How to String and square your vehicle
How to String a car and square your vehicle
This is one of the most common questions we receive. Some people will say it’s easy and some feel it’s a pain in the **s. We have a few quick tips for you and a great video by Jeff Ford from Auto Resto Mod. Jeff is using a QuickTrick while stringing the car, but you don’t have to have one of our tools to get it done!
First, your frame has to be undamaged for any true measurement and alignment. So, if your frame is bent, stop here and get her straight before anything else.
The purpose is to square the rear and with the front.
Your right side tires will carry the brunt of the force, so we typically start with the right side.
You can use any stable items on the right front and right rear to start. We use to use jackstands. When placing your string (Any string will do and even fish line) aim to have it at frame height. This will prevent any extreme camber from interfering with your string line up.
Line up your right side tires
Measure your right rear frame distance to the string
Measure your right front frame to the string (ensure you have equal distance between the string and frame) Keep it close, but not too close. 5-6″ is a good base.
If your string is parallel to the frame, your front and rear sidewalls of the tire should be parallel as well.
Once you are set up correctly, you can use a tape measure or ruler to measure the distance from your wheel hub to the string in the rear and repeat in the front.
If you are fraction off, you should be good to go. Now repeat on the left.
Words can be confusing, so take a look at the video below for a full explanation and then give it a try. If you need some help or have any questions, just give us a call at 205-475-2419 x102
Starts at Stringing the car:
You can pick up a lifetime membership of the online QuickSpecs Alignment Database here: QuickSpecs
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How to Decode Tire Size and Other Data
Size: P235/65R17 is a common one. P denotes passenger-car tire. Some may start with an LT prefix, used on heavy-duty trucks. The number 235 is the cross-section width in millimeters, and 65 is the ratio of sidewall height to cross-section width (65 percent). R means radial-ply construction, and 17 is the wheel diameter, in inches.
Load index: This number is based on the weight the tire can safely carry. You’ll find it after the tire size; the 103 load index for most of the tires we’ve recently tested correlates to 1,929 pounds. Choose tires with a load index at least as high as the one that’s listed on your vehicle’s placard or owner’s manual.
Speed rating: This letter denotes the maximum sustainable speed and is found directly after the load index. For S-speed-rated tires, it’s 112 mph; for T, 118 mph. Speed ratings for other tires include Q, 99 mph; H, 130 mph; V, 149 mph; W, 168 mph; Y, 186 mph; and ZR, more than 149 mph. While such speeds may seem wildly impractical, tires with higher speed ratings tend to provide better handling at legal speed limits.
Treadwear rating: Grades for our light-truck tires ranged from 500 to over 800. In theory, a tire graded 400 should last twice as long as one graded 200. But the tire makers certify that the tires meet the wear ratings. The better gauge is to refer to our tread life predictions on the tire model pages, based on our extensive testing.
Traction and temperature scores:
Maximum pressure: This is a tire’s maximum safe air pressure, given in pounds per square inch. But that doesn’t mean you should inflate your tires to that pressure, because automakers typically recommend an inflation pressure well below the tire’s maximum air pressure. Follow the advice on the vehicle’s placard.
When the tire was made: Every tire has a Department of Transportation (DOT) number after the letters on the sidewall. The last four digits determine the week and year the tire was made; for example, the digits 2321 would signify that the tire was made during the 23rd week of 2021. Don’t buy tires more than a couple of years old. Beyond wearing out, tires can age out. Some automobile makers recommend replacing tires at six years, but if there is no recommendation, we recommend replacement at 10 years, as some tire makers suggest.
ZZ Top’s Billy F Gibbons premieres Christmas song ‘Jingle Bell Blues’
A blues reworking of the festive stapleAuthor: Scott ColothanPublished 9th Nov 2021
Last updated 9th Nov 2021
With Christmas just over six weeks away, ZZ Top legend Billy F Gibbons has premiered his festive song ‘Jingle Bell Blues.’
As the title suggests, ‘Jingle Bell Blues’ is a blues reworking of the 19th Century yuletide staple ‘Jingle Bells’ that’s delivered in Billy’s trademark rock drawl and features epic guitar and harmonica solos from the music legend.
Lyrically, Billy changes some of the words too as he sings “bells on hot rods ring” and “drop-top sleigh.”
Listen to Billy F Gibbons’ ‘Jingle Bell Blues’:
Produced by Billy F Gibbons and Mike Fiorentino and recorded in Nashville, Tennessee in June 2021, ‘Jingle Bell Blues’ is available to buy digitally and as a lavishly packaged 45 RPM single pressed on red translucent vinyl.
The visually striking artwork features a stack of Cadillac Fleetwood Broughams in the shape of a Christmas tree.
Very much a standalone single, the vinyl flip side is an etched surface that replicates the sidewall of a bias ply tire with raised letters spelling out the song title and Billy’s name.
The red vinyl version also comes with a Billy F Gibbons centre hole adapter making it easy to play on any standard turntable.Billy F Gibbons – Jingle Bell Blues
“I suppose it could have been produced with a small hole and we wouldn’t have had to deal with the adapter, but this is, at its essence, a juke box record. It was even mixed with that in mind,” comments Billy F Gibbons.
“Around Christmas, it always seems that there are five to ten holiday selections listed in the lower right corner of a typical juke box in a typical juke joint, the song titles and artist names printed on wreath-bedecked title strips.
“Our hope is for ‘Jingle Bell Blues’ to be one of those records. Bing Crosby, David Bowie, Elvis, Brenda Lee, Jose Feliciano, Otis Redding, Mariah Carey, Nat King Cole, Gene Autry, and not forgetting Adam Sandler, need some company and we’d be thrilled to provide it in the spirit of the season.”
Billy F Gibbons’ ZZ Top band mate Dusty Hill passed away in July. In keeping with Dusty’s wishes, ZZ Top have continued as an active band.
The wildest guitars in rock, including ZZ Top’s Spinning Furs:
ZZ Top’s Spinning Fur Guitars
Of course, we couldn’t make a feature about outrageous guitars without ZZ Top’s iconic Spinning Fur Guitars. Made from real sheepskin, the twirling guitar for Billy Gibbons and bass for the late-great Dusty Hill were both created by Dean Zelinsky of Dean Guitars and they famously first appeared in the music video to ‘Legs’ in 1983. Billy Gibbons says: “The guitars are attached to our belt buckles. It’s a rotary electrical contact and strap mount. A hole is bored in the back of the guitar at the balancing point and the device is mounted there. Oh yeah, you gotta look out for that thing coming back around. Get your head and neck out of the way or else it’ll say hello in an unfashionable fashion.”
Rick Nielsen’s Five Neck
Cheap Trick’s Rick Nielsen with his iconic Five Neck guitar at a concert in 2012. Tired of performing with multiple guitars at concerts, Nielsen joined forces with guitar makers Hamer way back in 1981 to combine all of his guitar playing needs into one glorious instrument. The guitar was created by fusing the bodies of five Hamer Specials together and there have been several incarnations of the Five Neck. Hamer founder Frank Untermeyer said: “Rick’s out of his mind, but in a wonderful way.”
Michael Angelo Batio’s Double-Guitar
Famous for his technical prowess and genre-straddling playing style, American heavy metal guitarist Michael Angelo Batio personally invented the Double Guitar – a V-shaped, twin-neck guitar that Batio plays both left and right-handed.
Bo Diddley’s Square Guitar
The blues rock legend made his first square guitar aged 17 as he couldn’t afford to buy an electric guitar. He explained to Vintage Guitar in 1997: “(the guitar’s) pickup was the part of a Victrola record player where the needle went in. I clamped it to the metal tailpiece to pick up the vibrations.” The original guitar was sadly stolen, but in 1958 Gretsch later made a version with DeArmond pickups. Pictured is Bo proudly clutching it in 1959.
John Paul Jones’ Triple Neck Arch-Top Mandolin
The Led Zeppelin multi-instrumentalist’s unique Triple Neck Arch-Top Mandolin was created by luthier Andy Manson in the mid-1970s and swiftly became a mainstay of Led Zep concerts. The famous electroacoustic instrument boasts 8-string mandolin, 12-string guitar, and 6-string guitar necks. Manson said decades later: “I designed and made the triple neck and took it to John’s house. I said, ‘Hi John I thought this might interest you.’ He said, ‘Wow, yes indeed, I can’t wait to see Pagey’s face when I walk on stage with this!’ It cost £400 and I skipped off down the road feeling like a millionaire. “
Prince’s Love Symbol Guitar
Pictured is Prince with a purple Love Symbol guitar in at The Grammy Awards in February 2004 where he performed his anthem ‘Purple Rain’. Prince’s range of Love Symbol guitars were based on the shape of the unpronounceable symbol he adopted as his moniker in 1993 in an act of rebellion against his record label, Warner Bros.
Steve Vai’s Ibanez Triple-Neck Red Heart Guitar
The virtuoso musician designed his Ibanez custom built triple neck with heart-shaped body guitar in 1988 as he wanted something “eye-catching” for the video to David Lee Roth’s ‘Just Like Paradise’. Steve Vai himself admits the guitar is “odd” and there have been three incarnations of the instrument – the original Red Heart, a spare called Red Heart II and a Purple Heart. Steve used the latter guitar on the Ultra Zone tour and wrote the song ‘Fever Dream’ with it.
Pat Metheny’s Pikasso Guitar
Canadian master luthier Linda Manzer created The Pikasso Guitar in 1984 when jazz artist Pat Metheny requested a guitar that had “as many strings as possible. ” The completely unique resulting instrument has 42 strings arranged in four different string sections.
Gene Simmons’ Axe Bass
Back in 1978, Gene Simmons joined forces with master luthier Steve Carr to create a unique bass guitar shaped like an axe that would suit his on-stage Demon persona perfectly. The resulting weapon-like instrument – aptly entitled The Axe Bass – is a true classic. Now a running trademark for KISS, there have been a number of incarnations of the Axe Bass including the pictured Cort GS-Axe-2 bass guitar Gene is aggressively clutching at the 2010 NAMM Show.
Michael Anthony’s Jack Daniel’s Bass
Michael Anthony’s now famous Jack Daniel’s Bass was created back in 1983 while Van Halen were working on their musical masterpiece ‘1984’. Anthony’s guitar tech and good friend Kevin ‘Dugie’ Dugan was charged with creating the bass, which was made with the blessing of Jack Daniel’s on one condition – that only three guitars were made. One is on display at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame museum, one is in storage and one is still used by Michael Anthony to this very day.
John Entwistle’s Buzzard Bass
The Ox played the iconic Buzzard Bass for the final 17 years of his career from 1985 to his untimely passing in 2002. Entwistle worked with Hans Peter Wilfer, founder of Warwick basses, on the striking bass and the pair came up with the moniker Buzzard after imbibing numerous drinks at London nightclub Maggie’s – neither could remember who first suggested the name. After they picked the name, the headstock was tweaked to resemble the beak of a buzzard.
John Fogerty’s Baseball Bat Guitar
Crafted by Philip Kubicki, John Fogerty named his unique guitar ‘Slugger’ in homage to the Louisville Slugger baseball bat. Created in 1985 when his album ‘Centerfield’ came out, Fogerty donated the instrument to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in 2010. Fogerty said at the time: “That guitar means a lot to me. It’s symbolizes two of my great loves, baseball and the guitar. When ‘Centerfield’ came out, it was after a long break and was such an important album to me on many levels. The lessons of baseball – the hits, the misses, the triumphs, and the losses – were something that I could really relate to in my life. So I got this idea to make a baseball bat guitar and of course, it had to be a Louisville Slugger.”
Ian Hunter’s Maltese Cross Guitar
Ian Hunter’s Maltese Cross Guitar was designed by American luthier Harvey Thomas in the 1970s. Despite its iconic status, Hunter says the guitar looked good but didn’t sound great and he sold it a number of years ago. Def Leppard and Planet Rock’s Joe Elliott had two new Maltese Crosses made for Hunter’s 70th birthday in 2009 that Hunter says sounded “GREAT!” Hunter says: “There are only two in the world. I think it’s really neat that a guitar can look that good AND sound so good. Very cool!! Praise be to Joe!!!”
Bumblefoot’s Vigier Flying Foot guitar
As the name suggests, Bumblefoot’s Vigier Flying Foot features a pink foot on the guitar body complete with wings that pop out. Bumblefoot says of his beloved instrument: “Vigier spent 5 months building this guitar by hand – it’s truly a masterpiece. Incredible detail on the guitar, down to the toenails. When you bend down the vibrato bar, wings pop out of the sides. They gave me this guitar at the NAMM convention in Los Angeles, January 1998. Plays and sounds the best of all my guitars – it’s my main guitar.”
George Lynch’s Mom
Influential Lynch Mob and ex-Dokken axeman George Lynch unveiled his skull and bones guitar – affectionately called ‘Mom’ – in the mid 1980s. Designed and hand-crafted by artist John ‘J. Frog’ Garcia, the guitar also featured an ESP Guitars decal on the headstock as Lynch was contracted with them at the time.
Andrew WK’s Taco Guitar
Hard partying rocker Andrew WK unveiled a delicious Taco Guitar to mark National Taco Day on 4th October 2017. His second foray into food-themed instruments following his Pizza Guitar a few years earlier, the custom Taco Guitar was created with ESP Guitars. WK said at the time: “I realised that since I had paid tribute to pizza, I now had to pay tribute to tacos in all their glory. I was destined to make a taco shaped guitar. This is proof that if you have the vision, no matter how outlandish or unruly, the team at ESP Guitars can turn it into a beautiful reality. And they only use the highest quality materials and they’re truly master craftsmen. Absolutely mind-blowing attention to detail and playability. There’s no compromise when it comes to the integrity of the instrument, or the hardness of the party.”
Misa Kitara Guitar Shaped MIDI Controller
Not technically a guitar, the Misa Kitara was a short-lived digital MIDI controller and musical instrument that was developed on 2011 and discontinued just two years later. Taking its name from the Finnish word for guitar (kitara), the instrument combined touch buttons for strings and frets with an 8-inch multi-touch screen that creates a variety of sound effects. Muse bassist Chris Wolstenholme can be seen playing a modified Misa Kitara in the video to the band’s 2012 song ‘Madness.’
Dave Hill’s Super Yob Guitar
Famed for his outrageous costumes and hilarious haircut, it seemed only right that Slade axeman Dave Hill had a unique and eccentric guitar. Created by luthier John Birch in 1973, the Super Yob was styled after a science fiction ray gun and instantly became synonymous with Dave Hill. Guitarist and songwriter Marco Pirroni bought the original Super Yob in the early eighties, but Hill has since had a replica made.
John 5’s Fender Telecaster Lava Lamp Guitar
John 5 has a number of eye-catching guitars in his arsenal, but the Fender Telecaster Lava Lamp Guitar is arguably the standout instrument of the lot. John 5 says: “It’s heavy as hell but it’s really cool because it lights up on stage… it weighs a ton! It sounds really good. There’s anti-freeze in it because when I ship it abroad it might freeze and crack the guitar.”
Ginger Wildheart’s Smiley Bones Guitar
Based on The Wildhearts’ fearsome logo, this truly phenomenal Smiley Bones Guitar was created in 2015 by Devil & Sons Guitars. Daniel Wallis made the guitar for Ginger Wildheart to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the ‘P.H.U. Q.’ album as a replacement for the original guitar which came out when the album was released but was later stolen. He explains to Planet Rock: “I sent some images of it to Ginger who loved it but asked if I could make a few changes so it met a perfect spec for him to play live. Instead of making the changes I just made another so there were in fact two that I made. Part of his spec was to have a particular BC Rich neck put on it, which I did, but then he decided that to play it live it would be better with a 24-fret neck, so I made that change too.”
Zakk Wylde’s Epiphone Graveyard Disciple guitar
Ozzy Osbourne and Black Label Society axeman Zakk Wylde with one of this Epiphone Graveyard Disciple signature guitars on stage in 2009. Nicknamed the ‘Bo Deadly’ by Zakk, the Graveyard Disciple comes in a coffin shaped case and features a crucifix on the body and headstock. Nice.
Eric Bloom’s Blue Öyster Cult Logo Guitar
We couldn’t do this list without including Eric Bloom’s famed guitar shaped like the Blue Öyster Cult logo. The bespoke guitar was created by master luthier Ronaldo at Pastore’s Music in Union City, New Jersey. In case you’re wondering, the logo was created by Bill Gawlik, the artist behind BOC’s first and second album covers, and it’s a stylization of the astronomical symbol for the planet Saturn.
Bootsy Collins’ Star-Shaped Space Bass
The flamboyant James Brown and Parliament-Funkadelic bassist’s first Star-Shaped Space Bass was created in 1975 by fledgling guitar maker Larry Pless who worked at an accordon shop called Gus Zoppi Music in Warren, Michigan. Since then there have been numerous incarnations of the Star-Shaped Space Bass, including Bootsy’s current signature Warwick star basses, but the basic design has stayed the same.
Brian May’s Red Special Guitar
Easily one of the most famous guitars in the history of rock music, Brian May created the Red Special with his dad Harold as a teenager in 1963 as he couldn’t afford a Fender, Gibson or Höfner guitar. Designed to intentionally create feedback, the guitar has helped define Brian May’s signature sound and he’s performed almost exclusively with it throughout Queen’s prime in the 1970s and 1980s until this present day.
Todd Rundgren’s Veleno Ankh Guitar
Todd Rundgren’s aluminium ankh-shaped guitar was created by metal craftsman John Veleno in the early 1970s. Highly regarded for their aesthetic appearance and also distinct playing style, a series of Velono guitars were made for a number of artists. Rundgren loved his so much, he had two made.
The Dean V Dave Mustaine Double Neck Electric Guitar
Dave Mustaine’s bespoke double neck guitar, created by Dean, has been one of his main instruments for the past decade. Thanks to its jagged shape and the metal artwork emblazoned on the body, the guitar is an absolute aesthetic triumph – a behemoth of an instrument that suits Megadeth’s brutal music perfectly.
Rob Davis’ Heart-Shaped Guitar
Mud guitarist Rob Davis played his famous red heart-shaped guitar during the glam rockers’ commercial peak in the 1970s and he still performs with it to this very day. Here he is proudly flaunting the guitar in a promo shoot with Mud almost five decades ago.
Prince’s yellow ‘Cloud’ Guitar
Late music legend Prince had an extensive and highly flamboyant custom guitar collection consisting of more than 100 instruments. Among the standout instruments was Prince’s yellow “Cloud” guitar, which sold for $225,000 under the hammer in 2018.
Rick Nielsen’s Uncle Dick
A prolific collector, Rick Nielsen has amassed over 2,000 guitars over the decades. Alongside his trademark Five Neck (also pictured here), arguably the most famous of the bunch is his Hamer ‘Uncle Dick’ double neck guitar from 1983, which is based on a likeness of himself.
Michael Angelo Batio’s Quad Guitar
As seen in the video to his 2020 song ‘Time Traveller’, Michael Angelo Batio also invented the Quad-Guitar, which features – you guessed it – two sets of twin-neck V-shaped guitars. Outrageous yet highly impressive!
Lita Ford’s B.C. Rich Monkey Train guitar
The former Runaways rocker unveiled her train-themed B.C. Rich Monkey Train guitar in her ‘Playin’ With Fire’ official video in 1991. Lita told Guitar Afficionado a few years back: “I got into B.C. Rich. I was always over there carving out new ideas and helping to make new stuff. They would make anything I asked them to make.”
James Hetfield’s Carl Guitar
In 2018, James Hetfield proudly showed off his unique new guitar – dubbed Carl – to Metallica fans. The rugged instrument is named after 3132 Carlson Boulevard in El Cerrito, California, where Metallica were based during their breakthrough years from 1983 to 1986. The garage was later demolished but James’s friend Andy Anderson of the Bay Area thrash group Attitude Adjustment kept eight pieces of wood from the heavy metal landmark and gifted them to him years later. Papa Het then enlisted the services of master custom guitar maker Ken Lawrence to craft him an instrument using those planks of wood. Carl featured on Metallica’s WorldWired World Tour where it was used for performances of ‘Hardwired… to Self-Destruct’ track ‘Moth Into Flame.’
Dan Hartman’s Bass Suit
Unfortunately, we’ve been unable to acquire an image of the late Dan Hartman’s Bass Suit but there’s no way we can miss it out! The Edgar Winter Group bassist and solo musician paid a reported $5,000 for the suit in 1974 (huge money at the time), which he designed with Los Angeles couturier Bill Witten. Made from a rubbery fabric that featured the instrument in the pelvic pocket, the Bass Suit’s controls are on the sleeve attached to an aluminium plate and the guitar neck ends with a crescent moon.
Stig Pederson’s iPhone Bass
Stig Pedersen, bassist/vocalist of Danish rock band D-A-D, has a number of outlandish bass creations that he performs with including a rocket shaped bass, a reverse bass where the head stock and body are swopped around, and a transparent bass. He hit the headlines in 2018 when he unveiled his latest playful creation – a bass shaped like an iPhone.
Bill Bailey’s Gary Hutchins Six-Neck Guitar
Comedy legend, esteemed musician and Strictly Come Dancing champion, Bill Bailey, played this six-necked guitar aptly called The Beast as part of his stand-up routine in 2011. An apparent nod to Rick Nielsen’s Five Neck, the instrument was created by guitar maker Gary Hutchins, the eponymous founder of Hutchins guitars, and it once went on display at London’s Albert and Victoria Museum.
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How to put a stubborn tire on a rim
Almost every cyclist has come across a situation where it is very difficult to put on a tire – about 10-15 cm remains around the circumference of the rim, which do not stretch in any way. I have encountered this many times, as I love trying different combinations of tires and change them often.
It used to be that, having done enough swearing, you erase your fingers to bloody calluses and finally, at the cost of frantic efforts, the stubborn tire falls into place. And then, you know what? Then you notice that you put on the tire with the wrong direction of rotation.🙂
The reason for the difficulty lies in a combination of factors – a rigid tire cord, inelastic sidewall, high rim flange. Most of the time, road tires are hard to stretch, but sometimes especially stubborn MTB specimens come across.
Now I will try to give recommendations on how to put an especially stubborn tire on a bicycle rim – everything that I managed to understand and apply myself. If anyone also has experience in this matter, please add in the comments. So, here is the sequence of actions.
- First, as usual, we pull on one side – it’s easy.
- Carefully insert the tube nipple and spread it over the entire inner cavity of the tire. You can even give a pump to a couple of strokes so that it straightens out.
- Pull on the second side, starting from the side of the nipple. Click on the nipple so that the camera “sits” in this place.
- Now the most important and the most unobvious. In order for the last centimeters of the tire to be able to easily pull on the rim, you need to make sure that the “gap” is not selected during putting on, that is, you need to make sure that the cord does not begin to slowly put on the rim already in those places where the tire is fitted.
In short, it’s easier to explain in the picture – any rim has the deepest place in the center, you need the edges of both beads to lie in this recess during the bead process, thus giving slack to throw the rest of the sidewall circumference over the high rim rim.
I’m pretty sure that when you have problems with the bead, the reason is that the edge of the sidewall has already crawled out of this recess a little, thereby pulling the entire tire.
- Slowly flank the second sidewall, make sure that the edges lie in the recess, and constantly shake the already flanged parts to remove the gap, this slack to the very top, where you will have the last stubborn centimeters.
- If the last part rested and does not stretch, do not continue to pull – dissolve everything and try again.
I know that some mechanics advise using mounting paddles for stubborn tires, but in my opinion, they do not really help, and the risk of breaking the sidewall is quite real.
90% of tires are easily folded by hand, and for the remaining 10%, as it turned out, there is a special fitting, the existence of which I learned a few days ago.I drove into the bike workshop to straighten the bent cock for me, the mechanic there was just busy with the edging of the tire onto the rim. Attempts to stretch his hands, a few energetic words in Spanish, and he took out a little thing from the drawer that allowed him to “finish off” stubborn centimeters in just a couple of seconds.
Here it is , it costs a penny, I will definitely order it myself. The mechanic said that he uses this rig almost every day when he comes across a vicious high-rim tire.
Hopefully, with my recommendations and this fitting, stubborn tires will be more fun to tighten.🙂
PS. By the way, they say that there are tires that can be problematic to remove from the rim, but personally I have never seen this, and during my cycling life I have tried several dozen different tires, both mtb and road. Tell us in the comments if you have ever had problems removing a tire.
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It must be said that the upholstery of upholstered furniture is a laborious process. However, following the instructions and general rules, you will definitely achieve the expected result. The first thing to do is to completely disassemble the furniture into its constituent elements. As a rule, for upholstered furniture, these elements are the backrest, seat and sidewalls. Then the old upholstery is completely removed. You need to do this carefully, trying to leave the fabric itself intact so that you can cut out a new upholstery on it. After that, the condition of the padding material is assessed and, if necessary, replaced.
FIRST STAGE. DISASSEMBLY SOFA
In order to disassemble the sofa into its component parts, you need to disconnect the sidewalls by unscrewing the fasteners between the frame and them. After that, we disconnect the back and seat from the frame, remove the locking mechanism, separating the seat and back from each other. Before carrying out all these actions, be sure to photograph the order of fastening the mechanisms, this will greatly facilitate the reassembly.
We start with the sidewall. Usually, the upholstery is fastened with staples in the part facing the floor.Use a flat screwdriver and round nose pliers to pry out the staples. Do not cut the fabric, try to keep the original look of the upholstery.
SECOND STAGE. SIDE
Under the old upholstery you will see a layer of foam rubber, cotton wadding or padding polyester. If you are satisfied with the condition of the padding material, you do not need to change it. But if the sofa has served your family for 10 or more years, it is better to replace its contents.
Let’s say you decide to change the filler, then you should completely remove it from the sides.After examining each side panel carefully, peel off the material, removing the remaining fragments, while not touching the fastening bolts with which the side panels are fastened to the base of the sofa. At this stage, it is worth considering whether you want to change the appearance of the sidewalls, for example, to give them volume.
For volumetric sidewalls, foam rubber with a thickness of 20-40 mm is required. On a sheet of foam rubber, the outer side is placed on a sidewall, along which a pattern is made with a wallpaper knife so that the foam rubber can cover the entire outer side of the sidewall and 50% of the inner (from the top to the seat of the sofa).Then you need to pull and secure the foam rubber on the sidewall. After that, the entire layer of foam rubber is covered with a canvas, which is attached to the sidewall with brackets.
If you decide not to add volume to the sidewalls, just lay a layer of padding polyester or cotton batting on them, followed by covering with canvas.
THIRD STAGE. BACK AND SEAT
The procedure for working with the seats is somewhat different from changing the upholstery and filler at the sidewalls. First, the damaged mechanisms and the wooden frame are replaced and reinforced as needed.In addition, in front of the foam rubber, a dense fabric is placed on the spring block, which is attached on the sides with a harsh thread. The foam itself is laid in two layers, first a hard one, and then a soft layer is placed across the frame. Next, the foam rubber is covered with a canvas cloth, which is stretched and attached to the front of the frame and fixed on its back side.
The upholstery of the back of the sofa is made similar to the upholstery of the seat, with only one condition – when laying the filler, only one layer of foam rubber is used – soft.This is necessary for the folding mechanism to work properly; with a bulky layer of foam rubber, it will be extremely difficult to fold or unfold the sofa-book.
FOURTH STAGE. NEW UPHOLSTERY
You need to choose an upholstery material based on its main characteristics: wear resistance, color fastness, water and dirt resistance and, of course, design. The most common materials are courtesan, flock, jacquard, chinilla, tapestry and velor. The fabric for the new upholstery is cut according to the pattern of the old fabric.When cutting a new upholstery fabric, make sure that the pattern on the sidewalls matches, you also need to be more careful so that the front and back sides of the fabric do not get confused when upholstering furniture with your own hands. The same rules must be followed when tightening the back and seat.
The covered fold-out sofa is ready to assemble. A locking mechanism is installed. For a more stable fastening, the holes can be bored for larger screws. The backrest and seat of the sofa are installed, and only then each sidewall in turn.After completing the work, the sofa should be checked for folding / unfolding. If everything is in order, then you did everything right.
90,000 how to stretch canvas on a stretcher? Instruction
Before every artist, at the beginning of any work, the question arises: how to stretch the canvas (or finished painting) on a stretcher? Experienced painters know the secrets of this process, but novice masters, like buyers who purchased a canvas without a base, do not know the nuances of the issue.We hope that our article will help you easily and quickly pull the canvas onto a stretcher at home using available tools.
Types of canvas stretching
Canvas without stretcher is usually bought first, after which the corresponding base is selected for it. The canvas should be 10-15 centimeters larger than the wooden frame on each side, otherwise it will be impossible to stretch the picture onto a stretcher. There are 3 main options for stretching the canvas on a stretcher, the first of which we do not recommend using.
- Blade holding brackets are nailed to the sides of the base. They look ugly, making it difficult to perceive creativity.
- Staples at the back, leaving the ends unsealed. This is the so-called studio stretch.
- The staples are also attached from the back, but the sides are a continuation of the picture. It is a gallery canvas stretch, the most aesthetic and attractive.
Do-it-yourself stretching of the canvas onto a stretcher is quite difficult without skill.If it doesn’t work, it’s better to contact a framing workshop or our company. Professional equipment and the experience of craftsmen will help you quickly and evenly stretch the canvas, and, if necessary, perform a constriction. The process is feasible at home, however, this aspect largely depends on the type of selected stretcher.
Only an experienced specialist who understands wood species and knows the secrets of carpentry can make a stretcher for a picture with his own hands.Therefore, it is better to purchase the finished product in a specialized store. There are 2 types of picture stretchers, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.
- Blank canvas stretcher made of rigidly bonded dies. You can make such a frame for a picture with your own hands, it is important to check the parallelism of the sides and the same diagonals. For him, it is advisable to use a primed canvas.
- The modular subframe is more practical and comfortable. You can assemble it yourself at home.Over time, when the blade sags, it is not necessary to remove the staples, it is enough to knock in the wedges to increase the tension.
When choosing a quality subframe, you should pay attention not only to the ideal geometry, but also to the type of wood. Too hard dry quickly, soft deform and does not hold wedges. You can define softwood by weight: the frame is almost half the weight of a good base of medium density wood. Before buying, you should also examine the frame for the absence of knots, bugs, mold.For large canvases, a cross is needed.
How to stretch canvas onto a stretcher
Do-it-yourself stretching of the canvas onto a stretcher is performed in a specific sequence. First of all, the canvas must be positioned so that the threads run parallel to the long sides of the frame, otherwise the paint will crumble. It is not necessary to stretch the raw canvas too much: it will stretch significantly during the priming process. You don’t need to be too zealous at all: you can tear the canvas. To pull the canvas onto a stretcher, you will need a furniture stapler with staples, a hammer, a tool for stretching the canvas onto a stretcher with your own hands and a spray gun.
- The canvas is placed face down on a clean pad. A stretcher is placed in the middle, observing the parallelism of the fibers to the bars.
- Bend the upper long edge of the material and drive in the first bracket in the middle of the die. We do the same with the lower part, while pulling the canvas tightly with our hands.
- If the painting is turned upside down, a stretch crease will be visible. To get rid of it, we fix the canvas in the middle of the left and then on the right short side.
- Then we drive in the staples one by one, moving from the center to the edges. The canvas tension pattern remains the same: top – bottom – left – right. Distance between staples 3-4 cm.
- Pulling force is important. If it is insufficient, sagging will appear, if it is too strong, microcracks will appear.
- We do not reach the corners of 5–6 cm. We carefully make bends, fixing the bracket after each. The result is a beautiful and non-interfering corner without protruding edges.
Illustrated stretching process
As a result, a do-it-yourself canvas on a stretcher should clink like a drum when tapped. If you have special rubberized tongs, it is better to use them to pull the canvas onto stretchers than to use hand force. Primed blades, even with the correct tension, may have unevenness on the back side. You can get rid of them with a spray bottle, slightly wetting the canvas.
If you want to order a painting and stretch the canvas on a stretcher at an affordable price – we invite you to our company. We carry out high-quality large-format printing on canvas with eco-solvent paints on a natural basis. Experienced experts will be happy to share the secrets of how to make a stretcher and stretch the canvas according to all the rules. We offer the production of modular paintings according to an individual sketch for the decoration of rooms.
Bus structureInternal hermetic layer
The inner pressure layer replaces the inner tube and consists of a rubber layer with excellent sealing properties.Rubber is usually composed of butyl, synthetic rubber, or polyisoprene rubber. The main function of the hermetic layer is to keep the air inside the tire.Breaker (layer between tread band and carcass)
The breaker is a rubber belt reinforced with steel or synthetic threads. Located between the tread and the carcass and wraps around the tire. A belt breaker is used to protect the tire carcass and connect it to the tread band.It absorbs external shocks and prevents the tread from tearing or damage due to direct contact with the carcass.Tread (part in direct contact with the roadway)
The tread consists of a thick rubber layer in direct contact with the road surface. It is extremely tear and shock resistant and protects the carcass and belt inside the tire. Internal abrasion resistant rubber is used to increase tire life.Shoulder area (shoulder of the tire)
The shoulder area, located between the tread and the sidewall, is made from the thickest rubber in the entire tire. It is designed to quickly and easily dissipate heat that accumulates in the tire when the vehicle is moving.Sidewall (side of the tire)
Situated between the shoulder and the bead, it protects the carcass and enhances ride performance through its flexible stretching and compression.This component also contains information about the tire, including the type, construction, tread pattern, country of manufacture, model name, etc.Carcass (tire base)
The carcass is the core of the tire and is its most important component. All layers of rubber reinforced with cords are called carcass. It absorbs internal air pressure, vehicle weight and shock.Bead (part in contact with the rim)
The bead is used to firmly attach the tire to the rim.Consists of a bead ring, steel strands, rubber filler and bead tape. As a rule, the bead is slightly tensioned so that in the event of a sudden drop in air pressure while driving, the tire will not be disassembled from the rim.
Loose tension on the alternator belt. How to tighten the alternator belt – tension the belt with an adjusting bar or adjusting bolt
Drive of the water pump, compressor and generator
carried by V-belts, from reliable performance
of which the normal operation of these units depends.Therefore, at
Protect belts from daily engine maintenance
oil and fuel hit, control their tension and
adjust it. Check tension especially carefully
belts during the first 50 hours of engine operation, since this is
time their greatest extraction occurs. Belt tension
should always be normal, since both redundant and
Insufficient tension leads to premature exit
them out of order.In addition, excessive tension on the drive belt
tensioned water pump belt at
pressing on the middle of a long branch with a force of 40 N (4 kgf)
deflects 7–12 mm (Fig. 55) or 10–15 mm (Fig. 56), and thebelt
compressors – 4 – 8 mm on a short leg (Fig. 58).
Check tension of alternator drive belts by pressing with
with a force of 40 N (4 kgf) in the middle of the branch of each belt (Fig.59),
while the alternator drive belts should bend by 10 –
15 mm. If the belts deflect more or less than specified,
adjust their tension.
Tension of a belt of a water pump of YaMZ-236NE engines,
HE2, BE, BE2 (fig. 55) adjust the tensioner, for
1 loosen the bolts of the tensioning arm arm
2 with a Ø12 mm screwdriver inserted in the hole
tension the belt;
3 without weakening the tension force, tighten the fastening bolts
tensioner arm arm;
4 Check belt tension.
Fig. 55. Checking the tension of the belt of the water pump
YaMZ-236NE, NE2, BE, BE2 engines
Fig. 56. Checking tension
water pump belt
Fig. 57. Withdrawal
engines YaMZ-236N, B
Tension of the belt of the water pump of YaMZ-236N, Bengines
adjust with shims (Fig.56, 57). For belt tension
unscrew the nuts securing the sidewall of the pulley and remove one or two
shims (fig. 57). Put gaskets on
the outer side of the sidewall and in series, in several
receptions, tighten the nuts, turning the pulley after tightening
each district. Then check that the belt is correctly tensioned.
When replacing an old belt with a new one, put all spacers between
hub and removable pulley sidewall and adjust tension
belts as above.
Adjust the tension of the compressor belt with a tensioner
device. Before adjusting, loosen the lock nut by one
revolution, the nut of the tensioner pulley axle – for
half a turn and the nut of the tensioner bolt two turns.
Turning the tensioning bolt, adjust the belt tension.
After adjustment, tighten the nut and locknut of the axle
with a torque of 120 … 150 Nm (12 … 15 kgfm) and the nut of the tensioner bolt
– with a torque of 10 … 20 Nm (1 … 2 kgfm), with a higher torque
tightening the adjustment will be violated due to the movement of the axis
by moving the generator relative to the axis of its attachment.
alternator, alternator rail retaining nut and bolt
generators to the bar. Tightensecurely after adjustment
generator. With an increased hood and breakage of at least one of
alternator drive belts replace with a set both belts for
to ensure a uniform load on them.
Fig. 60. The order of tightening the nuts for fastening the heads
a) – common cylinder head;
b) – individual cylinder head.
Check the tightening torque of the head fastening nuts
motors and, if necessary, tighten them up to
235 … 255 N . m (24 … 26 kgf . m).
shown in Fig. 60.
IT IS DEFINED AS THIS WILL LEAD TO BREAKING THE STUD AND
CYLINDER HEAD BREAKAGE, A TIGHTNESS
THIS WILL NOT RECOVER CONNECTIONS.
After tightening the cylinder head nuts
adjust the thermal clearances in the valve mechanism and
Install the cylinder head covers.
CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT IN
Thermal clearances in the valve mechanism are intended for
to ensure a tight fit of the valve to the seat at
expansion of valve drive parts during operation
engine. The value of the thermal gap at the inlet and outlet
valves are set the same and adjustable within
0.25 … 0.30 mm. When re-checking the clearances after scrolling
changing them to the limits of 0.20 … 0.35 mm due to error
timing gear, which is valid.
Decreases if thermal gaps are too large
filling and cleaning of cylinders, shock loads increase and
the wear of the parts of the gas distribution mechanism increases.
With very small clearances due to thermal expansion
parts of the gas distribution mechanism not provided
gas-dynamic processes in engine cylinders, deteriorate
power and technical and economic indicators of the engine.
In addition, reducing the clearance in the exhaust valve actuator
can lead to overheating of the valves and burnout.
Adjust thermal clearances on a cold engine or
not earlier than 1 hour after it stopped.
When adjusting thermal gaps and re-
on the head of the right bank of cylinders
exhaust valves to the end of the axle, intake valves – to
on the head of the left row of rocker arm cylinders you –
start valves to thrust washer, intake valves
– to the end of the axle.
Exhaust valves of the right bank of cylinders
are placed closer to the fan, the left row of cylinders – to
1 Switch off the fuel supply.
2 Remove the cylinder head cover bolts
and remove the covers.
3 Check the tightening torque of the axle bolts
(12 … 15 kgf · m).
4 Turning the crankshaft clockwise (at
view from the fan side) from the front with a key for the bolt
fastening the pulley or behind the crowbar for the flywheel through
hatch at the bottom of the flywheel housing, using
flywheel holes (Fig.61), set the moment when
will rise (i.e. close). Continuing to spin
crankshaft, turn it by about 1/3 more
revolutions (≈120º). This is the position of the crankshaft
corresponds to the compression stroke in the first cylinder and both
valves of this cylinder will be closed.
Fig. 61. Cranking the crankshaft
5 Check with a feeler gauge the clearance between valve face and nose
rocker arms at the inlet and outlet valves of the first
cylinders and adjust if necessary.
Fig. 62. Gap adjustment
adjusting screws, insert a feeler gauge into the gap and turn
screw with a screwdriver (Fig. 62), set the gap to 0.25 … 0.30 mm.
While holding the screw with a screwdriver, tighten the nut and check
clearance. Correctly adjusted
0.25 mm must enter at
light pressure, 0.30 mm thick – with effort.
the remaining cylinders turn the crankshaft in
the same direction until the intake is completely closed
variable cylinder valves and additionally
by 1/3 turn. Adjust clearances as described above
carry out in accordance with the order of their work
1-4-2-5-3-6. The cylinder numbering scheme is given in
section “Technical characteristics”.
engine and listen to its work. Knocking in the valve
characteristic valve knock to stop the engine and
Repeat the gap adjustment.
9 Fit and secure the cylinder head covers,
Check the condition of the gaskets. At the junction
covers, oil should not leak.
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING ANGLE
Drivers who take good care of their car regularly check its technical condition. But given the fact that a modern car is a complex set of various parts and mechanisms, it is not so easy to keep the state of all elements under control. But hardly anyone wants to bring the car to a critical state in the form of a breakdown, which will nullify the whole process of the car’s activity.For this reason, thrifty motorists try to perform a special ritual before each exit, which consists in inspecting the most important nodes. In this list, a parameter such as the tension of the alternator belt should be included in the diagnosis. It is very important to be aware of how to tighten the alternator belt and do it correctly, efficiently and for a long time.
Belt transmission is the only way to transfer rotary motion from the crankshaft to the generator. The belt, which is made of elastic reinforced rubber, is designed to connect two pulleys together.This pair rotates at a speed of several thousand revolutions per minute. With the fact of such indicators, it is considered a prerequisite when the belt fits very tightly to the pulley groove. In this case, it does not allow any kind of slippage.
With regard to the degree of tension of this device, then there can be three options:
- Excessive tension, which reduces the life of the generator bearings.
- Insufficient tension when the belt is relaxed, causing it to slip and whistle when cornering.As a result, there are certain drawdowns in the voltage of the on-board network.
- Normal tension is naturally ideal.
If you suspect a problem with the belt, then I recommend that you immediately carry out the appropriate diagnostics, which will help you to know exactly about the condition and degree of tension of this mechanism. To implement the operations described below, the driver will need a caliper, and in the absence of one, a regular ruler, preferably a metal one, will do.
At the first stage, you need to press on the described device with a certain force (not less than 3 and not more than 4 kg). After that, you need to measure the degree of bending using a prepared device. If the tension is normal, then the indicator will not exceed the mark of 1 cm . Otherwise, we can talk about an unacceptable condition of the alternator belt.
There is another way to diagnose the analyzed device. You will need a dynamometer to use it. In this case, the belt must be pulled to the side and, again, its deflection must be measured.
An experienced specialist is able, without using any of the above described devices, to understand whether the generator belt is in normal condition. But I do not recommend overestimating my knowledge and skills and still carry out diagnostics using special devices.
As for the optimal tension values, these are the following data: for the 37.3701 generator – a deflection of 10-15 mm, for the 9402.3701 generator – a deflection of 6-10 mm. In this case, the pressing force should be equal to about 10 kgf.
Within the framework of this, it should be noted about the resource of the described mechanism. So, auto experts advise replacing the alternator belt every 15 thousand km. And another reason for the need to repair a belt is when it peels or breaks.
If the car owner, in the process of diagnosing the alternator belt, found a weak degree of its tension, then this still not very terrible and dangerous defect should be corrected. How to tighten the alternator belt – this will be discussed further.
First of all, it should be noted that, when starting the operation of tightening the alternator belt, it would not hurt to get acquainted with the list of recommendations from the manufacturer for a start. They can often provide very useful information. And at least you should be aware of those individual characteristics of your car, which can in any way change the general repair process.
The belt tightening procedure can be performed using two devices: an adjusting bar or an adjusting bolt.
Here the answer to the question of how to tighten the alternator belt will not be particularly difficult, since many cars have a very simple mechanism for adjusting the analyzed mechanism.
When using the adjusting bar as the main tightening tool, you should be aware that the car generator itself is attached to the engine crankcase. This is done with a long bolt, which allows it to move from top to bottom.And the elements designed to fix the position of the generator are called a slot and a nut. They are part of the arcuate bar, which is located in the upper part of the described structure. In order to achieve the optimum tension value, follow these instructions:
To carry out the tightening procedure using the adjusting bolt, which, by the way, is a more convenient and progressive way in the practice of servicing cars, you need to adhere to this algorithm of actions:
- Loosen the nuts of both the lower and upper generator mounting.
- Turn the adjusting bolt clockwise.
- Move the alternator away from the unit while checking the tension at the same time.
- Correctly tighten the alternator mounting nuts.
Upon completion of the tensioning of the generator belt (it does not matter with which device they were implemented), first of all, it is necessary to check the operability of the general generator set. They usually start by checking the circuit when the engine is turned off.To do this, turn the key so that the control lamp on the dashboard lights up. And only under this condition is it allowed to start the engine. After some time, as a result of crankshaft rotations at medium frequencies, the light should go out.
If you are having any difficulty in tensioning the alternator belt, I advise you to find the maximum amount of information on the alternator set and tensioning procedure depending on the vehicle model.
In general, this action should not cause any particular difficulties, since it is performed according to the standard scheme even by novice drivers.By the way, regardless of which tool was used to tension the belt, it is imperative to carry out a control measurement after a short trip. This will allow the car owner to be absolutely confident in the normal condition of the alternator belt and, as a result, the excellent operation of the entire car.
Video “How to tighten the alternator belt yourself”
The record shows how to remove the squeak and knock of the camshaft using a stretch.
Absolutely any, more or less, an experienced driver knows that the correct tension of the alternator belt will provide a reliable power supply to the vehicle’s on-board network and a good one, which is so important when starting the engine.A loosely tensioned belt can slip relative to the generator pulley and quickly break due to heat, and a tightly tensioned belt creates a large load on the bearings of the generator rotor shaft and pump, as a result of which they quickly fail.
As you understand, a parameter such as belt tension should always be within the normal range. To check the belt tension, you can use a metal strip half a meter long and a simple ruler. Almost all domestic cars allow the belt deflection, which is formed between the generator pulley and the crankshaft, equal to 15 millimeters.The effort, in this case, should not exceed 10 kg / cm.
1. To measure the tension of the alternator belt, place a thin metal strip between the crankshaft pulley and alternator pulley.
2. Act on the belt by pulling it away from the strip using your fingers.
3. Measure the distance from the uppermost position of the alternator belt to the metal strip.
The resulting value will mean the deflection of the alternator belt.If it has any deviations from the norm, then it will be necessary to adjust the alternator belt or replace it, depending on the degree of belt wear.
Adjusting the alternator belt
So, if you come to the conclusion that the alternator belt tension is insufficient or excessive, then you need to proceed with the adjustments. It is quite simple to carry out, so you can do without car service employees.
1.Place the vehicle on a level surface and exclude any accidental movement. The presence of a viewing pit is not at all necessary, however, if your car is of a “classic” family, then it is better to use the pit. Disconnect the negative terminal of the battery to avoid accidental short circuits in the live parts of the engine compartment (wires, plugs and metal housings).
2. Loosen the nut located on the alternator adjuster bar.It is not necessary to unscrew it too much, since you only need to free the generator from fastening. Do the same with the bottom nut. It is screwed on with a long bolt, which is the main fastener of any generator.
3. Insert a pry bar between the engine and the alternator and bend the alternator, applying the required force to the belt. Without slackening the applied force, tighten the adjusting bar nut as tight as possible. After that, check the belt tension as described above.If the measurement result is not correct, then again loosen the nut and repeat the tension.
4. Once the belt tension is adequate for maintenance, tighten the nut on the long bolt. This completes the alternator belt adjustment.
Video – How to tighten or loosen the alternator belt VAZ
In the case when tensioning the alternator belt is impossible due to severe wear of the rubber component, it is necessary to replace the belt.relevant in the case when the belt is stretched or has any defects in the form of burrs and cracks. In addition, during operation, it can emit a characteristic whistle, by which it is not difficult to determine its faulty state.
Purchase exactly the same alternator belt before replacing. A product from another car model will not fit in any way – you need to remember this well.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and immobilize it.The presence of a viewing hole, as in the first case, is not mandatory, but a desirable condition. Be sure to disconnect the negative terminal of the battery.
2. Loosen the nut that secures the alternator to the shim. After that, loosen the nut that tightens the long bolt from the bottom of the generator.
3. Pull the alternator towards the engine and remove the old belt.
4. Fitting a new belt is more complicated.The most important thing is to make every effort, while not spoiling the product. First, it is recommended to put the belt on the crankshaft pulley, then on the alternator pulley. If you have a water pump pulley – last, put the belt on the pump pulley.
5. Then tension the belt and tighten all loose nuts. Remember to reinstall the battery terminal.
This is how the alternator belt tension is checked, adjusted and replaced.This set of procedures is basic and is performed with a standard set of automotive instruments. This does not require special knowledge, so you can check the belt tension yourself.
One of the technical works that the car owner can perform on his own without the involvement of car service specialists is the tightening of the alternator belt. Driving a vehicle with a loose alternator belt negatively affects the battery and can lead to its complete discharge and failure.That is why, when the first signs of a weakening of the alternator belt appear, it is important to tighten it in order to normalize the battery charging and the operation of the car’s electrical equipment.Table of contents:
Please note: On some vehicles, the alternator belt also drives the pump. If it is not pulled up in time, this will lead to negative consequences. At a minimum, the risk of engine overheating will increase, which, in turn, may result in the need for overhaul.
Symptoms of a loose alternator belt
Not all drivers know exactly when the alternator belt is loosened, and what signs indicate this. The main symptom of a loose alternator belt is this. It is best heard when the engine starts, as well as when accelerating.
Important: Remember that not only a weakened alternator belt can lead to such squeals. Similar signs of loosening of other belt drives – or power steering.
To accurately determine that the whistle comes from a weakened alternator belt, you need to check it.The easiest way to do this is to turn off the engine, then manually check how well the belt is tensioned. To do this, you need to check the amount of belt deflection. To do this, press down on the belt. If it deflects by no more than 0.5 cm, then its tension is sufficient for normal operation. If the deflection is greater, this indicates that the alternator belt needs to be tightened.
Another symptom that clearly indicates the presence of problems with the alternator or its belt tension is a strong drop in the battery charge level.
How to tighten the alternator belt
After you find that the alternator belt is loose, it is better not to delay with this problem and immediately start solving it, that is, tighten the belt. This is a simple job that you can handle on your own without having professional technical skills and knowledge. However, depending on the car, the process of tensioning the alternator belt may differ, we will consider the main ones.
The simplest mechanism for adjusting the tension of the alternator belt is the adjusting bar.It can be found, more often, on cars of the budget price category.
A generator with a similar mechanism is attached to the engine block or crankcase with a long screw. With this screw, you can move the generator relative to the motor. A bar with a slot for a nut is used as an adjustment mechanism. Most often, this mechanism is located at the top of the generator.
To adjust the generator fixed to the bar, do the following:
- Unscrew or loosen the adjusting nut itself;
- Using a pry bar or similar tool, move the alternator away from the engine so that the belt is sufficiently tensioned;
- Next, the previously loosened nut is tightened on the bar.
- You can then check how well the job is done and whether the belt is tensioned enough.
A more reliable and modern method of mounting the generator involves the use of an adjusting screw. On modern foreign premium cars, as well as on many models of the middle and even budget price segment, this method of fastening is used. To tighten the alternator belt tensioned with the adjusting screw, you must:
- Loosen the top or bottom tightening of the generator;
- Next, make one turn of the adjusting screw clockwise;
- Move the alternator away from the cylinder block, making sure the belt is sufficiently tensioned;
- Tighten the nuts that secure the generator.
After that, you need to check how well the alternator belt is tensioned. Re-stretch if necessary.
Important: An over-tensioned alternator belt can lead to rapid wear.
Replacing the alternator belt
If, after tightening the alternator belt, it continues to whistle and starts drooping quickly, it may need to be replaced. The most common reasons for replacing the alternator belt are:
If any of the above symptoms appears, or the alternator belt breaks, it must be replaced.When choosing a alternator belt for replacement, it is recommended to use the selection by VIN-code, or you can provide information about the required belt to the seller, having specified it in advance in the book on the technical operation of the car.
The process of changing the belt itself is quite simple, you can familiarize yourself with it in the book on the technical operation of your car. Before starting work, you need to put the car on the handbrake and de-energize the network by removing the terminal from the battery. The work itself boils down to the fact that the fastening is first loosened, after which the generator must be pressed against the engine and the old belt removed.Next, a new belt is pulled in its place.
Very important. If the belt is relaxed, then at high speeds it slips, whistles, as a result of which there are drawdowns in the voltage of the on-board network.
It is also not worth tightening the alternator belt. With a strongly tensioned belt, the life of the generator bearings decreases sharply ().
How to identify a loose belt?
A weakly tensioned alternator belt often emits sounds (whistles), and voltage drops occur (headlights are weak and blinking in the dark), perhaps a red “battery” icon on the instrument panel winks.
What should be the tension of the alternator belt?
The belt must not be too tight or too loose. Optimal tension – the belt is tensioned and flexed by 10-15mm (for the 37.3701 generator) and 6-10mm (for the 9402.3701 generator) when pressed with a force of 10kg (see figure).
How to tension the alternator belt?
Tensioning the alternator belt is easy. This operation will take about 10 minutes.I note right away that different engines (1.5 and 1.6 liters) are installed on the VAZ 2114, 2113, 2115, therefore, the process of tightening the belt is different for them.
For 2111 engine (1.5L)
- Loosen the upper and lower fastenings of the generator (see figure).
- Adjust the belt tension using the adjusting screw (see picture). Clockwise we tighten the belt, counter-we loosen it.
- After tightening to the desired moment, tighten the generator mounts and check the belt.
For 1.6L engine
In this operation, in addition to the keys, we will need a small crowbar.
- We also loosen both fasteners of the generator (see figure).
- Next, take a crowbar and move the generator away from the engine (tighten the belt), resting the crowbar on the cylinder block (see figure). If the belt tension needs to be relaxed, then we move the generator towards the engine.
- We tighten the generator mounts and check the belt tension.
If, after adjusting the belt, the problem of voltage sags remains, then look for another problem by first checking the alternator ().
How to tension the belt of the generator Niva Chevrolet
How to tighten the belt of the Niva Chevrolet generator: photos and videos
Most of the VAZ-Chevrolet SUVs were and are produced with a 2123 engine. The simplest operation on it is to adjust the belt tension. Here we will look at how to tighten the alternator belt on a Chevrolet Niva – by this word we mean the belt of auxiliary units.A separate drive is provided for the air conditioner. But he will not interfere with us.
The part in question is shown in one video. We’re watching.
Tighten the alternator belt
Check that the ignition is off. After opening the hood, you need to remove the plastic trim, overcoming the resistance of the clips (4 pcs.). Then, taking a screwdriver, loosen the clamp on the main duct (photo 2).
A set of preliminary steps
Using a “10” wrench, unscrew the fastening screw (photo 3).The screw is removed, and then the air duct must be removed from the filter housing. The preparation is complete.
What and how to adjust
Before tightening the alternator belt, three nuts are unscrewed on the Chevrolet Niva. You need to unscrew them by 1-2 turns, but first you need to find each of them.
Fasteners of the adjusting unit
Nuts are designed for a turnkey “for 13”:
- The first is indicated by an arrow in photo 1;
- The second and third are located near the adjusting screw. They are shown in photo 2.
The screw itself in the first figure is between points 2-3.
The adjustment process on the Chevrolet Niva
With a 13 ”spanner, the screw can be unscrewed, thereby loosening the tension, or tightened. We turn the key to the left – the tension is weakened (photo 2).
If the adjustment is correct, pressing the belt at point P (see drawing) causes a deflection of 1.1-1.2 cm. The pressure force should be 75 N.
Generator drive unit VAZ-2123
More precise adjustment can be made in a workshop.
Tighten the fastening nuts with a torque of 21-27 Nm. For the screw holding the “sleeve”, the recommendation looks different: 20-25 N * m.
Why adjust the alternator belt
Overtightened belt whistles during operation. At the same time, bearing wear goes faster than expected. In addition, the belt overheats and therefore wears out quickly.
It would seem that the tension can be loosened, but an under-tensioned belt wears out even faster. The reason is the increased vibration.
Pay attention: the cooling system pump “hangs” on the alternator belt. These are the features of the VAZ-2123 internal combustion engine. Stopping the pump does not necessarily cause overheating. But without it, the motor cannot be operated.
Causes of whistling: incorrect adjustment, high degree of wear. Draw conclusions.
Video showing how to replace the alternator belt on a Chevrolet Niva with air conditioning
Adjusting the camshaft timing belt
The tension of the timing belt that drives the upper camshaft should be checked at the intervals established by the service regulations set out in the car manual.Check this also whenever you remove and reinstall the belt or cylinder cover.
Ford OHC engineOn a Ford OHC engine, tension is automatically set by loosening two bolts on the tensioner.
Adjustable belt tensioner. plate bearing support wheel or roller. If it is not properly adjusted – too loose or too tight – it can cause noise and rapid wear.
Removing the drive belt coverRemove the belt cover securing bolts.
On most engines, some parts must be removed before you can remove the toothed belt cover.
Loosen the alternator adjusting bolts and push the alternator towards the engine to loosen the fan belt or alternator drive belt; loosen the belt. When installing, tension it correctly as described in Checking, Adjusting and Installing Drive Belts.On some vehicles it is necessary to remove the crankshaft pulley.Unscrew the locking bolt.
Usually the cover can be removed without removing the crankshaft pulley. However, sometimes it has to be removed; j. release it, unscrew the pulley mounting bolt and remove the pulley with a screwdriver.
Remove the belt cover bolts and carefully remove the belt cover. The tensioner pulley is under the camshaft pulley.
Adjusting the belt tension FordLoosen the hinge spring bolt using the special slotted tool attached to the socket wrench.
Tensions are set automatically by means of a spring when two bolts are loose – the fixing bolt and the pivot springs.
First loosen the locking bolt on the left. To loosen the pivot spring bolt, you need a special slotted tool that fits into the handle of the socket wrench; you can buy it from the parts department of your Ford dealer or most auto accessories stores.Turn the crankshaft pulley two full turns clockwise to equalize the belt tension.Make sure the ignition is off or the battery is disconnected.
To equalize the belt tension, use a wrench or socket wrench on the crankshaft pulley bolt and turn the crankshaft two full turns. clockwise .Tighten the stop bolt first to hold the tensioner in the new position. Tighten the hinge spring bolt to the fine torque setting.
Tighten the locking bolt, then use the slotted tool in the Wrench to tighten the pivot spring bolt.It must be tightened with the precision of the torque setting; check with your dealer or your vehicle repair manual.
Install the drive belt guard and fan belt.
Leyland Series ‘0’ Belt Tension AdjustmentOn Leyland ‘O’ Series engines, belt tension is measured using a spring balance and manually adjusted.
The belt tensioner does not have an automatic spring. To measure tension, use a spring scale with an L-shaped hook to fit snugly against the belt.(Use a separate L-hook if necessary). The spring scale must be able to support a minimum weight of 13 lb (6 kg).
Place the hook on the belt midway between the camshaft and crankshaft. asterisks, at the level of the pump suction hose connection. Pull on the spring balancer until the edge of the strap aligns with the lip on the water pump suction hose.
The scale should read 11 lbs (5 kg) for a used belt and 13 lbs (6 kg) for a new belt.If not, adjust the tension.
The tensioner is a roller that rests on the outside of the belt. It has two adjusting bolts, one of which is located above the slot. Loosen both bolts just enough to move the tensioner.
If necessary, move the tensioner to tighten or loosen the belt. Secure it by tightening the bolt over the slot.
Recheck the tension and adjust if necessary. When everything is correct, tighten both bolts and reinstall the timing belt cover and fan belt.
How to use spring weightsCheck the timing belt tension with the L-hook spring balance. Pull on the belt to align it with the mark on the pump inlet pipe. Loosen the mounting bolts and move the belt tensioner to adjust the tension.
Adjusting the tension of some VW, Vauxhall and similar beltsOn some VW, Vauxhall and similar engines, the belt tension is checked by twisting and the tensioner is manually adjusted.
The belt tensioner does not have an automatic spring. Check the tension by rotating the belt with thumb and forefinger halfway along the longest straight section between the two main sprockets.
If the belt tension is correct, you can simply turn it 90 degrees. If you can twist it more or less, you need to adjust the tension.The belt tension is correct if you can simply turn it 90 degrees with your thumb and forefinger.
Loosen the single nut in the slot in the tensioner. Move the tensioner clockwise to increase the tension, or the other way to decrease it.
Tighten the tensioner nut and check the tension again. Adjust if necessary.Loosen nut and slide tensioner assembly clockwise to increase tension.
On some VW vehicles, the belt tension is adjusted by loosening the hydraulic pump fixing bolts and moving the pump away from the cylinder block.
When the belt tension is correct, install the timing belt cover and alternator drive belt.
Tensioner on the water pumpOn some older VW vehicles the belt is tensioned around the sprocket of the water pump. To adjust the tension, loosen the water pump mounting bolts and move the water pump away from the cylinder block.
How to tension the drive belt
If you have just replaced your drive belt and notice a high-pitched squeak or squeal under the hood, or if you notice that your drive belt is seems to be loose on the pulleys, your drive belt may be loose.In this article, we’ll show you how to tighten your drive belt to stop that annoying squeak or squeal.
- Note : Vehicles with belts that require manual tensioning usually have multiple belts, such as an AC belt and alternator belt. In vehicles with a single coil and automatic tensioner, the drive belt cannot be manually tensioned.
Part 1 of 3: Belt Inspection
- Eye Protection
- Large Screwdriver or Pry Bar
- Ratchet and Sockets
- Wrench Set
Step 1.Put on protective gear and locate the drive belt. Put on safety glasses and gloves.
Locate the drive belt – there may be more than one in the car. Make sure you are working with the belt that needs to be tightened.
Step 2: Measure belt deflection . Place a ruler along the longest section of the belt on the vehicle and press down on the belt.
While pushing down, measure how far the belt extends. For most vehicles, the belt should not press more than ½ inch.If it can be pressed lower, then the belt is too loose.
- Note : Manufacturers have their own specifications as to how much deflection can be detected in a belt. Be sure to check the owner’s manual for your particular vehicle.
Also check that the drive belt is in good condition before tightening it forward. Look for cracks, wear, or oil on the belt. If damage is found, the drive belt will need to be replaced.
- Hint : An alternative method to check if the drive belt needs tension is to turn the belt. It should not turn more than 90 degrees; if it can turn more, be aware to tighten the belt.
Part 2 of 3: Tensioning the Belt
Step 1. Locate the drive belt tensioner. The drive belt assembly will have a special component that tightens that belt.
The tensioner is on the alternator or on the pulley; it depends on the vehicle and which belt is tightened.
This article will use the alternator belt tensioner as an example.
The generator has one bolt that fixes it in a fixed position and allows it to turn. The other end of the alternator will be attached to a slotted slider that allows the alternator to change position to tighten or loosen the belt.
Step 2: Loosen the bolts of the generator . Loosen the hinge bolt as well as the bolt passing through the adjusting band. This should relax the alternator and allow some movement.
Step 3. Increase the tension on the drive belt. Insert a pry bar over the alternator pulley. Press up slightly to tighten the drive belt.
When the drive belt is tensioned to the desired tension, tighten the adjusting bolt to lock the belt in place.Then tighten the adjusting bolt to the manufacturer’s specifications.
After tightening the adjusting bolt, check the belt tension again. If the tension remains stable, proceed to the next steps. If the tension decreases, loosen the adjusting bolt and repeat step 3.
Step 4: Tighten the pivot bolt on the other side of the generator. Tighten the bolt to manufacturer specifications.
Part 3 of 3: Final Checks
Step 1: Check belt tension .After tightening all the bolts, check the belt deflection at the longest point again.
It should be less than ½ inch when pushed down.
Step 2: Start the engine and listen for abnormal sounds Make sure no noise is heard from the drive belt.
- Note : The belt may need to be adjusted several times to achieve the correct tension.
If you have difficulty completing any of these steps, our certified mobile mechanics at YourMechanic will be happy to come to your home or office to adjust the drive belt tension or perform any other drive belt maintenance you may need..
»Lawn Mower Belt Trouble Checklist
Belts are very important to keep your equipment running smoothly. This is why it is so important to keep them in good working order. Check them regularly to avoid serious problems.
The table below shows some possible symptoms and solutions for belt problems. This table can be used as a general guide and is not intended to be used as the only source of information about belt problems.
|PROBLEM||MOST PROBABLE CAUSE||OTHER POSSIBLE CAUSES|
|Stack inappropriate|| Belt squeaks or slips. |
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|Crack on the underside.|
|Rub belts over guard|| Damaged tie. |
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|The cover is worn.|
|Rear roller||Cover worn.||Crack on the underside.|
|Incorrect storage, too long storage|| Crack on the underside. |
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|Undervoltage|| Belts vibrate excessively. |
The belt is removed from the pulley.
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|Belts, screeching or slipping.|
|Incorrect pulley installation|| Oscillating pulley. |
Bushings are cracked.
|Tension too high|| Belts vibrate excessively. |
| Hot bearings. |
The shaft is bent.
|Pulleys are misaligned|| Belts vibrate excessively. |
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|Pulleys damaged|| Hot bearings. |
Crack on the underside.
Belts vibrate excessively.
Bushings are cracked.
The shaft is bent.
| Bottom part of the belt. |
Belt squeaks or slips.
|Too much heat||Sidewall is worn repeatedly.||Crack on the underside.|
|Bearing too far from pulley|| Hot bearings. |
The shaft is bent.
|Poor bearing or shaft wear|| Hot bearings. |
The shaft is bent.
|Belt reached end of life||Belts from bottom to top.|
|Belts do not match correctly|| Belts vibrate excessively. |
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|Wrong belt type|| The belt is traveling too high. |
Belts from bottom to top.
Belts squeak or slip.
The belt comes off the pulley.
|Machine-induced pulse||Repeated failure.|| Belts vibrate excessively. |
The belt comes off the pulley.
|Too much oil or grease|| The belt swells, soft. |
Belt squeaks or slips.
The sidewall has been worn repeatedly.
|Severe operating conditions||The sidewall is worn repeatedly.|
|Dirty pulley grooves (particles in them)|| Crack on the underside. |
The belt comes off the pulley.
|Too much moisture|| The belt comes off the pulley. |
|Insufficient belt on small pulley||Belt comes loose from pulley.||The cover is cracking.|
Jack Safety Tips: Before servicing or repairing any power equipment, disconnect the spark plug and battery cables. Be sure to wear appropriate safety glasses and gloves to protect against harmful chemicals and debris.Read our disclaimer.
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Tags: Belt, Lawn Mower
About the Author
Jacks Jack’s Small Engines has been supplying outdoor power equipment parts since 1997. We also have a service center for outdoor power equipment such as mowers, snow blowers, generators, chainsaws and more.
problems, signs of wear, when to replace, noises
Updated: November 17, 2018
If you open the hood of a modern car with a gasoline or diesel engine, you can see at least one coil. See this photo. There are cars with two or three belts; electric vehicles do not have belts. The serpentine belt is designed to drive accessories installed on your engine, such as an alternator, water pump, and air conditioning compressor.
The serpentine belt is different from the timing belt. The timing belt rotates the engine camshaft (s) and is hidden under protective covers.The coil belt is located on the side of the engine and can be viewed from under the hood. What happens if the snake belt breaks? What can cause belt squeal? When should you change the snake belt? How expensive is it?
What happens if the snake belt breaks?
If the serpentine belt breaks, the car will become uncontrollable and will have to be towed.If the engine is run without a coil belt, it can overheat as the water pump stops running. A broken belt can also damage other parts. We saw broken radiator shrouds and torn coolant hoses that were damaged by a torn belt.
Symptoms of a broken serpentine belt include loud popping, squealing or knocking from under the hood. The battery-shaped charging system warning light may also illuminate because the alternator stops charging the battery.If the vehicle has a power steering pump, the steering will become firm.
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Common Belt and Tensioner Problems That Can Cause Break or Noise
Here are some common problems:
If there are no other problems and the belt tensioner is in good condition, a new coil belt should fix the problem. Coil replacement costs between $ 18 and $ 75 per part plus $ 50 to $ 150 labor.
2. Oil leak Sometimes the engine will see oil leaks in the belt area, causing the belt to become saturated with oil, seePhoto. Oil or coolant can quickly damage the serpentine or timing belt.
We saw a new serpentine belt that lasted less than a week in an engine that leaks oil in the belt area. In this case, it makes no sense to install a new belt. Oil leaks must be repaired first.
The cost of repairing an oil leak will depend on the source of the leak. Replacing the valve cover gasket is inexpensive ($ 120-300), but if the leak is from a camshaft seal or other source, repairs will be more difficult.
3. Poor spring loaded automatic belt tensioner. Correct tension is very important for any belt. Often, an old, spring-loaded automatic belt tensioner will stick or wear out and become weak. Without proper tension, the coil belt will begin to slip.This will lead to faster wear on the belt.
We have seen seizing belt tensioners cause the loose serpentine belt to roll off the tensioner. Symptoms of a loose serpentine belt include a loud squeal when starting the engine or when the steering is fully turned to one side. A coil that constantly slips off the pulley is another sign of a bad tensioner.
Solution – Replace coil and belt tensioner. A spring-loaded automatic belt tensioner costs $ 20-50 per part, plus labor ($ 75-170).
4. Problems with the hydraulic belt tensioner. Many vehicles have a hydraulic coil-belt tensioner where, instead of a spring, the tension is maintained by a small “shock absorber” (pictured). This can also fail.
Symptoms include tensioner leakage or rattling noise in the belt area when the engine is running.This element often fails in many vehicles including Toyota Corolla, Matrix, BMW and Mazda.
Fix the same; the defective tensioner must be replaced. The belt should also be replaced if it is not new. A hydraulic belt tensioner costs between $ 35 and $ 75. The cost to replace it is $ 75-170
5. Manual belt tension not adjusted . In some cars, the belt tension is manually adjusted, see photo. Another example: adjusting the belt tension in a Toyota Yaris. Over time, the belt stretches and if the tension is not adjusted in time, the belt will begin to slip. You’ve probably seen this: an old Japanese or Korean car makes a loud squeal when starting up.
The solution is simple: if the belt is still in good condition, the tension must be readjusted.If the belt is bad, it must be replaced and properly tightened.
6. Offset belt pulley. Serpentine belt runs on multiple pulleys. If any of the belt-driven devices or idler pulley is not aligned with the belt for any reason, the belt will squeal.Often this problem is discovered after a newly replaced belt still squeaks or wears out quickly. One symptom of this problem is increased wear on one side of the belt.
It can sometimes be seen visually when one of the pulleys is out of alignment. For example, in this car, pictured, a few weeks ago during a trip, a generator and a belt were replaced. Now the belt creaks. Upon closer inspection, we found that the generator was dangling and offset at an angle. This led to the displacement of the alternator pulley with the belt, so the belt squealed and wore out faster.If you look closely at the photo, you can see rubber shavings in the area between the belt and the alternator.
The fix in this case was to replace the belt and worn alternator bolts to align the alternator.
7. Noisy idler roller or tensioner bearing. Many vehicles use freely rotating pulleys for routing a serpentine belt like the one shown in the photo. This is called the idler roller. Spinning on a bearing. When this bearing fails, it may make a howling / buzzing or squealing sound. Since several belt-driven devices can make the same noise, this may take some time to diagnose.
Mechanics use a special stethoscope to find the source of the noise.A bad bearing inside an alternator, A / C compressor, or power steering pump makes the same noise. The mechanic may have to remove the belt and check the belt-driven devices one by one.
Repairs will depend on which part is defective. If it’s just a bum, it’s not very expensive: $ 15-35 for a part plus $ 60-170 for labor. Replacing an A / C compressor or generator can cost anywhere from $ 450 to $ 850.
When the coil needs to be replaced
The serpentine belt can last from 30,000 to over 100,000 miles. Most car manufacturers do not specify serpentine belt replacement intervals, but recommend checking the belt during regular maintenance. For example, here is what Toyota recommends for the serpentine belt in the 2017 Toyota Camry:
Initial inspection at 60,000 miles / 72 months. Inspect every 15,000 miles / 18 months thereafter.
Photo), chips, damaged edges, missing pieces, glazing and other signs of wear. In most cases, it is easy to see when the belt is worn out. A worn belt must be replaced. The coil belt also needs to be replaced if it is found to be oiled or stretched.
Cost of replacing a serpentine belt
If your car has two belts, we recommend replacing both at the same time as you save labor. It’s also a good idea to replace your old serpentine belt before a long trip.Read more: List of cars before a long trip. Replacing SerpentineBelt
costs $ 18-75 per part plus $ 50-150 labor.
How easy is it to replace the coil with your own hands?
On a scale of 1 (easy) to 10 (leave that to the pros), coil belt replacement can be rated from 3 to 7 depending on the vehicle. To replace a serpentine belt, you will need a belt diagram showing how it is routed. For some vehicles, the route is indicated in the owner’s manual.Another way is to draw a padding diagram before removing the old belt.
In many front-wheel drive vehicles with a transverse engine, the space between the engine and the frame is limited and changing the serpentine can be challenging. Some vehicles require a special tool to release the belt tensioner. To order a serpentine belt you may need a VIN number as the belt may vary from year to year and from engine to engine, it is a good idea to compare the new belt with the old one to make sure the part is correct.
If you need proper repair instructions, we have placed several links at the bottom of this article where you can subscribe to the factory service manual. Of course, there is YouTube, where thousands of car enthusiasts post videos with their own hands.
Car tire device / Useful / Tire center MICHELIN in Tomsk
The tire consists of: carcass, breaker layers, tread, bead and side part.
The design of the tire is quite complex and consists of many elements: cord, tread, belt, shoulder area, sidewall and bead.Let’s talk about them in more detail.
The basis of the tire is a carcass consisting of several layers of cord. Cord is a rubberized layer of fabric made of textile, polymer or metal threads. The cord is stretched over the entire area of the tire, i.e. radially. There are radial and bias tires. The most widespread is the radial tire, because it is characterized by the longest service life. The frame in it is more elastic, thereby reducing heat generation and rolling resistance.Bias tires have a carcass of several cross-ply cords. These tires are inexpensive and have a stronger sidewall.
The outer part of the tire in direct contact with the road surface is called the “tread”. Its main purpose is to ensure the adhesion of the wheel to the road and protect it from damage. The tread affects the level of noise and vibration, and also determines the degree of tire wear.Structurally, the tread is a massive rubber layer with a relief pattern. The tread pattern in the form of grooves, grooves and ridges determines the ability of the tire to perform in certain road conditions.
The ply ply between the tread and the carcass is called a “breaker”. It is necessary to improve the relationship between these two elements, as well as to prevent the tread from peeling off under the influence of external forces.
The portion of the tread between the treadmill and the sidewall is called the shoulder area. It increases the lateral stiffness of the tire, improves the synthesis of the carcass with the tread, and takes on some of the lateral loads transmitted by the treadmill.
Sidewall – a rubber layer that is a continuation of the tread on the side walls of the carcass.