as anti-migraine drugs, is called abusal, or ricochet. There is also a known headache of caffeine withdrawal in lovers of strong tea and coffee when it is impossible to drink their favorite drink again and again.
If a child has a headache combined with a high fever and tension in the neck muscles, which makes it difficult to bend the head forward, there is reason to suspect MENINGITIS. In such cases, contact your doctor immediately.
Mixed headache. Headache is only a subjective symptom that accompanies various diseases. To successfully treat a headache, it is necessary, first of all, to find out the mechanism of its occurrence, since different types of headaches require a completely different approach.
The examination of children with headaches begins with a thorough examination of complaints, history of the development of the disease and a careful medical examination. If the examination reveals symptoms of organic damage to the central nervous system, then special instrumental and laboratory studies are carried out to clarify the diagnosis. Neurologists and psychoneurologists provide help for headaches. For correct diagnosis, studies are important – vascular ultrasound (Doppler study), EEG, MRI, CT, examination by an ophthalmologist, etc.specialists according to indications.
You shouldn’t be afraid of them. On the contrary, do everything prescribed by your doctor without delay. Because only then the result of your child’s treatment will be ensured as much as possible
Headache treatment. Our center uses a pathogenetic approach to the treatment of headaches. It includes not only drug therapy, but also non-traditional methods of treatment (acupuncture, manual therapy), psychological correction, rational psychotherapy and recommendations for lifestyle changes (behavioral medicine).
|Ad||Alternaria dauci||Alternaria carrot|
|Ay||Aster yellow||aster yellow|
|Cc||Cercospora carotae||carrot cercosporosis|
|Ps||Pythium sulcatum||Pitous root rot|
|Pv||Pythium Violae||Pitose root rot|
|Eh||Erysiphe heraclei||powdery mildew|
|Xhc||Xanthomonas ortorum pv.Carotae (ex Xanthomonas campestris pv. Carotae)||cercospora|
|Pt||Pyrenochaeta terrestris||root rot pink|
|Co||Colletotrichum orbiculare (ex Colletotrichum lagenarium)||anthracnose, cercospora melon|
|Fom||Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis||Fusarium wilt|
|Fon||Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum||Fusarium wilt snow-white|
|Px||Podosphaera Xanthii (ex Sphaerotheca fuliginea)||powdery mildew|
|CMV||Cucumber Mosaic Virus||Cucumber mosaic virus|
|WMV||Watermelon Mosaic Virus||watermelon mosaic virus|
|ZYMV||Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus||yellow zucchini mosaic virus|
|Bl||Bremia lactucae||lettuce downy mildew|
|Fol||Fusarium oxysporum f.sp lactucae||Fusarium wilt (green aphid)|
|Nr||Fusariosi della lattuga||Fusarium lettuce|
|Fol||Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici||Fusarium wilt (mite)|
|For||Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici||Fusarium wilt (root weevil)|
|M||Meloidogyne arenaria, M.incognita, M. javanica||Sandy phytohelminthiasis (unknown, Javanese)|
|Pc||Phytophtora capsici||late blight pepper|
|Pl||Pyrenochaeta lycopersici||some kind of onion rot mite|
|PMMoV||Pepper mild mottle virus||weak pepper mottling virus|
|Pst||Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato||black burn of tomatoes|
|PVY||Potato Y virus||Potato virus Y|
|S||Stemphylium floridanum, S. solani, S. botryosum f. sp. lycopersici||gray leaf spot|
|Tm (TMV)||Tobacco Mosaic Virus||tobacco mosaic virus|
|ToMV||Tomato Mosaic Virus||tomato mosaic virus|
|TSWV||Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus||Bronze of tomato|
|TYLCV||Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus||tomato leaf yellow curl virus|
|V||Verticillium dahliae, Verticillium albo-atrum||verticillary wilting|
MARS – syndrome.Diagnosis as the name of the planet.
In Belarus, an increase in the number of children with MARS has been observed in recent years. This is primarily due to the widespread introduction of ultrasound examination of the heart into the practice of pediatric cardiologists.
Many parents get worried when they hear that their child has been diagnosed with MARS. In the popular literature, there is practically no information in an accessible form about this syndrome. Now let’s try to understand this syndrome by answering the most common questions that parents ask a cardiologist at an appointment.
What is MARS?
Minor anomalies in the development of the heart (or MARS) is one of the manifestations of not entirely correct development of connective tissue. Connective tissue is found in all organs. It forms the frame of the heart, valves and walls of large vessels. Due to this, the heart tissue is elastic, but rather strong. The presence of anatomical congenital changes in the heart and its large vessels is considered to be minor anomalies in the development of the heart. In this condition, the connective tissue is either too weak, or is formed in excess, not in those places where it is necessary in the norm.MARS is mainly detected in children in the first 2 to 3 years of life and has no tendency to progression. Many MARS disappear as the child grows.
Reasons for the development of MARS?
Multiple factors are believed to be involved in the formation of MARS. There are two large groups – external and internal. External factors include the influence of ecology, nutrition of a pregnant woman, diseases of matter, taking medications during pregnancy, radiation, smoking, alcohol, stress. Internal factors include: heredity, genetic and chromosomal abnormalities.
What heart abnormalities occur in children
The most famous and common MARS is mitral valve prolapse (MVP). MVP is the sagging of the bicuspid valve at the time of contraction of the heart into the cavity of the left ventricle, due to which a slight swirl of blood flow in the heart occurs. Only the first degree of prolapse is referred to MARS. All other degrees are accompanied by severe circulatory disorders and should be considered heart defects.
A fairly common second MARS, these are additional chords in the left ventricular cavity (LVDP) or in another way abnormal chords (LV ARC).This MARS, which manifests itself in the presence of additional cords of connective tissue or muscles inside the cavity of the ventricle, attached to the walls of the ventricle or the interventricular septum. They normally attach to the valve flaps. Most often, false (additional) chords are found in boys. False chords are single, multiple, occur both separately and in combination with other anomalies. The location can be along the blood stream, across it, or diagonally. The severity of the heart murmur will depend on this.Chords can give a rhythm disturbance, therefore patients require special supervision of a cardiologist.
The third common MARS is an open oval window (LLC). A variant of the norm is the presence of a minor defect up to 2 – 3 mm before the age of one year. But if it is present at an older age, in some cases we are talking about a developmental anomaly (with a defect size of up to 5 mm), in others – about heart defects (when the defect is pronounced and there is a violation of blood circulation).
How does MARS manifest itself?
In most cases, MARS does not manifest itself in any way, and children are no different from their peers.Very rarely, but there may be complaints of pain in the region of the heart, a feeling of interruptions in the heart, surges in blood pressure, arrhythmias on the electrocardiogram.
Very often heart anomalies are combined with other connective tissue abnormalities: vision, skeleton, skin, gallbladder, kidneys. Therefore, the manifestations will be systemic, that is, at the level of the whole organism. These changes can be both minimal and quite pronounced.
A close examination of the child can reveal scoliosis (curvature of the spine), various forms of flat feet, hypermobility (excessive joint mobility).The most common combinations of MARS are the gastroesophageal reflex (reverse reflux of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus), kink of the gallbladder, megaureter (expansion of the ureter). In addition, MARS is often accompanied by neurovegetative disorders – the peripheral and central nervous systems work unbalanced. This can be manifested by urinary incontinence, speech impairment, vegetative-vascular dystonia, and behavioral disorders. All these combinations do not lead to severe dysfunctions of organs and systems and do not worsen the child’s life.
What complications can there be?
Not always, but in some cases, there may be cardiac arrhythmias, impulse conduction disturbances through the heart, which are detected on an electrocardiogram and are accompanied by complaints of pain in the heart, palpitations. This requires additional examination by a cardiologist. As a rule, these disorders are characteristic of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and abnormally located chords.
What is the treatment for this syndrome?
The basic principles for the treatment of children with MARS are:
- Compliance with the daily routine.Elimination of psycho-emotional stress, sleep for at least the number of hours prescribed by age.
- Rational and balanced nutrition with the obligatory inclusion of foods rich in magnesium and potassium (legumes, fresh herbs and vegetables, various cereals, dried fruits).
- Water treatments, massage, physiotherapy.
- Physical education.
- Vitamins (group B) and magnesium preparations (magnesium B6, magnerot, magvit)
MARS is a syndrome, this is not a sentence, it is a special condition of a child that requires observation and minor correction.This is not a reason to restrict your child from physical activity. There is no need to treat a child diagnosed with MARS as sick. Most of the MARS proceeds favorably and does not interfere with the child. You only need to change your lifestyle and be regularly monitored by a cardiologist.
Healthcare Institution “11th City Children’s Polyclinic”
Cardiologist, Ph.D. Bandazhevskaya G.S.
90,000 Abbreviation as a variant of a modern advertising name (on the example of MTS and Beeline companies)
Abbreviation as a variant of a modern advertising name (by the example of MTS and Beeline companies)
Pershin V.B.1, Tortunova I. A.2
1 Pershin Vladimir Vladimirovich / Pershin Vladimir Vladimirovich – Master’s student;
2Tortunova Irina Anatolievna – candidate of philological sciences, associate professor, scientific
Department of Russian Language and Literature,
Russian State Social University (RSSU), g.Moscow
Annotation: This article is devoted to abbreviated names. The research focuses on the names of Beeline and MTS. The main objective of the article is to describe the role of names in the consumer’s understanding of the image policy pursued by the company through the combination of an image / symbol with an abbreviation, to describe the functional and pragmatic role of an abbreviation in an advertising message. The authors reveal the main connections between the visual design of logos and their textual component.The strengths and weaknesses of company acronyms were identified, as well as their role in the overall understanding of a company’s brandbooking.
Keywords: advertising name, abbreviation, advertising discourse, language impact, Beeline abbreviation, MTS abbreviation.
We can often find in the advertising text an abbreviation that represents the name of the advertised company: ITAR-TASS, NTV, Moscow State University, Russian State University for the Humanities, etc.The names of communication companies MTS and Beeline have become well-known abbreviations for a long time. Interestingly, the abbreviated names are usually the names of official government agencies, which is due to the tradition of direct nomination.
In the direct nomination of official institutions, abbreviations are actively used, which represent one of the characteristics of the official business functional style. Abbreviations are usually used in a language in order to compress speech, since long words and phrases, especially in names and linguistic formulas, make it difficult to understand the text.In the domestic linguistic tradition, two types of word abbreviations have developed: lexical and graphic abbreviations.
Lexical abbreviations or, as they are often called, abbreviations are independent words and can be organized in several ways, despite the common feature – the removal of part of the letters. Interesting and often found in modern Russian are the initials, which got their name due to the fact that they are formed from the initial letters of their constituent words – MDM (Moscow Palace of Youth), Moscow State University, etc.e. In the composition of initial abbreviations, one can, in turn, distinguish several groups:
– alphabetic (when reading which letters are pronounced) – ZhSK, RAS;
– sound (when reading which sounds are pronounced) – GOST, ROST, REU;
– alphanumeric (mixed type of abbreviations, both letters and sounds are used when pronouncing) –
However, there are other types of abbreviations – syllabic, compound-abbreviated words, which got their name due to the fact that they are formed from the first syllables of the words that make up their composition. For example, Spetsnaz is a special purpose, Lenkom is a Leninist Komsomol, Domzhur is a journalist’s house, etc. Separately, it is worth highlighting partially abbreviated words, which, as a rule, include the full word – Mossovet, Mosvodokanal, Moslesopark, Stroyotryad.There are also mixed abbreviations that combine different options for the above groups: MosAERO, MosgorBTI, VNIITorgmash.
The abbreviation is most often used to increase the information saturation of the text, that is, it is a means of linguistic economy, which allows the reader to provide the reader with the most complete information about the advertised product or service in the most concise form. With all the information richness of this kind, abbreviations do not carry the function of influence (it is for this reason that they are most often used in classified advertising, but at the same time without canceling the creative use of other linguistic units).
At the same time, the abbreviation can carry elements of expression. In this case, the abbreviation acts as an element of expressive word formation, a special type of naming of objects in order to influence the intellectual and emotional sphere of the recipient. The expressiveness of the abbreviation is built from its phonetic and semantic expression [8, p. 70].
From the point of view of completeness of perception, the abbreviation reveals its potential in combination with the image.In the context of talking about advertising, this combination occurs in the company logo.
Image as a sign system “is primary in relation to symbolic signs, including the written word” [6, p. 240]. There is a dependence that does not allow separating the logo from the name (in our case, from the abbreviation), because the semantic dominant of the whole message cannot be expressed through one strictly defined row – visual or sound.The full effect of exposure to advertising can be achieved only with the “indispensable switching of attention from one
components (word) to another (image) ”[7, p. nineteen]. This principle is quite applicable in advertising (and not only in TV advertising), since the effect of combining images and text in a company logo is a complete informational message and does not require a sound component. But, on the other hand, the impact on the recipient through one channel (for example, visual) allows him to focus on the main / selected part of the message.
Based on a similar principle, most logos are a combination of a certain symbol with an abbreviation. Consider the name of the communication company – the cellular operator Beeline, which is an abbreviation. This abbreviation (namely, Beelinev8M) very vividly played up the image of the company logo, which was a bee (here we can also pay attention to the brandbooking of the company, namely, the color combination of the logo depicting the color of the bee).That is, Bee (bee) and Line (network, path or line) create a strange but creative combination that reflects the main principle of the company. Beeline at the associative level can be interpreted in a variety of ways, and one of these associations leads us to the expression Beonline or Tobeonline (to be online), which very accurately reflects the modern capabilities of operators to maintain the constant involvement of their customers in the global Internet. However, this value is not direct, although it reflects the main principle of the company, which meets all modern trends.
The original meaning of the abbreviation is “overhead line”. This is due to the existing belief that a bee with nectar always returns in a straight line, the shortest (NB!) Path. Thus, Beeline or Be-line is a straight line [5, p. 216], the shortest distance between two points. Here another principle of the company is revealed, namely, the fastest mobile operator, which connects one person to another in the shortest way.
Also, analyzing the semantics of the advertising name, we can say that for the residents of the megalopolis (here we mean the Moscow cellular market, which, first of all, is targeted by the bulk of advertising to this day) [10, p. 1] the symbol of the bee reminds of the high pace of city life, of a person as a hardworking worker of one large hive.
You can also recall the existence of such a Canadian company as BCET1 (the name of the company is already of interest, since it is written according to the rules of strict transliteration, but with a clear violation of the separate spelling of the preposition “in”), which in 1993 took part in a competition for a license for the provision of cellular services in the GSM-900 range, being a member of the Mobile Moscow consortium.At the moment, of course, there is a more accurate version of this abbreviation in the Russian market, namely the Onlime company.
The abbreviation Beeline perfectly plays on the above-described meanings and in the finished version represents their collective image. Thus, we can conclude that the abbreviation Beeline best reflects the entirety of the company’s image policy. It is difficult to argue with the fact that this abbreviation has radically influenced the course of many PR campaigns, from 1993 to the present day.For example, in 1999 VimpelCom (the parent company in relation to Beeline) became the leader in cellular communications in Moscow, capturing 47% of the market [9, p. 2].
In the case of the advertising name of the MTS company, also expressed in an abbreviation, the situation is a little different. To evaluate all the possible associations that this abbreviation can cause, you need to work hard: we can meet such a combination of letters (or their full and direct use as part of another abbreviation) even in more than one era.
Initially, there was a consortium “Mobile Moscow”, which took part in the competition with other GSM operators to enter the communications market in the Moscow region with a range of 900 MHz, which took place in 1993. As a result of the competition, the Mobile Moscow consortium became the winner of the competition and was renamed into Mobile Telecommunication Systems. MobileTeleSystems chose an abbreviation with a rich associative range, which allowed it to enter the market with a well-known name.So, the MGTS company (Moscow City Telephone Network), which originally participated in the creation of the brand, was already known at that time (this abbreviation in the version that we know now appeared in 1917 on the company’s logo), is currently a partner of MTS in the area of providing Internet services. Most importantly, they appear under a common logo with slight color differences.
For consumers of the post-Soviet period, the abbreviation MTS reminded of a machine-tractor station, an intercity telephone exchange, the Moscow transport union, in fact, MGTS and many others.For the consumer, the similarity or even identity of abbreviations means continuity between the compared companies. Of course, these are only emotions that accompany the associative array caused by reading a familiar combination of letters.
The effect is entirely achieved by a full-fledged brand presentation, which has become “MTSGSM”. Actually, the logo itself, depicted on SIM cards, consisted of this abbreviation and background colors (red, white, yellow and blue).
In the case of MTS, the peculiarity of the abbreviation (a large number of interpretation options) can play a negative role. Over the entire period of the company’s development, several original decryptions have appeared in folklore: “I hear you in places”, “my yours hears”, “my melting means”, captured in
anecdotal form. Of course, this is primarily due to the ability to additionally play with the abbreviation in an ironic sense.
As in the case of the Beeline logo, we can draw a certain parallel between the symbol (white egg) and the abbreviation of the name. The company itself interprets the egg as a symbol of “simplicity and clarity”, which allows us to see the connection between it and the ease of emotional inclusion at the first glance at the acronym. In addition, the simplicity of the symbol, its intelligibility for recognition, the geometric correctness of the logo, as well as the general brand bookings of the company, allow drawing parallels with the clarity and comprehensibility of the abbreviation as a conductor of this idea.
In conclusion, it should be said that both companies have undergone more than one rebranding change over their long history. Their image policies, in an effort to keep up with current trends, are focusing on the mobile and broadband Internet provided to consumers by these companies, which is in stark contrast to their original image preferences. For the most part, these changes affected symbols: Beeline approved a black and yellow striped “ball” as a new symbol.However, we can expect changes in abbreviations, which, due to subsequent rebranding, will no longer fit in the same laconic way in the company’s overall brand bookkeeping.
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