Chess Corner – Chess Tutorial
The King is the most important piece on the chessboard. It can never be captured and if it is in danger then it must be made safe immediately. If it is not possible to make the King safe then the game is lost. The King may move one square in any direction. In the diagram the King is able to move to one of the highlighted squares.
However, the King must never move on to a square that is being attacked by her opponents pieces. In the diagram the King cannot move onto the squares marked with a cross because the Black Bishop is attacking those squares.
If a piece is on a square that the King can move to then the King may capture that piece. In the diagram the King may capture the Rook
This position below is almost the same as in the diagram above. However, there is one very important difference.
Consequently, because the King must never move on to a square that is being attacked by enemy pieces, two Kings can never stand next to each other on the chessboard. The position in this diagram is illegal.
Now you know how all of the chessmen move you can play chess with all of the pieces. Remember that the player with the White pieces always goes first. To decide who should play with the White pieces, one of the players hides a Black pawn in one hand and a white pawn in the other and holds out her fists in front of her. Her opponent chooses a hand and if the white pawn is in that hand then the opponent plays White. If it is a black pawn the opponent plays with the Black pieces. After the first game the players switch colours.
A Crusader Kings 3 beginner’s guide for the totally confused
There is a lot to do in Crusader Kings 3, and its open-ended design felt overwhelming to this genre newcomer.
The sheer amount of freedom in the game is a welcome aspect for veterans, but that’s not me. I came to Crusader Kings 3 because of the interesting stories I read about it — and also it’s free with Xbox Game Pass.
I spent my first few minutes of the game absolutely confused. The game’s fun came into full focus only when I learned that the player’s job is to direct the story.
In this Crusader Kings 3 beginner’s guide, we’ll introduce you to the series — and genre — from the perspective of a complete beginner. We’ll explain the fluid nature of the game’s storytelling system and help you make decisions that steer the narrative in a concrete direction of your choosing.
Crusader Kings 3 is a series of systems colliding with each other. As you make decisions, the game churns out outcomes based on your actions while heaping on dozens of others scenarios that require your reaction. Think of it like playing The Sims.
Without a smartly designed tutorial to explain all the mechanics behind the scenes, trying to understand what’s going on can be a challenge. Right when you load up
Until then, grab a drink and a snack and play through the tutorial. This opening session mimics the gameplay you’ll experience, but at a snail’s pace. The tutorial slowly introduces several systems and explains their functions. Don’t worry about internalizing everything. Just work your way through. Once you’re done, you can continue playing as the tutorial character or quit and start a fresh game.
There are dozens of systems to be aware of at any given time, and it’s helpful to at least be made aware of them. Thankfully, to enjoy the game as a beginner, you don’t need to take part in all of them all the time. Once you start forming an idea of how you want to play the game, then you’ll naturally begin gravitating toward which systems are worth your attention.Read blue text
When you hover over blue text, it displays important definitions and explanations about game systems. Read these if you get lost, and use the blue text definitions to remind you what certain keywords and ideas are. As you continue encountering concepts, you’ll understand more of the game.
Don’t expect everything to make sense within your first few hours. Focus on the game systems that seem interesting to you and explore whatever you want to learn more about. You can expand definitions within definitions until you nearly fill up your screen, which shows just how complex Crusader Kings 3
As you play Crusader Kings 3, several pieces of advice, issues, and decisions that you need to make appear at the top of your screen. They represent the most pressing concerns in your kingdom. If you’re ever in doubt about what to do at any given moment, just pay attention to the icons in this area.I didn’t realize my heir was unmarried until the game showed meImage: Paradox Interactive via Polygon
Advice is about important decisions, and it appears as diamond-shaped icons. These won’t always show up, but when they do, you should prioritize these immediately.
The issues list appears in a rounded cross icon with a number on it. It’ll display a list of suggestions and situations that could use your attention, though they aren’t always pressing.The game offers suggestions and situations worth taking care ofImage: Paradox Interactive via Polygon
If the issues list is empty, click on the reload icon next to the Current Situations text, and the game will generate new issues for you. If you’re ever unsure about what to do next, reload your situations and follow the suggestions.
Other major decisions and reminders will appear in this section, so make sure to clear out whatever appears there. Important tasks that you may overlook, like remembering to pick new skills and perks, will also show up in this section.Your lifestyle is your character’s class
In Crusader Kings 3, you can play out your legacy as a diplomatic, violent, or passive ruler. You have to choose a lifestyle option when you start a new game or when your current character dies and you take control of their successor. Your choice determines how well your character performs certain key decisions within that style of gameplay.
Think of your lifestyle as choosing a class in a role-playing game.
There are several lifestyles to choose from — Diplomacy, Martial, Stewardship, Intrigue, and Learning. Each has its own focus, which determines the stats that get buffed. In each lifestyle, you also have three skill trees that support a specific play style.Think of your lifestyle as your character buildImage: Paradox Interactive via Polygon
- Pick Diplomacy as your focus if you want to be a leader who cares more about the relationships between other realms and your own people.
- Martial is a good lifestyle if you want to build a successful empire as a strong military tactician.
- Stewardship-focused players are concerned with an empire that builds wealth for personal gain and the betterment of their people.
- Pick Intrigue as your lifestyle if you want to root out secrets and manipulate others to grow your realm.
- Learning is a great choice if you want to build a dynasty based on knowledge and studying religious texts.
Each character you play as will have an innate disposition to one of these lifestyles. However, you aren’t locked into one course of action based on your lifestyle. In fact, no matter which style of play you choose, you’ll still need to use other skills to progress in your game. For instance, if you choose to excel in Intrigue, you’ll still need to flex your Martial muscles when fighting wars.
No matter what lifestyle you pick, the ruler you control will be deficient in some areas. To make up for your shortcomings, you can rely on your council to pick up the slack.Pay attention to your council
Even though you make most of the key decisions in your kingdom, you won’t rule it alone. To assist you in several aspects of running your domain, you’ll have six council members focused on different areas of your realm.
At the start of your game, you’ll have each seat filled with a member of your kingdom best suited for the job. Your council plays an essential role in your rule, providing you with passive support and management in areas like religious development, diplomacy, schemes, and more. Each member’s efficiency in their role is dictated by the associated level of the skill required for their function.
Excluding your spouse, each member of your council has three options to choose from. These tasks will increase in effectiveness based on certain factors like the level of skills or even their opinion of you.
As these characters die or simply leave your domain, you’ll have to replace them. When choosing replacements, make sure that you inspect the skill level of each potential replacement. Choose new council members based on the the associated skill level that’s relevant to the seat you’re filling.Your council supports you passivelyImage: Paradox Interactive via Polygon Spouse
You spouse can assist you in a range of different affairs. Your spouse is the only council member with the flexibility to assist in any role. When you first assign them to a role by clicking on the Assist Ruler icon, you’ll choose between involving them in court politics, military chivalry, managing the domain’s finances, courting intrigue, or supporting patronage. To make the most of your spouse’s support, choose the task that gains the most support based on the level of their skills.Bishop
The bishop helps you develop piety based on the level of their learning trait. Piety can be used to gain loans from the church and must be used as a spendable resource in several actions that the church must approve of. Bishops can also help you fabricate claims on counties if you’re looking to grow your kingdom. Plus, the higher opinion your bishop has of you, the more money they will passively earn you.Chancellor
Your chancellor manages diplomatic efforts in and outside of your kingdom based on the level of their diplomacy. They are mostly a passive member of your council, automatically increasing the opinion others have of you which will make your life easier.Steward
The steward manages your domain, helping collect taxes, speeding up development, and promoting culture. The higher their stewardship level, the better they perform.Marshal
Your marshal is in control of all your military affairs. Based on the level of their martial skill, they can increase the effectiveness of your armies, lower military maintenance costs, and even help you grow your army’s size.Spymaster
Your spymaster can either passively or actively support you. Based on their intrigue level, they can disrupt schemes against you, boost the effectiveness of any active schemes you’re engaged in, or even find secrets on other domains. Any secrets on someone can be used as leverage against them in the future.Embrace bad moments
No matter how well you play, your children will die before you, your spouse will divorce you, you’ll lose a few wars, and you may even get unceremoniously murdered. Many bad things will happen to you in Crusader Kings 3, and it’s all a part of the design.
History is messy. The story that you create while playing will be messy, too. Every setback — even your own death — is not the end of the game. The point is not to see a single character succeed, but to build a legacy.
Crusader Kings 3 is meant to be played through several in-game generations. The decisions you make as your current character will affect the life of their successor and the many successors after them. It’s worth keeping in mind which choices help your current character in the short term and which decisions will affect your lineage in the years to come.Death isn’t a game over. It’s just the next level.Image: Paradox Interactive via Polygon
The inner workings of Crusader Kings 3 allow for grand, absurd, and lengthy stories to be told. There are so many systems at play that it can be overwhelming to keep track of them all. Thankfully, the game’s design will always present you the most pressings situations to focus on.
Once you determine the play style you want to attempt, you’ll have a better sense of what to pay attention to. In time, Crusader Kings 3 becomes the game you want to play, whether that means being great military leader, a master manipulator, or a champion of the people. There’s so much history to make in each playthrough of the game that each session can be a memorable occasion, so long as you know what to focus on.
For a more advanced players, check our Crusader Kings 3 beginner tips guide.
Amsterdam & Decorative Trim Straps – Little Lizard King
Amsterdam has quickly become a staple, summer pattern for many reasons. The design is perfect for those hot summer days, the back is delicate and unique and it is a simple sew with stunning results!!! As I began planning out numerous Amsterdam dresses and tops for my daughter’s closet, I began to think about ways to change the look. Surprisingly, I found a hack that made the Amsterdam even a little quicker and provides so many more design options.
In lieu of making your own trim, it states in the original pattern that premade trims can be used. For this Amsterdam, I did just that!! However, instead of attaching it as straps, I attached it to the exterior of the bodice neckline as one long piece once the dress was completed. I am in love with the final result and it’s such a simple hack.
To determine how much trim you’ll need, use the following formula:
(Strap length from pattern x 2) + neck curve measurement – 3” = strap length
You will also need to cut a piece of trim 1.75” long for the back bodice loop.
The only modification you need to make is to omit the strap construction and placement. When sewing the front bodice main and lining pieces together, sew along the arm curve and neckline as indicated in the instructions. However, the straps will not be basted in between.
When your bodice steps are completed it will look identical to the original except there will be no straps. Construct the back bodice as usual and sew the front and back bodice together at the side seam.
Adding the Trim
Find the center of your trim and pin it to the center of the bodice neck curve. Work your way out each direction pinning the trim to the bodice neck curve. Sew directly over the top of the trim from one end of the neck curve to the other in a coordinating thread color. Make sure to backstitch at both ends to reinforce it.
Make It Your Own
The trim option greatly expands the design options of the Amsterdam. Get creative. Add something dainty and sweet for a soft or vintage looks. Maybe add something larger for a unique look. Don’t be afraid to add suede, leather, or something more edgy. You could even add a few beads to the trim and hand sew it in places on the neckline. Just make sure to make it strong enough. Braid coordinating fabrics or add a crocheted bib with crocheted lave straps. Whatever you decide to add…..we can’t wait to see it!
Tutorial question 🙂 :: King’s Bounty: The Legend General DiscussionsYeah well, the tutorial doesn’t seem to tutor anything at all, and I thought I might get past the questions early on.
Anyway, I’ve already done the dragon fight twice (and not saved), with similar outcomes — loosing the peasants, priest and archer completely, and decimating the knight and horseman. And I didn’t even get the princess, just some doll. Well, I wouldn’t mind a doll, but not THAT kind.
Apparently, on the next fight, I start with whatever troops survived the previous one. And according to the NPC, that fight is harder. I’m guessing the fight following that isn’t going to be any easier, if I actually manage to survive the 2nd one. And to top it off, the scrolls are one time use…
I’m still not quite sure how the movement/combat works, though. On the second fight, I thought that the dragon would have to move 6 fields to reach my troops, so he couldn’t fight anymore since he has a speed of 6. However, the dragon moved those 6 fields as expected, and then killed the peasants as well which came as a surprise.
Of course, my main question is: can this fight even be done without massive losses?
I will try some more options, like checking whether I can shoot an ice arrow across the entire map — not sure what that does, but maybe it will slow down the dragon. I’ll also try to move the peasants away from their location, and maybe the other two on the adjacent fields as well, but even if that works it will only give me 1 turn as the dragon can pretty much cover any distance.
I guess there’s nothing that can be done to prevent a counterattack? I tried attacking from different directions based on the movement line that was shown and the direction of the attack-icon, but attacking from behind doesn’t seem to improve anything since the dragon just turns around before I can stab him in the back.
Also, sometimes the horseman would actually ride away from the dragon, turn around, and then charge back forward. I didn’t see any indication that this would happen, or a way to control it — does it actually DO something, or is it just for visuals?
Oh… and then there’s the chest. On the first try, the first thing I did was opening that. On the second try I ignored it, but it seems it only exists on the combat map (even though, presumably, the combat map should just be a close-up view of the area, not an alternate reality. ..). So I guess I’ll open it on the next try again — shouldn’t be too much of a problem, as on the first fight, IIRC, the dragon pretty much ignored the horseman that moved to the chest and went straight for the weak troops as well. So I’m not expecting any negative outcome from opening the chest while the dragon is too far away to hit it anyway.
Two-Color King Cobra Paracord Bracelet
Two-Color King Cobra Bracelet PDF
The King Cobra Bracelet is the larger version of the Cobra Bracelet. The basic idea of the bracelet is to make a cobra bracelet and then create the same weave over it. In this tutorial, we used Neon Orange for the base color and Disco Night as the top layer. We also used a 1/2” Gray Buckle.
- 16-20 ft of nylon, 550 paracord (If you want to do two different colors, you will want to have 8-10 ft of each)
- 1/2″ buckle
- Tape Measure or Ruler
PART I: Making the Cobra Bracelet
Measure your wrist to determine how much paracord you will need. In general, adult wrist sizes are between 7 and 8 inches. Cut a piece of paracord according to your wrist size. You will need 1 ft of paracord for every inch of your wrist. The color of paracord you choose for this step will be the underneath color.
Fold the paracord in half and put the folded end through the top on one side of the 1/2” buckle and then over the entire buckle and pull through to create a cow hitch knot.
Take the two ends of the paracord and put them through the top of the other side of the buckle. Do not twist them. Put your wrist in the loop and pull the cords through. Pinch at the point where the loop measures your wrist size.
Release the buckle and lay the bracelet out with one cord to each side and the middle two cords parallel down the middle.
Cross the left cord over the middle two cords and place the right cord over it.
Then, bring the right cord underneath the middle two cords and put it through the loop on the left side. Pinch where the paracord goes through the buckle and carefully pull the knot tight.
Repeat steps 5-6, but opposite. Lay the right cord over the middle two cords, place the left cord over the crossed right cord, and bring it under the middle two cords. Then, push it through the right-side loop and pull tight. This knot should mirror the first one.
Continue to alternate left and right as you make the knots and push the knots upward every few to make sure they are tight. Keep making this weave until you reach the end.
Once you’ve reached the buckle, cut each end of the paracord about 1/4” from the bracelet.
PART II: Creating the Outer King Cobra Weave
Now that you have created your basic Cobra Bracelet, make it a King Cobra by taking your second color of paracord and cutting the same amount as in Part I (8-10 ft). Take both ends of this cord and melt them into the ends of the bracelet that was created. Make sure that this new cord isn’t twisted.
Find the middle of this cord and cut it in half. Melt the ends to keep them from fraying.
Begin doing the same pattern as before. Take the cord on the right side and place it over the bracelet. Take the left side cord and put it over the right cord, under the bracelet, and then through the loop on the right side. Pull this knot tight so that it lays in between the first set of bumps on the bracelet.
Repeat step 3 but opposite. Lay the left cord over the bracelet, place the right cord over the crossed left cord, and bring it under the middle two cords. Then, push it through the left-side loop and pull tight. This knot should mirror the first one and lay between the second bumps.
Continue this alternating pattern until you reach the end of the bracelet. Cut the ends of the cord 1/4” from the bracelet.
Melt the ends and flatten with a lighter.
Your two-color King Cobra Paracord Bracelet should look like this:
Any two colors of 550 paracord as well as any color 1/2” buckle can be used for this bracelet. To check out other tutorials for more step-by-step guidance, click here.
King of Dragon Pass Tutorial
Submitted by anouk85 on Wednesday, February 1, 2012.
I would like to credit Zack Kline for all the help he gave me in learning the game and the games author David Dunham of a-sharp for making the game in the first place and taking the time to make it as accessible as is.
Exploring is a vital, if dangerous, part of the game. You will unlock events, find treasures and even clans or other people. You can explore the land around your own clan as well as your own land (tula in game terms). Note that, even though you might think so, exploring does not give your clan more land. You have to select how much land your clan has at the start of the game and then manage how it is used on the farming screen. The only other way to get more land is by raiding neighboring clans. This is very difficult though, so it’s better if you select a bit more land when you start the game.
It is important to do both every few years and to repeat exploring locations on occasion because new stuff might still be there. The manual also stresses that it is important to explore your own land to keep bandits and chaos in check.
How to go about it?
The map can be a bit tricky and confusing at first, but in actuality, it isn’t really possible to make it any more accessible and it is certainly doable to use it.
First, hit menu and then map. This will bring you to the map screen. To start the exploration process, hit the explore button. Don’t try to flick over the screen to reach it, but, instead, try touching the bottom right of the screen. It should be to the left of the menu button.
Now you can actually start positioning the exploration cross, as the game calls it. To explore your own land, hit explore again without double-tapping the map icons. This is one instance where two dialogs are positioned on top of each other. This means that there are two explore buttons and only one will do the trick ,namely the one to the RIGHT of the menu button. BEFORE you hit that button you can select who goes exploring and how many weaponthanes and footmen go along. If you explore your own land, to my experience, it’s fine to leave the standard value, but exploring other lands is often pretty dangerous and it might be wise to assign a few more if you can spare them.
Exploring Other Lands
tip: It might be worth sacrificing to Vinga (god) first for mysteries so that you learn her blessings. Once you know the pathfinder blessing. Either sacrifice for that to have it active for a year, but better yet build a shrine to her so that you can have it permanently.
To explore other lands, go to menu/map and hit explore. Now you have to select a location on the map. Keep in mind that the map scrolls up and down, but also left and right so it is pretty big. To scroll the map, you use three finger flicks, up, down and left and right. Once you have found an unknown hex that you like, double tap it and select who goes exploring and how many people to send along. Then again hit the explore button to the RIGHT of the menu button.
After you have played for a while, you will notice that there are more labelled locations on the map screen. I think your clan is often located at the south, but this might be random. It is worthwhile to revisit already explored locations because new stuff can happen. Be warned though that exploring distant lands takes more then one season and can be a dangerous business; people might die on the way or just get lost in the wilderness and never return. The pathfinder blessing or shrine will help though, at least where the danger is concerned. Well that is it as far as exploring is concerned.
Hero quests are a pretty important part of the game. You need to complete an x amount to win either the short or the long game. Take note that only different hero quests count towards this amount so doing one over and over again won’t do the trick.
Besides needing a certain amount of quests to win the game, they also give in game benefits. Beware though these quests are very difficult and can also result in great harm. Don’t do hero quests too often because they are a big happening for your clan with grave consequences.
Before forming a tribe (a requirement to win either the short or the long game), it is important to first do the making of the storm tribe hero quest given by orlanth.
how to prepare for hero quests?
In a hero quest, your chosen champion travels to the realm of the gods and reenacts one of their heroic deeds. To be able to do this, your clan must know what this deed entails. You must sacrifice to the god in question for mysteries once you have learned all their blessings, or you might learn them earlier (I am not sure–it might be random in either you learn a blessing or information about their myths–which you need to hero quest). Once it says you know everything there is to know about that myth, go to the menu/lore section and carefully read the myth of the quest you want to do (start with making of the storm tribe). You have to know what happens and if you haven’t learned all you need to know about the quest, details will be left out. First there is a summary. Hit the details button to get all the details.
Once you know what your hero has to do, make sure that you allocate all the points possible to quests during sacred time (having someone who worships eurmal the trickster god on the ring will give you an extra point to allocate).
There are certain years when the omens for hero questing are positive. Doing a hero quest in such a year will be more successful.
If you have allied clans, you can ask one of them to help with the hero quest. Now, once you are prepared, hit menu/magic/select the god you want and hit quest. Then select the quest you want to do, the hero you want to send and the clan you want to invite. Then, in some cases, you can select what you want to gain from a quest. This is your own choice. After that, your hero has to reenact the story and you will either fail or succeed. Other factors might also help while doing hero quest. For Example, if you have the members with the best skills on the ring. To check this, go to the clan menu item, hit reorganize and check the filter combo box. To the left of that, you will see who is in the ring now). Especially strong magic and strong custom might help.
Magic and Sacrificing
The gods and your ancestors are an extremely important part of the game. Magic and blessings from the god are very real and you have your own godtalkers. It is important to keep the gods and your ancestors happy. This, in turn, will guarantee that your magic is strong and that your clan is happy with you.
Sacred time is a pretty important time of the year because here you allocate how you want to spend your magic the next year. How much magic you have is determined by what godworshippers you have on the ring, what is left over or is not left over from last year and your relationship with the gods. So, if possible, it is important to have ring members that worship a different deity on the ring, e.g. someone who worships humakth will grant you an extra point allocatable to war and someone who worships eurmal the trickster god will grant you an extra allocatable quest point. Note that these are only possible allocations and that you don’t have enough magic to spend them
Also, pick and choose wisely. It is important to leave some magic in case you get raided or other stuff happens, when you raid someone or you get raided, you can sacrifice to orlanth or huakth and this will cost a magic point. (note that this is something different from the points you allocate to war in the sacred times).
Sometimes you sacrifice in events that occur or you can sacrifice when raiding, as said above. It is best to sacrifice goods and not cows because cows determine the wealth of your clan and also in the eyes of other clans. Make sure that you allocate as many points as possible to mysteries at sacred times. This will help immensely while sacrificing.
You sacrifice to the gods in order to learn new blessings (you don’t know many by default) or in some cases to perform a one time service e.g. by sacrificing to your ancestors. You do this by hitting menu and then magic and then selecting the god in the list that you want to sacrifice to. In the next screen, select how many goods or cows you want to sacrifice. Mysteries (new blessings or information) is checked by default. Hit the sacrifice button again. Now the next screen can be a bit tricky because, for some reason, voiceOver can’t read it by itself. try touching the middle of the screen, which should give you the result of your sacrifice, or the bottom rightish side of the screen, which should give you the proceed button, if you have that, you can flick left, but just flicking on the screen won’t work if you have neither of those in focus.
You can’t predict beforehand which of the blessings of a certain god you will learn. Once you know their blessings, it might be worth sacrificing again to learn their mysteries (this is vital for hero questing.
Shrines, Temples and Great Temples
You can build shrines temples and great temples to the gods, but not all of them have all these three and ancestors have neither as do some gods. You can find this out yourself by highlighting the gods name (you can also find a description of the god in question once you do that) and hitting the build button.
You can sacrifice to gain a certain blessing, but this will use up one of your allocated mystery points which you might rather use to learn other blessings or prepare for hero questing. If you build a shrine, you can have one of that gods blessings active permanently. It will cost you a certain amount of goods up front and an x amount of goods and cows each year. If you build a temple to a certain god, you can have 2 blessings active. It might be a good idea to build a great temple to the god that your clan worships first because they might frown upon you if you have a bigger worship house to some other god. Now, once you have built the worship house (this is immediate), you must of course know a blessing before doing so, one of that gods blessings that you know is selected by default. BEFORE selecting another one, if you wish to do that, make sure that the original one the game selected is deselected. Otherwise, you will get an error message that has the seem problem as the sacrificing screen.
Other Clans and Rating
Other clans are a vital part of the game. After all, you want to form a tribe with some of them and, if you play the long game, become king of entire dragon pass. To accomplish this, you will have to focus on your relationships with other clans. To get a feeling of what other clans think about you, you can give them gifts. They might not always tell you the truth though, or if your emissary does not interpret it right, you can cast the divination blessing of your ancestors to see how people think about you.
Clans can owe you favors which you can either claim or leave be. You also owe clans favors which they will come to reclaim eventually. Clans can be your allies or you can have a bloody feud with them.
Besides getting your favors paid back, you can also trade with other clans and even set up a trade route with them (this will earn you an x amount of goods each year and your amount of crafters will increase).
Now, how to do all this
To see your relationships with other clans, go to menu and relations. There you can select from a filter to see e.g. clans that owe you a favor, that you are allied with or that you have a feud with. Clans that are neighboring your land will have this after their name. There is no filter for neighboring clans. If you hit advise, in this screen, probably one of your advisors will tell you which clan likes you the most and which hates you the most. You can send an emissary from this screen. If you hit that button, you will have to select what goal your emissary has. He can call upon a favor by asking for cattle etc. or he can give gifts of his own to improve relations or see what they are like in the first place. After you have given gifts, he can return and propose an alliance. It is a good idea to have an alliance with some of your neighbors because they can warn you about invading enemies. When you form alliances, your popularity with other clans will also go up pretty fast.
I personally try to first set up a trade route with someone and then form an alliance, although I am not sure if these two cumulatively strengthen each other. To trade with other clans, go to menu/trade. In this screen, you first see your trading partners (the ones that you already have a trading route with). Then there is the caravan button so you can start a new trading mission.
You can highlight a clan name to see what relationship you have with them. Select the clan you want to trade with and then either sell/buy or establish route. You then can select if you want to have a small, medium or trade caravan. This applies for both options above. Beware because trade caravans are big targets for bandits.
Instead of calling in favors to get stuff, you can also trade one thing for another e.g. goods for cows. It can take a while for your trading mission to arrive, depending on how far away the target clan is.
Raiding is an important part of the game because the game world is a violent and barbaric one. Cattle raids are just for sport and don’t influence your relationship with other clans. Real raids do though of course.
Be sure to look at the raid screen carefully because there you can build defensive fortifications to protect your land, especially the watchtower, which is particularly important. Sometimes allies will help you in a raid. It is important to allocate magic at sacred time towards war and to sacrifice to the gods during a fight, so keep some magic for that if possible. Also, some of humakths blessings are really useful when raiding.
The raid consists of two parts, the initial clash and the extended battle. Before you fight, you and your foe will do magic. Magic also plays a big role in a raid and can mean the difference between defeat and victory.
You can choose a tactic for the initial clash and often also an end goal of the battle. Sometimes your war leader can do heroic deeds during the battle that might improve his or her skills. Some of challana arroys blessings also really help during a fight as do treasures you might come across.
For any questions, please feel free to contact me at [email protected]
Who Wants To Be King VulnHub – Walk-through – Tutorial – Research Blog
Name: Who Wants To Be King
URL: https://www. vulnhub.com/entry/who-wants-to-be-king-1,610/
Release Date: 01 Dec 2020
Author: Bjorn / Twitter: @ArmBjorn
Difficulty Stated: Beginner
Difficulty I found: Easy (Nice to have some knowledge of HBO’s GOT season)
Learning out of box : OK [CTF type]
OS used: KaliLinux 2020.4
Things you can learn from this VM: Enumeration, Binary analysis, Strings command, Base64 decoding, Guessing. Find command, Linux Mint
NMAP is my first step.
Next ran gobuster but didn’t find anything useful. So, went to the webserver’s default webpage.
Downloaded the “skeylogger” file and analyzed it. It was an executable file.
Ran strings command and found an interesting string.
Used base64 to decode this.
Tried diff username/password combos but failed, so went to google for finding the possible username.
Logged in as daenerys with password = dracarys
Ran find command and found an interesting ZIP file.
Unzipped it and looked at its content.
Again went to google and found a potential word to be khaldrogo.
Switched to root with password khaldrogo.
This is the simple key logger(skeylogger) binary’s source code.
Related 90,000 King and pawn against king difficulty: ★★
This, at first glance, the simplest endgame has its own laws, on which the fate of the game may depend. The struggle, of course, is about whether the strongest side will be able to queen the pawn. Let’s take a look at a few key positions.
Kings are opposite each other. This situation is called opposition in chess . This situation is not beneficial to those who are forced to walk first. Let’s say it’s Black’s turn.Then they lose: 1. … Kpe8 2.e7 Kpf7 3. Kpd7 And the pawn goes to the queen. If White’s move, then the game ends in a draw: 1.e7 + Kpe8 2.Kpe6 Pat. An attempt to “dance” the king around a pawn gives nothing. For example:
1. Kpd5 Kpe7 2. Kpe5 Kpe8! But not 2. … Kd8 3. Kd6! And opposition arose with Black’s move. 3. Kpf6 Kpf8 4. Kpe5 Kpe7 5. Kpd5 Kpe8! 6. Kpd6 Kpd8 Taking the opposition again.
It is useful to know that if the pawn has not yet reached the sixth rank (the third for black), and the king of the strongest side is already on the sixth line, then the pawn goes to the queen regardless of the move.With White’s move:
1.e6 Kpe8 2.e7 Kpf7 3.Kpd7
1. … Kpe8 2. Kpe6 in opposition! Kpf8 3. Kpd7 And the carpet for the pawn is open.
If the pawn is rook, and the king of the defending side is already in the corner, then the win is impossible:
White cannot smoke the black king out of the corner, and if he moves his pawn to the seventh rank, there will be a stalemate.
Here is another draw situation with a rook pawn:
The white king is pinned to the left side of the board.
1. a6 Kpc8 2. Kpa8 Or 2. Kpb6 Kpb8 and the black king sneaks into the corner. Kpc7 3.a7 Kpc8 Stalemate to the white king.If a pawn (not a rook’s) is far from the square of promotion, then it should be promoted carefully, first paving the way with the king’s maneuvers. Otherwise, things can lead to a draw position described in the first diagram. See how the win is achieved.
1. Kre4 Kre6 2.e3 Kpd6 3. Kpf5 Kre7 4. Kre5 Kpf7 5. Kpd6 Kpf6 6.e4 Kpf7 7.e5 Kre8 8. Kre6 Kpd8 9. Kpf7 Kpd7 10.e6 + Kpd8 11.e7 + Kpd7 12.e8 = Q + And then it comes down to mating with the king and queen of the lonely king .
Try to lead a pawn to a queen in a similar position against a computer program:
Chess king – a chess piece, its fairy tale – Chess portal Chessknigi.ru
Chess King – Meet
Acquaintance with the chess pieces that walk on the black-and-white chessboard should, of course, start with the chess king.So, Their Majesty the Chess King. The most important, the thickest and the tallest on the chessboard. The most cowardly and the bravest. But it is also interesting that he is the laziest. The truth about laziness is worth talking about separately.
Image of the chess king on diagrams, in books, on a chessboard
It should be immediately agreed that the king on the chessboard is not very similar to the figure that can be seen in chess books and on chess diagrams. The figure that chess players move on the chessboard during the game looks like a man with a beautiful sharp crown, but without arms and legs.Probably, due to the fact that people have been playing chess for a long time, the arms and legs have broken off, and for speed they simply did not begin to be attached to the new chess kings. The same fate befell other chess pieces, but you will learn about this in other articles on our chess site ChessKnigi.Ru.
In chess books, the king is depicted as a crown, which the king puts on his head. At the top of the crown is a small cross. True, one boy once said that the figure on the chess diagram looks more like an uncle with large shoulders.
History of the chess king in different countries
What are the rulers in Russia and other countries called?
Who were Alexander Nevsky, Peter I, Ivan the Terrible, Catherine II the Great?
Remember? Alexander Nevsky was the Grand Duke, Peter and Ivan the Terrible were Tsars, and Catherine was the Empress.
There are a lot of titles: sultans, counts, princes, barons, lords, and marquises, and in the Vatican state – even the Pope. Are you a historian?
Well, now remember Ali Baba, Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor.Often they were invited to visit by shahi-padishahs. This is the name of the rulers in the countries of the East. And now there are a lot of Shakhovs, or Sheikhs – this is in English. In honor of the Eastern King – Shah, the game was named Chess!
You have already understood that the word SHAH-MATI consists of two parts. What does the second word mean? Mat – translated from Arabic, means the End, Death. So what is the end result? The King is Died! Now the goal of the game is also clear – to get to the enemy chess king. Whoever can destroy the opponent’s king first will win.What if your chess king dies? Remember Mark Twain’s fairy tale “The Prince and the Beggar”! With what words did the people meet the appearance of the new King? “The king is dead – long live the king!”
So don’t be upset, arrange the chess again and this time – get to the enemy chess king!
True, once in Iran one Shah took and banned chess in his country. It seemed to him very offensive that the shah might die. For a long time, the chess players of this state could not play chess openly.But the forbidden fruit is known to be very sweet! And the chess players began to gather in the evenings at each other’s place. The whole city fell ill with a chess fever. Everyone was just talking about how they played chess yesterday. And soon the Iranian Shah had to come to terms with this. CHESS won not only on the board!
Sometimes the ability to play chess can come in handy at royal receptions. Then, being a guest of some foreign ruler, you will not find yourself in an awkward position when you turn to their unfortunate majesty.And then these Majesties are often very quarrelsome, capricious and touchy. And if They take offense and stomp their feet, then you can expect all sorts of trouble. Therefore, you slyly ask the court chess players what the chess pieces are called in their wonderful country, and even then you will definitely not blunder when you turn to the Count-Duke-Baron, and maybe even the King.
Eastern Chess did not take root in chess in Russia and other European countries. His Chess Majesty was renamed into titles “native” to each state.Chess kings and lords in different countries are usually called the same. For example, in England there is a chess king and on the throne – KING, in Bulgaria – one and the other TSARI, in the Czech Republic and Poland – KRALI and KROLI.
Chess King in Russia
Now back to us in Russia. Our main figure on the chessboard has long been called the Tsar. But in the 17th-18th centuries, Russians often communicated in a good and bad way with Panska Poland, Germany and Sweden, and there, basically, Kings ruled.
Therefore, both Tsars and Kings began to wander on Russian chessboards, and, moreover, they were often called this way and that.
But soon the famous Grandfather of Russian chess, Alexander Petrov, the author of our first chess textbook, brought the final order in this confusing issue. Petrov was loved and obeyed by all the famous chess players of that time.
He served as an official in the Imperial Chancellery and was well aware of all our problems with the Tsars. Therefore, when the chess grandfather introduced the single term “CHESS KING”, everyone quickly recognized him.
The lot of kings is to rule the country, fight, feast and go hunting. Of course, our Majesty was the greatest! Otherwise, we would simply not talk about him!
Naturally, he had a hundred thousandth army of soldiers, a huge cavalry, an elephant. And even the crocodile, which, when retreating, grabbed the enemy soldiers by the heels, and they skidded in fear. The king and his army were invincible!
Vsevolod Viktorovich Kostrov
Ask a question or Leave your comment
Which history textbooks are 100 years behind – Rossiyskaya Gazeta
This year, schoolchildren will write for the first time All-Russian test papers on history.Do they know this subject well? Why did King Richard get the nickname “The Lionheart”? Did Ivan the Third love his wife? Why did the teachers dislike Alexander the Great? The head of the Department of World and National History of MGIMO, the author of school and university textbooks on history, Professor Victoria Ukolova, answers these and other questions of “RG”.
Viktoria Ivanovna, Minister Olga Vasilyeva promised that the textbooks will again undergo not only examination, but also approbation, which was before.What is it for?
Viktoria Ukolova: Approbation makes it possible to understand how the textbook corresponds to the age of children, whether the content is clearly stated, what prospects for interactive communication in the learning process opens up the textbook, whether this textbook gives the teacher the opportunity to use his own author’s techniques. It is important that it takes place in different regions of the country and in different types of schools.
Has it ever happened that the textbook was folded back after testing?
Victoria Ukolova: I don’t remember that.Previously, not only textbooks were tested, but also illustrative and explanatory ones. Somehow the publishing house sent for testing to schools in small towns and villages a computer version of additional materials on the history of the ancient world. It featured an ancient cameo depicting the young Alexander the Great. But some teachers didn’t like the cameo. One of them wrote that his students took this cameo for the image of a beauty, and this may interfere with understanding the greatness of Alexander the Great.But there are few such curiosities. As a rule, good advice was given.
You are the author of the 6th grade textbook on the Middle Ages. Some topics are difficult for children: they confuse King Richard the Lionheart with Henry II, they do not understand why the Crusaders went to Byzantium. Why? After all, experts believe that the Middle Ages are like fairy tales?
Viktoria Ukolova: In addition to fabulous perception, history requires understanding. And many children do not know how to understand. It is the teacher’s task to teach them to understand, to draw conclusions by analyzing the studied historical material.Professionally made computer history games can be helpful in history studies. Maybe you should think about creating educational game complexes. It is difficult for modern children to perceive lengthy text. As the author of two textbooks, I can say that it is very difficult to make a compact presentation of the material. A rich illustrative range, computer support helps out. It allows you to “walk” through ancient Pompeii or “take part” in a knightly tournament. It is very important to synchronize the general history with the history of Russia.In one of the lines of textbooks edited by Academician Torkunov, the authors tried to do this. They contain a cross-cutting idea of the unity of the historical development of the peoples of Russia.
By the way, in my textbook, Richard the Lionheart clearly follows Henry II. The teacher could easily have explained that Richard is Henry’s son. And Richard received the nickname Lionheart not for nobility, but for his senseless cruelty. On his way to the third crusade, he stayed in Messina, where he perpetrated a bloody massacre in the market, in which many people died. The shocked people of Messina compared Richard’s rage to the bloodthirstiness of a lion.
70 percent of history teachers admitted that they need additional education in their subject. How do you assess the knowledge of graduates of history faculties?
Viktoria Ukolova: Teacher training in pedagogical universities lags behind modern requirements. Some textbooks for universities “got lost in time”. Let me give you an example. In the second half of the XX century and in the first decades of the XXI century, there were many discoveries in the study of the origin of man, the history of primitiveness.Let us recall at least the discovery of the “Denisovan man” in Altai, made by Russian scientists. The ideas about the nature of the evolution of man and society have changed, the concepts that were formed in the nineteenth century have gone out of use, new scientific hypotheses have appeared. And in most university and school textbooks, evolution and the history of primitiveness are covered in the same way as a hundred years ago.
The textbooks used to teach my generation said that there was a Tatar-Mongol yoke in Russia for 300 years.And now the students are told that he was not. Was it so or not?
Victoria Ukolova: The Mongol-Tatar army invaded the Russian principalities in 1237. This marked the beginning of the Horde rule in Russia. Its completion is associated with standing on the Ugra River in 1480. It turns out 243 years. So for 300 years it is an “artistic image”. In the 1240s, a system of dependence of the Russian principalities on the Mongol-Tatars took shape. But there was no constant presence of the Mongol-Tatars in the Russian lands, they did not oppress the Orthodox faith here, they did not impose a foreign language.The main forms of pressure were raids, leading to heavy human losses, tax collection, legitimization of the power of the Russian princes through the Horde label.
Schoolchildren do not understand that Ivan the Third was a contemporary of Columbus and Leonardo da Vinci
With what knowledge of history do applicants come to MGIMO?
Victoria Ukolova: Knowledge of Russian history is not bad, but general history is almost unknown. This is a consequence of the fact that at school all attention is concentrated on preparing for the exam.There is no time left for general history. And the teachers themselves sometimes have weaker training in general history. Insufficient knowledge of general history even among the participants of the Olympiads. The guys are not able to compare the events, facts of Russian history with the realities of universal history. Schoolchildren do not understand that Ivan the Third was a contemporary of Columbus, Leonardo da Vinci, Selim the Terrible. There is practically no knowledge of the history of the countries of the East. Memorized dates exist, as it were, separately from the understanding of events and processes, this is especially evident when trying to determine the place and role of Russia in the world-historical process.
Experts propose to synchronize literature and history programs so that students can better understand our classics. How do you like this?
Victoria Ukolova: I will express my personal opinion: this is hardly possible. Otherwise, it will turn out that in the 6th grade it is necessary to study “The Lay of Igor’s Campaign.” But this work is difficult even for a person with a university education to understand. The issue of synchronizing the teaching of these subjects requires serious discussion.
Do the TV series “Sophia” about Ivan III, the film “Viking” correspond to historical facts?
Viktoria Ukolova: A film is a work of fiction and does not have to correspond exactly to the facts.In the TV series “Sofia” the artistic embodiment of the most important thing – the birth of the renewed Russian state – did not work. The state self-determination of the Moscow state, its formation as a European power, was also facilitated by the marriage of the Grand Duke of Moscow with the Byzantine princess Sophia Palaeologus. As the English historian Norman Davis noted, at the end of the fifteenth century, two great events took place in world history: the discovery of America by Columbus and the discovery of Russia to the European world by Ivan III. The series also shows an interesting love story of the “powerful of this world” against the background of a generalized historical life. The religious situation is distorted, the wife of the son of Ivan the Third, Elena Voloshanka, is demonized. In the film “Viking” the battles are very vividly shown, but the historical events are somewhat “reshuffled”. Why was it necessary to interpret history in a predominantly Norman way? It is known that by that time the Kiev princes and their retinue had already become “glorified” a lot. Let us recall at least the legend about the choice of faith by Prince Vladimir.The prince’s arguments have a “Slavic overtones”.
What to read for those interested in history:
History of Russia. Study guide in three parts. Publishing house MGIMO-University. (Any edition.)
Nemirovsky A.I. History of the Ancient World. M. 2006.
Ukolova V.I. Time and contemporaries. Antiquity and the Middle Ages. M .: Education. 2014.
Davis N. History of Europe. M .: AST. 2005.
T.V. Chernikova The Europeanization of Russia in the second half of the 15th – 17th centuries. M. 2012.v
The book “Chess, the third year, or the Secrets of the royal game. Textbook. In 2 parts” Sukhin IG
Chess, Year Three, or Secrets of the Royal Game. Textbook. In 2 parts
This textbook continues the course of elementary chess training and follows the textbooks “Chess, the first year, or There are cells of black and white wonders and mysteries” and “Chess, the second year, or We play and win”.The theory of the chess game is consolidated with the help of a large number of didactic tasks and games, with the predominant use of illustrative material of a meaningful nature. The textbook is intended for the third grade of primary school, but can be used in the classroom in other grades. This is ensured by the fact that in each section, students are offered both simple and complex tasks. For the textbook “Chess, the third year, or the Secrets of the Royal Game”, a methodological guide for the teacher (and parents) “Chess, the third year, or I Study and Teach” has been developed.Share with your friends:
- Spiritual revival
- The year of publishing:
- Place of publication:
- 7 +
- Language of the text:
- Cover type:
- Soft cover
- 60×90 1/8
- Dimensions in mm (LxWxH):
- 590 gr.
- 5000 copies
- Product code:
- Vendor code:
- Available from:
- 04. 04.2013
This textbook continues the course of elementary training in chess and follows the textbooks “Chess, the first year, or There are cells black-and-white wonders and mysteries are full “and” Chess, the second year, or We play and win. “The theory of the chess game is consolidated with the help of a large number of didactic tasks and games, with the predominant use of illustrative material of a meaningful nature.
The textbook is intended for the third grade of primary school, but can be used in the classroom in other grades. This is ensured by the fact that in each section, students are offered both simple and complex tasks. For the textbook “Chess, the third year, or the Secrets of the Royal Game”, a methodological guide for the teacher (and parents) “Chess, the third year, or I Study and Teach” has been developed. Read more…
Bagdasaryan Nadezhda Gegamovna – user, employeeBagdasaryan Nadezhda Gegamovna – user, employee | TRUE – Intelligent System for Thematic Research of Scientometric Data
Bagdasaryan Nadezhda Gegamovna user
Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Faculty of World Politics, Department of Information Support of Foreign Policy, Professor, since September 1, 2003, concurrently
Doctor of Philosophy
Coauthors: Borisov E.F., Garadzha V.I., Devyatova S.V., King M.P., E.A. Gavrilina, Arutyunov S.A., Gorokhov V.G., Arutyunov S.A., Volobuev P.V., Kuptsov V.AND., A.P. Nazaretyan, Shushanyan N.R., Bobaho V.A. show in full …, Vasilyeva V.D., G. E., E.A. Gavrilina, Isaev I.A., O. Kubryak, Levikova S.I., Litvintseva A.V., Petruneva R.M., Silaeva V.L., Tikhaya-Tishchenko I.G., Chuchaikina I.E., Akimov I.A., Korol M., Kozlova M.A., Sonina L., Balueva T.S., Bruyaka N.V., Bulanova M.IN., Vasilieva S., Voinova A.A., Voinova A.A., Ganin A.V., Gerasimenko M.Yu., Glazachev O.S., Zenko A.A., Isaev I.A., Kozhin V.A., Kozlova M.A., Kozlova M.A., Kozlova Shushanyan M.A., Koloskov S.S., V. V. Korenkov, King T.O., Krasnov V.N., Krupa O. , E. V. Kulyabina, Kulyabina E V., Lebedev G. S., Maloletneva I.V., Miklina L.AND., Motalov Yu.G., Motorina I.E., A.P. Nazaretyan, Opletina N.V., Panina G.V., Podvoisky D.G., Sedov L.I., Sidyakina I.V., O. I. Subocheva, R. Titov, Truschelev S.A., Fedorov I.B., Chernysheva A.V., Yakovleva A.F., E.A. gavrilina
64 articles, 26 books, 73 reports at conferences, 8 abstracts, 4 research projects, 2 patents, 16 memberships in editorial boards of journals, 1 membership in the editorial board of a collection, 11 memberships in program committees, 5 memberships in dissertation councils, 17 theses, 12 coursework, 5 training courses
Number of citations of articles in journals according to data Web of Science: 0, Scopus: 4
IstinaResearcherID (IRID): 3431212
- 2018 Investigator and physician tools: the boundaries of achievable results and the impact on research findings. Based on the materials of the round table at the XIV Wein Readings, February 10, 2018. To the 120th anniversary of P.K. Anokhin
- O. Kubryak, Bagdasaryan N.G., Glazachev O.S., King M P., Kulyabina E V., Lebedev G S., Sidyakina I. V., Silaeva V.L.
- in the journal Monitoring public opinion: economic and social changes , no. 6, p.365-385 DOI
Articles in collections
- 2017 A short dictionary of socio-humanitarian terms / I. A. Akimova, N. G. Bagdasaryan and before; ed. I.A. Akimova
- Akimova I.A., Bagdasaryan N.G., Vasilyeva S.I., E.A. Gavrilina, Ganin A.V., Maloletneva I.V., Miklina L.I., Motorina I.E., Opletina N.IN., Panina G.V., O. I. Subocheva, Chernysheva A.V.
- publishing house MSTU them. N.E. Bauman (Moscow) , 174 p.
Papers at conferences
- July 9, 2019 – December 1, 2020 Organizational, technical, information-analytical and scientific-methodological support of the Council’s activities on the priority of scientific and technological development, determined by clause 20d of the Strategy for scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation
- Faculty of World Politics
- Leaders: Kokoshin A. BUT., Liss A.V. Responsible executors: Veselov V.A., Gushchin V.A., A.A. Kokoshin R&D participants: Arkhipova A.YU., Bagdasaryan N.G., Baghdasaryan N.G., Baghdasaryan N.G., Veselov V.A., A.A. Grusho, Gushchin V. A., Dobrov B.IN., Kosorukov O.A., Levchenko T.G., Logunov A.B., Lukashevich N.V., Maklakova A.S., Naryshkina O. M., Naryshkina O.M., Ponamareva A.M., Popova O.P., Ramonova A.A., Savorskaya E.V., Fisenko I. S., Shestopal E.B., Yakovleva A.F.
- October 23, 2017 – June 28, 2019 Development of a forecast for the implementation of the priority of scientific and technological development, determined by clause 20d of the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation “Counteracting technogenic, biogenic, socio-cultural threats, terrorism and ideological extremism, as well as cyber threats and other sources of danger for society, the economy and the state
- Faculty of World Politics
- Supervisor: Kokoshin A. BUT. Responsible executor: Liss A.V. R&D participants: Antonova N.P., Antonova N.P., Arkhipova A.YU., Bagdasaryan N.G., Biryukova N.A., V.V. Voevodin, Gushchin V.A., Dobrov B.V., E. V. Trembling, Emelyanova N. N., Karasev P.A., Kubitskaya O.A., Kuvyrkova E.A., Levchenko T.G., Logunov A.B., Lukashevich N.V., Makarov V.IN., Maklakova A.S., Pavlov A.M., Ponamareva A.M., Popova O.P., Postnikov M.M., Post A. A., B.BUT., Ramonova A.A., Savorskaya E.V., Selezneva A.V., Streltsov A.A., Utkina K.K., Fedorov S.N., Fisenko I.WITH., Khromov A.V., Sharyapov R.A., Sherstyuk V.P., Shestopal E.B., Sternov S. V., Yakovleva A.F.
Participation in the editorial board of journals
Participation in the editorial board of collections
Participation in program committees of conferences
Membership in dissertation councils
Supervision of thesis
Major events that happened in France from 1789 to 1875: revolutions, restorations, coups, uprisings, wars and other upheavals
The situation on the eve of the revolution
Great French Revolution and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy
Execution of the king and establishment of the republic
Jacobin dictatorship, Thermidorian coup and establishment of the Consulate
Napoleon’s coup and the establishment of an empire
The Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy
Revolution of 1848 and establishment of the Second Republic
Coup of 1851 and Second Empire
Revolution of 1870 and establishment of the Third Republic
In 1787, an economic recession began in France, which gradually turned into a crisis: production fell, the French market was flooded with cheaper English goods; to this were added crop failures and natural disasters that led to the death of crops and vineyards. In addition, France has spent a lot on failed wars and supporting the American Revolution. There was not enough income (by 1788 expenses exceeded income by 20%), and the treasury took out loans, the interest on which was unaffordable for it. The only way to increase revenue to the treasury was to deprive the first and second estate of tax privileges. Under the Old Order, French society was divided into three classes: the first – the clergy, the second – the nobility, and the third – all the rest. The first two estates enjoyed a number of privileges, including exemption from the need to pay taxes….
Attempts by the government to abolish the tax privileges of the first two estates failed, meeting the resistance of the noble parliaments Parliaments – before the revolution, the highest courts of fourteen regions of France. Until the 15th century, only the Paris Parliament existed, then the other thirteen appeared. (that is, the highest courts of the Old Order period). Then the government announced the convening of the States General The States General – a body that included representatives of the three estates and convened at the initiative of the king (as a rule, to resolve a political crisis).Each estate sat separately and had one vote., Which included representatives of all three estates. Unexpectedly for the crown, this caused a wide public upsurge: hundreds of pamphlets were published, voters drew up instructions to deputies: few aspired to revolution, but everyone hoped for change. The impoverished nobility demanded financial support from the crown, at the same time counting on the limitation of its power; the peasants protested against the rights of the lords and hoped to get the land as property; Among the townspeople, the ideas of enlighteners about the equality of all before the law and about equal access to office became popular (in January 1789, the well-known brochure of Abbot Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes “What is the third estate?” was published, containing the following passage: “1. What is the third estate? – Everything. 2. What has it been politically so far? – Nothing. 3. What does it require? – Become something “). Based on the ideas of the Enlightenment, many believed that the nation, not the king, should have the supreme power in the country, that the absolute monarchy should be replaced by a limited one and that traditional law should be replaced by a constitution – a collection of clearly written laws that are the same for all citizens.
Great French Revolution and the establishment of a constitutional monarchyTaking of the Bastille on July 14, 1789.Painting by Jean Pierre Uel. 1789
© Bibliothèque nationale de France
Commencement of work of the States General
Proclamation of the National Assembly
The Conquest of the Bastille
Adoption of the Declaration of Human and Citizen Rights
Adoption of the first French constitution
On May 5, 1789, a meeting of the States General was opened at Versailles. Traditionally, when voting, each estate had one vote. The deputies from the third estate, of whom there were twice as many as the deputies from the first and second, demanded an individual vote, but the government did not agree to this. In addition, contrary to the expectations of the deputies, the authorities submitted only financial reforms for discussion. On June 17, deputies from the third estate declared themselves the National Assembly, that is, representatives of the entire French nation. On June 20, they vowed not to disperse until a constitution was drawn up.Some time later, the National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly, thus declaring its intention to establish a new state system in France.
Soon a rumor spread throughout Paris that the government was drawing up troops to Versailles and was planning to disperse the Constituent Assembly. An uprising began in Paris; On July 14, hoping to seize weapons, the people stormed the Bastille. This symbolic event is considered the beginning of the revolution.
After that, the Constituent Assembly gradually turned into the highest power in the country: Louis XVI, who sought to avoid bloodshed at any cost, sooner or later approved any of his decrees.Thus, from 5 to 11 August, all peasants became personally free, and the privileges of the two estates and individual regions were canceled.
Overthrow of the absolute monarchy
On August 26, 1789, the Constituent Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. On October 5, the crowd went to Versailles, where Louis XVI was, and demanded that the king and his family move to Paris and approve the Declaration. Louis was forced to agree – and absolute monarchy ceased to exist in France.This was enshrined in the constitution adopted by the Constituent Assembly on September 3, 1791.
Having adopted a constitution, the Constituent Assembly dispersed. Laws were now approved by the Legislative Assembly. The executive power remained with the king, who turned into an official, obeying the will of the people. Officials and priests were no longer appointed, but elected; church property was nationalized and sold.
“Freedom, equality, brotherhood.” The formula “Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité”, which became the motto of the French Republic, first appeared on 5 December 1790 in an unspoken speech by Maximilian Robespierre, one of the most influential French revolutionaries, elected to the States General from the third estate in 1789.
Bastille. By July 14, there were only seven prisoners in the Bastille, the ancient royal prison, so its assault had a symbolic rather than pragmatic meaning, although they took it in the hope of finding weapons there.By the decision of the municipality, the taken Bastille was destroyed to the ground.
Declaration of Human and Citizen Rights. The Declaration of Human Rights stated that “people are born and remain free and equal in rights” and declared the natural and inalienable human rights to freedom, property, security and resistance to oppression. In addition, it consolidated freedom of speech, press and religion and abolished estates and titles. As a preamble, it entered the first constitution (1791) and still forms the basis of French constitutional law, being a legally binding document.
Execution of the king and establishment of the republicThe last moments of the life of Louis XVI. An engraving based on a painting by Charles Benazech. 1793
© Wellcome Library
Start of war with Austria
Overthrow of Louis XVI
Start of the National Convention
Execution of Louis XVI
On August 27, 1791, in the Saxon castle of Pilnitz, the Prussian king Frederick William II and the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (brother of Louis XVI’s wife Marie Antoinette), under pressure from aristocrats who emigrated from France, signed a document declaring their readiness to support the King of France, including military. The Girondists The Girondins – a circle formed around the deputies from the Gironde department, who advocated further reforms, but adhered to relatively moderate views. In 1792, many of them opposed the execution of the king., The supporters of the republic, took advantage of this to persuade the Legislative Assembly to war with Austria, which was declared on April 20, 1792. When French troops began to suffer defeat, the royal family was blamed for this.
Overthrow of the constitutional monarchy
On August 10, 1792, an uprising took place, as a result of which Louis was overthrown and imprisoned on charges of betraying national interests.The Legislative Assembly resigned: now, in the absence of the king, a new constitution had to be written. For these purposes, a new legislative body was assembled – the elected National Convention, which first of all proclaimed France a republic.
In December, the trial began, which found the king guilty of an act against the freedom of the nation and sentenced him to death.
Marseillaise . March by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle (military engineer, poet and composer) on April 25, 1792.In 1795, the Marseillaise became the national anthem of France, lost this status under Napoleon, and finally returned it in 1879 under the Third Republic. By the second half of the 19th century, it had become an international song of leftist resistance.
Jacobin dictatorship, Thermidorian coup and establishment of the ConsulateDeposition of Robespierre at the National Convention on July 27, 1794. Painting by Max Adamo. 1870
© Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin
The Extraordinary Criminal Tribunal was established by the Decree of the Convention, which will be renamed the Revolutionary Tribunal in October
Creation of the Public Safety Committee
May 31 – June 2
Expulsion of the Girondins from the Convention
Adoption of the Constitution of the 1st year, or the Montagnar Constitution
Decree on the introduction of a new calendar
Execution of Robespierre and his supporters
Adoption of the Constitution of the III year. Formation of Directory
Coup of the 18th Brumaire. Change of Directory by Consulate
Despite the execution of the king, France continued to fail in the war. Inside the country, monarchist revolts broke out. In March 1793, the Convention created the Revolutionary Tribunal, which was supposed to judge “traitors, conspirators and counter-revolutionaries”, and after it – the Committee of Public Safety, which was to coordinate the domestic and foreign policy of the country.
Expulsion of the Girondins, Jacobin dictatorship
The Girondins gained great influence in the Committee of Public Safety. Many of them did not support the execution of the king and the imposition of emergency measures, some expressed outrage that Paris was imposing its will on the country. Rival Montagnards Montagnards are a relatively radical group, relying, in particular, on the urban poor. The name comes from the French word montagne – mountain: at Legislative meetings, members of this group usually took seats in the upper rows on the left side of the hall. directed against the Girondins disgruntled urban poor.
On May 31, 1793, a crowd gathered at the Convention, demanding the exclusion of the Girondins from it, who were accused of treason. On June 2, the Girondins were placed under house arrest, and on October 31, many of them were guillotined by the Revolutionary Tribunal.
The expulsion of the Girondins led to a civil war. Despite the fact that at the same time France was at war with many European states, the constitution, adopted in 1793, did not come into force: before the onset of peace, the Convention introduced a “temporary revolutionary order of government.”Virtually all power was now concentrated in his hands; to the places the Convention sent commissars with enormous powers. The Montagnards, who now had a huge advantage in the Convention, declared their opponents enemies of the people and sentenced them to guillotine. The Montagnards abolished all senior duties and began to sell the land of the emigrants to the peasants. In addition, they introduced a maximum to which the prices of the most essential goods, including bread, could rise; in order to avoid a shortage, they had to take grain from the peasants by force.
By the end of 1793, most of the revolts were suppressed, and the situation at the front was reversed – the French army went on the offensive. Nevertheless, the number of victims of terror did not decrease. In September 1793, the Convention passed the “Suspicious Law”, which ordered to keep under arrest all people who were not accused of any crime, but could commit it. From June 1794, the Revolutionary Tribunal abolished the interrogation of the defendants and their right to lawyers, as well as the obligatory interrogation of witnesses; for people found guilty by the tribunal, there was now only one punishment – the death penalty.
In the spring of 1794, the robespierres started talking about the need for the last wave of executions, which would cleanse the Convention of the opponents of the revolution. Almost all members of the Convention felt that their lives were at stake. On July 27, 1794 (or 9 Thermidor II year according to the revolutionary calendar), the leader of the Montagnards Maximilian Robespierre and many of his supporters were arrested by members of the Convention, who feared for their lives. They were executed on July 28.
After the coup, the terror quickly subsided, the Jacobin Club The Jacobin Club was a political club formed in 1789 and gathered in the Jacobin monastery. The official name is the Society of Friends of the Constitution. Many of its members were deputies to the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies, and then to the Convention; they played an important role in the ongoing policy of terror. was closed. The authority of the Committee for Public Safety has diminished. Thermidorians Thermidorians – Members of the Convention who supported the Thermidorian coup.proclaimed a general amnesty, many of the surviving Girondins returned to the Convention.
In August 1795, the Convention adopted a new constitution. In accordance with it, the legislative power was vested in a bicameral Legislature, and the executive power was given to the Directory, which consisted of five directors, whom the Council of Elders (the upper house of the Legislative Corps) selected from a list presented by the Council of Five Hundred (the lower house). The members of the Directory sought to stabilize the political and economic situation in France, but not very successfully: for example, on September 4, 1797, the Directory, with the support of General Napoleon Bonaparte, extremely popular as a result of his military successes in Italy, declared martial law in Paris and annulled the election results in The legislative body in many regions of France, since the royalists, who now constituted a fairly strong opposition, received the majority there.
Coup 18 Brumaire
A new conspiracy has matured within the Directory itself. On November 9, 1799 (or 18 Brumaire of the VIII year of the Republic), two of the five directors, along with Bonaparte, staged a coup, dispersing the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Elders. The Directory was also stripped of power. Instead, the Consulate arose – a government consisting of three consuls. They were all three conspirators.
Tricolor. In 1794, the tricolor became the official flag of France.The Bourbon white used on the pre-Revolutionary flag was supplemented with blue, the symbol of Paris, and red, the color of the National Guard.
Republican calendar. On October 5, 1793, a new calendar was introduced into circulation, the first year according to which was 1792. All months in the calendar received new names: the time from the revolution had to start anew. In 1806, the calendar was canceled.
Louvre Museum. Despite the fact that some parts of the Louvre were open to the public before the revolution, the palace turned into a full-fledged museum only in 1793.
Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup and the establishment of an empirePortrait of Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul. Detail of a painting by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. 1803-1804
© Wikimedia Commons
Adoption of the Constitution of the VIII year, which established the dictatorship of the first consul
Adoption of the Constitution of X year, which made the powers of the first consul for life
Adoption of the Constitution of the XII year, proclamation of Napoleon as emperor
On December 25, 1799, a new constitution (Constitution of the VIII year) was adopted, created with the participation of Napoleon Bonaparte.A government came to power, consisting of three consuls, named directly in the constitution by name, and elected for ten years (as a one-time exception, the third consul was then appointed for five years). The first of the three consuls was named Napoleon Bonaparte. Almost all real power was concentrated in his hands: only he had the right to propose new laws, appoint members of the State Council, ambassadors, ministers, senior military leaders and department prefects. The principles of separation of powers and popular sovereignty were virtually abolished.
In 1802, the Council of State put to a referendum the question of whether Bonaparte should be made consul for life. As a result, the consulate became life-long, and the first consul received the right to appoint a successor to himself.
In February 1804, a monarchist conspiracy was discovered to assassinate Napoleon. After that, proposals began to arise to make Napoleon’s power hereditary, in order to exclude such a thing in the future.
Establishment of an empire
On May 18, 1804, the XII Constitution was adopted, approved by a referendum.The administration of the republic was now transferred to the “emperor of the French”, whom Napoleon Bonaparte was declared to be. In December, the emperor was crowned by the Pope.
In 1804, the Civil Code, written with the participation of Napoleon, was adopted – a set of laws regulating the life of French citizens. The code affirmed, in particular, the equality of all before the law, inviolability of land property and secular marriage. Napoleon managed to normalize the French economy and finances: through constant recruits in the army both in the countryside and in the city, he managed to cope with the surplus of workers, which led to higher incomes.He harshly cracked down on the opposition and limited freedom of speech. The role of propaganda became enormous, glorifying the invincibility of French weapons and the greatness of France.
Eagle. In 1804, Napoleon introduced a new imperial coat of arms, which depicted an eagle – a symbol of the Roman Empire that was present on the coats of arms of other great powers.
Bee. This symbol, dating back to the Merovingians, became the personal emblem of Napoleon and replaced the lily flower in heraldic ornaments.
Napoleon. Under Napoleon, a coin called Napoleon d’or (literally – “golden Napoleon”) received circulation: it showed the profile of Bonaparte.
Order of the Legion of Honor. Order, established by Bonaparte on May 19, 1802, following the example of the knightly orders. Belonging to the order testified to the official recognition of special services to France.
Bourbon Restoration and the July MonarchyFreedom leading the people.Painting by Eugene Delacroix. 1830
© Musée du Louvre
Napoleon’s invasion of Russia
The capture of Moscow
Battle of Leipzig (“Battle of the Nations”)
Abdication of Napoleon from the throne, proclamation of Louis XVIII as king
Proclamation of the Charter of 1814
Napoleon’s escape from Elba
Taking of Paris
Battle of Waterloo
Accession to the throne of Charles X
Signing of the July ordinances
Abdication of Charles X from the throne
Oath of allegiance to the new Charter by the Duke of Orleans. From that day he became King of the French Louis Philippe I
As a result of the Napoleonic wars, the French Empire became the most powerful European power with a stable state system and well-organized finances. In 1806, Napoleon forbade all European countries under his control to trade with England — as a result of the Industrial Revolution, England drove French goods out of the markets. The so-called continental blockade damaged the English economy, but by 1811 the resulting economic crisis had affected all of Europe, including France.The failures of the French forces in the Iberian Peninsula began to destroy the image of the invincible French army. Finally, in October 1812, the French had to begin their retreat from Moscow, which had been occupied in September.
On October 16-19, 1813, the Battle of Leipzig took place, in which the Napoleonic army was defeated. In April 1814, Napoleon abdicated and went into exile on the island of Elba, and Louis XVIII, brother of the executed Louis XVI, ascended the throne.
Power returned to the Bourbon dynasty, but Louis XVIII was forced to grant the people a constitution – the so-called Charter of 1814, according to which each new law had to be approved by two houses of parliament. In France, a constitutional monarchy was re-established, but not all citizens and not even all adult men had the right to vote, but only those who had a certain level of wealth.
One Hundred Days of Napoleon
Taking advantage of the fact that Louis XVIII had no popular support, Napoleon fled Elba on February 26, 1815 and landed in France on March 1.A significant part of the army joined him, and in less than a month Napoleon occupied Paris without a fight. Attempts to negotiate peace with European countries failed, and he had to re-enter the war. On June 18, the French army was defeated by the Anglo-Prussian troops at the Battle of Waterloo, on June 22 Napoleon abdicated the throne again, and on July 15 surrendered to the British and went into exile on the island of St. Helena. Power returned to Louis XVIII.
In 1824, Louis XVIII died and his brother Charles X ascended the throne.The new monarch took a more conservative course. In the summer of 1829, while the chambers of deputies were not working, Karl appointed the extremely unpopular prince Jules Auguste Armand Marie Polignac as foreign minister. On July 25, 1830, the king signed ordinances (decrees that had the force of state laws) – on the temporary abolition of freedom of the press, the dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies, an increase in the electoral qualification (now only landowners could vote) and the appointment of new elections to the lower house. Many newspapers were closed.
Charles X’s Ordinances sparked massive outrage. On July 27, riots broke out in Paris, and on July 29 the revolution was over, the main city centers were occupied by the rebels. On August 2, Charles X abdicated the throne and left for England.
Duke of Orleans Louis Philippe, a member of the younger branch of the Bourbons, with a relatively liberal reputation, became the new king of France. During his coronation, he swore allegiance to the Charter of 1830, drawn up by the deputies, and became not the “king by the grace of God”, like his predecessors, but the “king of the French.”The new constitution lowered not only property, but also the age limit for voters, deprived the king of legislative power, banned censorship and returned the tricolor flag.
Lilies. After the overthrow of Napoleon, the coat of arms with the eagle was replaced by the coat of arms with three lilies, symbolizing royal power already in the Middle Ages.
“Freedom leading the people.” The famous painting by Eugene Delacroix, in the center of which depicts Marianne (symbolizing the French Republic since 1792) with the French tricolor in her hand as the personification of the struggle for freedom, was inspired by the July Revolution of 1830.
Revolution of 1848 and establishment of the Second RepublicLamartine in front of the City Hall of Paris rejects the red flag on February 25, 1848. Painting by Henri Felix Emmanuel Filippoto
© Musée du Petit-Palais, Paris
Start of riots
Resignation of the Guizot government
Approval of the new constitution, which established the republican form of government
General Presidential Election, victory of Louis Bonaparte
By the end of the 1840s, the policies of Louis Philippe and his Prime Minister François Guizot, supporters of gradual and cautious development and opponents of universal suffrage, ceased to suit many: some demanded an expansion of suffrage, others – the return of the republic and the introduction of suffrage for all.There was a poor harvest in 1846 and 1847. Hunger began. Since rallies were banned, in 1847 political banquets gained popularity, at which the monarchical power was actively criticized and toasts to the republic were proclaimed. Political banquets were also banned in February.
Revolution of 1848
The ban on political banquets sparked riots. Prime Minister François Guizot resigned on 23 February. A huge crowd awaited his exit from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.One of the soldiers guarding the ministry fired a shot – most likely by mistake, and this gave rise to a bloody clash. After that, the Parisians built barricades and moved towards the royal palace. The king abdicated the throne and fled to England. France proclaimed a republic and introduced universal suffrage for men over the age of 21. Parliament (which returned the name “National Assembly”) again became unicameral.
On December 10-11, 1848, the first general presidential election was held, which was unexpectedly won by Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, who received about 75% of the vote.In the elections to the Legislative Assembly, Republicans won only 70 seats.
Barricades. Barricades were erected on the streets of Paris with every revolution, but it was during the revolution of 1848 that almost all of Paris was barricaded. Some of the Parisian omnibuses launched in the late 1820s were used as material for the barricades.
Coup of 1851 and Second EmpirePortrait of Emperor Napoleon III.Fragment of a painting by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. 1855
Dissolution of the National Assembly
New constitution promulgated. The changes made to its text on December 25 of the same year created the Second Empire
The proclamation of Napoleon III as Emperor of the French
The Republicans no longer enjoyed the confidence of the president, parliament, or the people. In 1852, Louis Napoleon’s term as president was drawing to a close. According to the constitution of 1848, he could be elected again only after the expiration of the next four-year term. In 1850 and 1851, supporters of Louis Napoleon several times demanded a revision of this article of the constitution, but the Legislative Assembly was opposed.
Coup of 1851
On December 2, 1851, President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, relying on the support of the army, dissolved the National Assembly and arrested its opposition-minded members.The riots that began in Paris and in the provinces were brutally suppressed.
Under the leadership of Louis Napoleon, a new constitution was prepared, extending the presidential powers for ten years. In addition, the bicameral parliament was returned, and the deputies of its upper house were appointed by the president for life.
Rebuilding the empire
On November 7, 1852, the Senate appointed by Louis Napoleon proposed the restoration of the empire. As a result of a referendum, this decision was approved, and on December 2, 1852, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon III.
Until the 1860s, the powers of parliament were reduced and freedom of the press was limited, but since the 1860s the course has changed. In order to strengthen his authority, Napoleon began new wars. He planned to reverse the decisions of the Vienna Congress and rebuild all of Europe, giving each nation its own state.
Revolution of 1870 and establishment of the Third RepublicBarricades at the corner of Rue de Rivoli and Place de Ville.A fragment of a photograph by Pierre Ambroise Richebourg. April 1871
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Start of the Franco-Prussian War
Capture of Napoleon III
Overthrow of Napoleon, proclamation of the republic
Election of the National Assembly
The uprising in Paris
February – July
Signing of the Constitutional Laws establishing the Third Republic in France
In July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War began. From the beginning of the war, the French suffered military failures, and on September 2, along with the army, Napoleon III himself was captured. The news of this undermined the already shaky authority of the emperor in Paris.
Proclamation of the Republic
On September 4, France was again proclaimed a republic. A provisional government was elected, headed by Adolphe Thiers.
On September 19, the Germans began the siege of Paris. There was famine in the city, the situation escalated.In February 1871, elections to the National Assembly were held, in which the monarchists won the majority. Adolphe Thiers became the head of the government. On February 26, the government was forced to sign a preliminary peace treaty, which was followed by a German parade on the Champs Elysees, which many townspeople perceived as treason.
In March, the government, which had no funds, refused to pay the salaries of the National Guard and tried to disarm it.
On March 18, 1871, an uprising broke out in Paris, as a result of which a group of left-wing radical politicians came to power.On March 26, they held elections for the Paris Commune, the council of the city of Paris. The government led by Thiers fled to Versailles. But the power of the commune did not last long: on May 21, government troops launched an offensive. By May 28, the uprising was brutally suppressed – the week of fighting between the troops and the Communards was called “Bloody Week”.
After the fall of the commune, the position of the monarchists again strengthened, but since they all supported different dynasties, in the end the republic was preserved.In 1875, Constitutional Laws were passed establishing the presidency and parliament, elected on the basis of universal male suffrage. The third republic lasted until 1940.
Since then, the form of government in France has remained republican, with executive power transferred from one president to another as a result of elections.
Red flag. The traditional republican flag was the French tricolor, but members of the commune, among whom there were many socialists, preferred the one-color red.The attributes of the Paris Commune – one of the key events for the formation of the communist ideology – were taken over, among other things, by Russian revolutionaries.
Vendome Column. One of the important symbolic gestures of the Paris Commune was the demolition of the Vendome Column, erected in honor of Napoleon’s victory at Austerlitz. In 1875, the column was re-installed.
Sacre Coeur. The neo-Byzantine basilica was founded in 1875 in memory of the victims of the Franco-Prussian War and has become one of the important symbols of the Third Republic.
The editors would like to thank Dmitry Bovykin for his help in working on the material.90,000 Chess Strategy Textbook, Volume 2
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