hail shafts: meaning – WordSense Dictionary
see also hailshafts
hail shafts (English)
- Plural of hail shaft
This is the meaning of hail shaft:
hail shaft (English)
hail shaft (pl. hail shafts)
- (weather) a region of intense rain and hail accompanied by a strong downdraft
Entries with “hail shafts”
hail shaft: see also hailshaft hail shaft (English) Alternative forms hailshaft hail-shaft Noun hail shaft (pl. hail shafts) (weather) a region of intense rain and hail accompanied by a…
hailshafts: see also hail shafts hailshafts (English) Noun hailshafts Alternative form of hail shafts; Plural of hailshaft
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hail storm (English)
hail storms (English)
Plural of hail storm
(archaic) Simple past tense and…
hail-fellow (pl. hail-fellows)
Plural of hail-fellow
Romanization of Gothic …
Romanization of Gothic …
A Dual-Wavelength Radar Hail Detector on JSTOR
It is proposed that the range derivative of the logarithm of the ratio of average echo powers from two (Sand X-band) synchronized and slaved radars would yield a highly reliable indication of the boundaries of hail shafts. In the presence of rain alone, and ignoring fluctuations, this derivative would always be positive and proportional to the incremental difference in attenuation at the smaller wavelength. In general, the derivative has the same sign as the hail concentration gradient and attains negative values on the far side of a hail shaft. Without hail, signal fluctuations are the only possible source of negative derivatives, and so of false alarms. Thus, a small negative threshold level would avoid the identification of the effect of signal fluctuations at the far side of a hail shaft; similarly a large positive threshold would avoid identifying regions of intense rain as the near side of a hail shaft. This approach is capable of detecting smaller concentrations of hail with greater confidence and in larger backgrounds of non-hail precipitation than the use of the dualwavelength reflectivity ratio alone because 1) it requires a smaller hail reflectivity ratio, at the two wavelengths; 2) it is not affected significantly by attenuation, and 3) it is independent of absolute radar calibrations. The limitations of the technique are discussed.
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AMS is a 501(c)3 non-profit membership organization, headquartered in the historic Harrison Gray Otis House in Boston’s Beacon Hill neighborhood. We also have an office in Washington, DC, where we run our education and policy programs.
AMS is committed to strengthening the incredible work being done across the public, private, and academic sectors. Our community knows that collaboration and information sharing are critical to ensuring that society benefits from the best, most current scientific knowledge and understanding available.
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Why Skies Turn Green in Thunderstorms | The Weather Channel – Articles from The Weather Channel
You may have seen an approaching thunderstorm turn parts of the sky a rather creepy shade of green or bluish green.
One example of a green sky was seen in the western suburbs of St. Louis on Tuesday as severe weather rolled through the area. The Weather Channel Facebook friend Nathan Pflantz shared with us this astonishing photo from Chesterfield, Missouri.
A green sky associated with an approaching line of thunderstorms in Chesterfield, Missouri, on April 26, 2016.
Given the rarity, one can understand the increased sense of foreboding, apart from the already dark sky and, usually, claps of thunder.
But is this a green sky a sign of an impending tornado or huge hail?
It’s Not Easy Being Green
As it turns out, a greenish sky is not necessarily a sign of either, despite some existing folklore to the contrary.
However, the exact cause of this is still subject to debate today.
A 1993 study from Penn State University contends that there simply needs to be a strong thunderstorm with a large volume of precipitation and the right alignment of the sun and thunderstorm to turn the sky green. Researchers calculated hail’s contribution to the green color was actually small.
The study’s authors, Dr. Craig Bohren and Dr. Alistair Fraser, offered two theories.
Bohren submitted that sunlight behind the thunderstorm is attenuated and scattered by the rain and/or hail shaft to yield a bluish hue. If this thunderstorm occurs around sunrise or sunset, when the sun takes on a more red/orange/yellow look thanks to a longer trip of the sun’s rays through the atmosphere, that thunderstorm could instead look more green.
Fraser, on the other hand, suggests sunlight ahead of the storm is the key. The sun shining on a thunderstorm with the combination of sunlight scattering in clear air – typically yielding blue sky – and the red/orange/yellow colors of a sun low on the horizon can lead to the greenish sky, Fraser wrote
Above: An approaching hailstorm in Wylie, Texas on April 12, 2016, takes on a bluish-green hue.
Another study three years later headed by Dr. Frank Gallagher at the University of Oklahoma and co-authored with Bohren analyzed data from a color photospectrometer and also found the absorption of sunlight from a setting or rising sun by rain and hail could lead to a green sky.
Gallagher claimed that hail cannot possibly produce the green sky, but the size of the drops dictate the exact shade of green. Namely, smaller (larger) drops lead to a blue-green (yellow-green) sky.
In fact, it’s possible, according to Gallagher, that all thunderstorms have some greenish tint at some time in their life cycle, but that they’re not often seen at the time.
There is no correlation between green skies and tornadoes, but The Weather Channel severe weather expert Dr. Greg Forbes has had two prior experiences with “green sky tornadoes”.
“One of the green thunderstorms I’ve seen was tornadic, striking my hometown of Latrobe, Pennsylvania, in 1976,” wrote Forbes in an internal memo.
“I saw one from inside the cloud on an aircraft in 1977 that had a funnel cloud. I’ve seen others that had a turquoise tint that didn’t have reported severe weather.”
We would love to see your photos of green skies. Share them with us on Facebook, on Twitter, or upload them to us at weather.com/photos.
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METEOROLOGIST JEFF HABY
Hail is both destructive to vegetation and manmade structures. Hail is classified as severe by the National
Weather Service if it is equal to or greater than 1″ in diameter.
Strong winds make these darting spheres
of ice even more damaging. It is difficult to pin point where exactly a
large hail shaft will strike just
as it is difficult to predict where
tornadoes will exactly occur. However, the general region where hail
can be expected is very predictable. Hail occurs in association with thunderstorms, particularly
supercell thunderstorms. Below are factors to consider when trying to forecast for the likeliness and size of hail.
Higher elevation areas are closer to the cold layers of the upper atmosphere. When a hail stone falls,
it rapidly begins to melt when the environmental temperature rises above freezing. If the hailstone has
to fall through a deep layer of warm air, it will melt from the outside in, turning into non-damaging
raindrops or decreasing significantly in size. Mountainous regions and the High Plains of the United
States have the highest number of hail days per year. Small hail which would normally melt before
reaching the surface in a low elevation area reaches the surface in high elevation area. Storms do
not need to be as severe in the lee of the Rockies as in lower elevation areas for hail
to reach the surface.
2. FREEZING LEVEL:
The freezing level determines the depth of the atmosphere that is above freezing. If the freezing level is
high in the atmosphere, hailstones will have more time to melt than if the freezing level is close to the
surface. A high freezing level also decreases the vertical depth in which hailstone formation and growth is possible.
The freezing level depends on elevation, the season, and the temperature profile of the atmosphere.
High elevation areas will have relatively low freezing levels in all seasons. For low elevation areas a
general rule to follow is: If the freezing level is closer to the surface than 650 millibars, strong
thunderstorms have a good probability of producing hail that will reach the surface. The freezing level can
be found readily by examining the morning or afternoon Skew-T Log-P plot or forecast sounding.
3. WET BULB ZERO LEVEL:
The wet bulb zero level is defined as the freezing level that will result due to
evaporative cooling. The freezing
level will lower if there is dry air in the mid-levels of the atmosphere. This occurs due to evaporative cooling
of environmental air that entrains into a thunderstorm. This same entrainment can also produce strong and
gusty surface winds. Dry mid-levels are common in the Great Plains. This is another factor that leads to many hail
days in this region of the U.S.
4. CONVECTIVE AVAILABLE POTENTIAL ENERGY
This is the most important factor in determining hail size. CAPES under 1000 J/kg generally produce borderline
severe hail (near 3/4″ or less) while CAPES over 2000 J/kg can produce very large hailstones. High CAPES lead
to high upward vertical velocities within a thunderstorm. High UVV’s can suspend hailstones and add layers of
ice onto already developed hailstones. The amount of CAPE can be approximated by modifying the morning Skew-T
sounding for that day. In many cases this is executed by changing the surface temperature and
dewpoint to fit
current observations. Forecast model soundings can also be examined for changes in CAPE during the day.
5. SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORM (HIGH WIND SHEAR):
Strong upper level winds allow CAPE to be maximized to its fullest potential. Strong upper level winds tilt the
updraft of developing thunderstorms. This allows the
updraft and downdraft to be separated from each other. This
produces higher UVV’s in the updraft.
6. PRECIPITABLE WATER:
The weight of moisture and water will influence the strength of the updraft. High moisture soundings result in water
loading. CAPE is reduced with water loading since the force of
gravity pushes down on the liquid water drops.
Precipitable water values of less than 1.0″ will not be nearly as influenced by water loading than if precipitable
water values are above 1.5″. Lower precipitable water values have the potential to produce large hailstones when
significant CAPE is present. Low precipitation supercells are notorious for producing large hail. In
the lee of the Rockies, PW is climatologically low, adding to the hail potential.
—– consensus —–
Hailstone size is maximized by high elevation, low freezing levels, low PW, dry mid-level air, high CAPE, and large wind
shear. The region of the country that these factors come together the most are in
the High/Great Plains of the US.
Hailstone size is minimized by low elevation, high freezing levels, water loading (high PW), moist mid-levels,
low CAPE, and weak wind shear.
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Theater Gradsky Hall, Moscow – Afisha-Theaters
It’s nice to be a discoverer))
So. Many impressions of this place.
About the building. Made with a soul, and with a man’s. Everything is thought out, everything is practical and concise. Convenient non-slippery steps, comfortable doors, there is an equipped entrance and a toilet for special guests of any opportunity. Inside, the interior is quite cold and austere (again, masculine). Perhaps there are not enough big flowers or small trees … Something alive….
A beautiful fence with the letter “A” (there is one on the chairs in the sideboard too;))
The name of the Hall glows with incomprehensible colors (in the sense that it is not clear how strange this glow is) … , not light green ..
Hall. It is compact, small, you can see it well from everywhere, the seats are comfortable and very modern.
Lighting. It is difficult to describe in words for a layman. Then they got confused! They probably have all the latest lighting bells and whistles. There are so many of them that sometimes it feels like there are too many.
* We were with a friend at the first concert of the classics, they had an idea to combine music with light, but the realization hit everyone in the eye. Literally. We sat with our eyes closed for half of the event. Take glasses with dark glasses with you!)))
And they blew smoke into the hall during the whole concert so that the light show would impress everyone. (Impressed, definitely)) But people with breathing problems need to keep this smoke in mind.
Very strange feeling during this classical concert. It looked like a classic, but the unusual laser accompaniment distracted from the music, the musicians were hard to see because of the smoke.And the riot of light-color together with the smoke resembled a disco))).
We hope that the organizers consulted with the color therapists, otherwise the Japanese case of “Pokemon Shock” came to mind.
There is a very strict and even spiteful prescription about gadgets before the start of the event .. can I make it a little kinder?
Personnel. Pleasant. The security, cloakroom and buffet staff are friendly, open and friendly. The domovoy is very worried that the guests would be comfortable, that they would like both the Hall and the repertoire.
The owners are working hard to create this project. They still have many tasks to be solved. And they are gradually correcting the shortcomings.
We wish them success and continuous growth!
Let this hall become a bright place of attraction for the modern musical cultural life of our beautiful city ..
GISMETEO: How to admire a thunderstorm and not get hit by it? – About the weather
The synoptic situation determines the stormy weather in Russia. Meridional processes, the heap of areas of heat and cold, and a variety of weather systems give creative freedom for convective phenomena.
The weather reports are full of summer storms. In the last 24 hours alone, several dozen unfavorable and dangerous weather phenomena associated with violent convection have been recorded. For example, on the night of June 12-13, a very heavy rain with a thunderstorm took place in the Tver region, bringing 63 mm of precipitation. In the Ulyanovsk region, hail with a diameter of up to 3 mm was noted. In Crimea (Dzhankoy), 39 mm of precipitation fell in half an hour, in the Stavropol Territory (Kursavka) – 62 mm. In Kabardino-Balkaria (Kamennomostskoe) hail fell with a diameter of 7–10 mm.
Since the convective element is very dangerous, we will give some tips on how to recognize a thundercloud and understand if it poses a threat to you.
Storm warnings will give only a general picture of the fact that in a given area at such and such a time interval, the weather is a certain danger. But they will not tell you exactly when and where the storm will be. For meteorologists, forecasting the weather in summer is much more difficult than in winter, because thunderstorms are small-scale, short-term events. You can only predict the likelihood of their appearance in a given place at a given time.
Satellite and radar observations provide specific information about the location of thunderstorms, where the thunderstorm is moving and how strong it is.
How to recognize a thundercloud and determine how dangerous it is? Here are some simple tips.
A thundercloud is easy to see in a relatively open area in the absence of other clouds, because it grows in height, looks very bright due to sunlight and looks like cauliflower in its early stages.
At the stage of maturity, a so-called anvil is often formed in the upper part. This is due to the fact that the upper boundary of the cloud reaches the tropopause (average height is about 12 km) and cannot grow further, but expands to the sides.
The base of the thundercloud is dark and clearly defined in the initial stages. This means that the cloud is saturated with warm humid air. If the wind blows towards a thundercloud, it means that the thunderstorm continues to intensify.
During the ripening stage, streaks of rain and hail can often be seen under the base of the cloud, resembling a curtain.
When the energy absorbed by the cloud begins to return back, a flurry gate appears at the base of the cloud – a dramatic cloud wall. As a rule, this is accompanied by squally gusts of wind (popularly, this phenomenon is sometimes called a hurricane). After a while, the thunderstorm begins to subside.
How to save yourself from a thunderstorm? Avoid standing under trees and masts. If possible, take cover in buildings or vehicles that are parked away from trees. Remember that underground passages can be flooded with rainstorms.
Let us remind you that you have in your hands a real tool for forecasting showers, thunderstorms and hail – this is the Gismeteo radar . In the legend, a blue field (from blue to dark blue) means the intensity of precipitation, pink – areas of thunderstorms, yellow – areas of hail.
The forecast is updated every 10 minutes and is made three hours in advance.Based on the characteristics of the radio echo, radars calculate the phenomena and their intensity. The transport model calculates the future location of convective phenomena.
It should be noted that the entire territory of Russia does not yet have a continuous radar coverage. The meteorological radar field is widely represented in the European part of the country. In Siberia, you can track thunderstorms in the region of Novosibirsk, Barnaul and Tomsk. In the Far East, radar observations operate in Primorye.
Thunderstorm, downpour, hail, squall, tornado … What unites them?
The warm season has begun.And completely different clouds began to occupy the heavenly space. There are no longer low gray endless cloud arrays covering the entire sky at once. They were replaced by other clouds, which dynamically, literally before our eyes, grow up several kilometers. They are also called clouds of vertical development, or convective clouds. They can extend through the entire thickness of the troposphere, sometimes their tops can pierce the tropopause and penetrate into the stratosphere.
Why is deep convection dangerous?
Deep, penetrating (into the stratosphere) – this is how meteorologists characterize intense convection in the atmosphere.Convection develops in an unstable atmosphere, when air masses at the surface of the earth turn out to be lighter than air located in higher layers – intensive vertical mixing of air begins. The rise of air masses causes them to cool, condensation of water vapor occurs with the release of a colossal amount of latent heat. And, the higher the relative humidity and the higher the temperature in the underlying layers, the greater the instability, the higher the developing clouds can be.Showers falling out of them are accompanied by lightning discharges, thunder, hail, while squalls are noted, sometimes tornadoes are formed. All this, even when each of the phenomena does not meet the criterion of a dangerous hydrometeorological phenomenon, in combination can become a complex of unfavorable weather conditions. They can harm people, animals, economy, infrastructure. Very heavy rainfalls can lead to floods on rivers, cause sudden (rapidly developing) floods. Intense thunderstorm activity poses a great danger to aviation, both at aircraft flight levels and in the take-off and landing zone.
What are the most common thunderstorms?
The highest frequency of occurrence of these phenomena is observed in the warm season, especially in its first half, which is explained, first of all, by global reasons. They say: “Convection follows the sun.” After the snow cover has melted, an intensive heating of the surface occurs, from which the air masses are heated. An increase in their temperature also leads to an increase in the ability to absorb moisture, which can evaporate from the surface – soils, water bodies, vegetation. This creates thermodynamic instability in the surface layer – the volumes of warm and humid air acquire buoyancy and rise upward. The atmosphere, in contrast to the winter period, in the warm half of the year begins to actively “move” vertically, which leads to the frequent development of vertical clouds.
Already against this large-scale background, the reasons for the next level, such as atmospheric fronts, mountainous terrain, differences in the properties of the underlying surface, boundary, land-sea, movement of air masses, advection of heat and cold at heights, etc.etc., leading to a forced rise in air masses, give each specific case its own individuality. A high, but still lower, probability of occurrence of phenomena associated with convection is also noted in the second half of the warm period. As for the intensity of showers, thunderstorms and squalls, it is maximum in the middle zone of the EPR in June and the first half of August. At the same time, its probability is not excluded earlier and later than this period. All other things being equal, convection is most intense during the daytime (it also follows the sun).The recurrence of showers, thunderstorms, hail, squalls is maximum in the period from 12 to 19 hours.
What is known about a thundercloud?
On average, it is believed that a thundercloud is 20 km in diameter and has a lifespan of 30 minutes. At every moment on the globe, there are, according to various estimates, from 1800 to 2000 thunderclouds. This equates to 100,000 thunderstorms annually on the planet. Approximately 10% of them become extremely dangerous.
How does a thundercloud form?
In general, the atmosphere should be unstable – air masses near the surface of the earth should be lighter than air located in higher layers.This is possible when the underlying surface heats up and the air mass from it, as well as the presence of high air humidity, which is the most common. Perhaps, due to some dynamic reasons, the influx of colder air masses into the overlying layers. As a result, in the atmosphere, volumes of warmer and more humid air, gaining buoyancy, rush upward, and colder particles from the upper layers go down. Thus, the heat, which the earth’s surface receives from the sun, is transported to the overlying layers of the atmosphere.This convection is called free. In the zones of atmospheric fronts, in the mountains, it is also intensified by the forced mechanism of the rise of air masses.
The water vapor in the rising air cools, condenses, forming clouds and giving off heat. Clouds grow upward, reaching a height where temperatures are below zero. Some of the cloud particles freeze, and some remain liquid. Both those and others have an electric charge. Ice particles are usually positively charged, while liquid particles are negatively charged.The particles continue to grow and begin to settle in the gravitational field – precipitation is formed. There is an accumulation of space charges. A positive charge is formed in the upper part of the cloud, and a negative one at the bottom (in fact, a more complex structure is noted, 4 space charges can be noted, sometimes it can be inversion, etc.). When the strength of the electric field reaches a critical value, a discharge occurs – we see lightning and, after a while, we hear a sound wave or thunder emanating from it.
Stages of development of a thundercloud
Usually, a thundercloud passes through three stages during its life cycle: formation, maximum development and dissipation.
In the first stage, cumulus clouds grow upward due to ascending air movements. Cumulus clouds appear as beautiful white towers. There is no precipitation at this stage, but lightning is not ruled out. This can take about 10 minutes.
At the stage of maximum development, the upward movements continue in the cloud, but at the same time, precipitation is already beginning to fall out of the cloud, and strong downward movements appear. And when this descending cooled stream with precipitation reaches the ground, a gust front, or a line of squalls, is formed. The stage of maximum cloud development is the time of the greatest probability of heavy rainfall, hail, frequent lightning, squalls and tornadoes. The cloud is usually dark in color. This stage lasts from 10 to 20 minutes, but may be longer.
Eventually, precipitation and downdrafts begin to erode the cloud. At the surface of the earth, a line of squalls extends far from the cloud, cutting it off from the source of warm and humid air that supplied it.The rainfall is decreasing, but lightning is still dangerous.
Types of thunderclouds
Single cell cloud
A single cell cloud typically lasts 20-30 minutes. Such a cloud is a rather rare occurrence, since the gust front of one cloud can trigger the formation of a cloud in the immediate vicinity.
Most often, solitary clouds do not lead to dangerous weather phenomena.The up and down currents formed in such clouds are not powerful enough for this. Nevertheless, sometimes they can provoke, albeit of a short duration, a strong downpour, hail, thunderstorm, a squall and even a weak tornado. The degree of instability in the atmosphere during the formation of such clouds is not very large, and a clear organization is not characteristic of convection. Single-cell clouds tend to form at random locations and at random times, making them very difficult to predict.
A multi-cell line of instability or squall line consists of a whole elongated ridge of cumulonimbus clouds with a well-defined gust front located in front of the cloud mass. A line of squalls can produce golf-ball-sized hail, heavy rainfall and light tornadoes, but its strongest downdraft remains its main feature. Occasionally, a strong downdraft can accelerate and a small section of the squall line can be pulled forward from the main line.This is how the “onion” (or “horseshoe” or “arc”) echo (English “bow echo” is often translated as “onion echo” arc). Destructive winds are often seen near the top of such a line. At any end of the arc, a closed circulation can develop, sometimes this leads to the formation of a tornado, especially in the left (usually northern) part, where the circulation will be cyclonic). Such a structure can develop not only on the squall line, but also with an isolated cloud.However, it is difficult to determine visually, but it is clearly visible on the radar (Doppler) screen.
Supercell Cloud is a highly organized structure. They are rare but pose the greatest threat to people and infrastructure. A supercell cloud, like a single cell cloud, also has one main updraft. The difference lies in the fact that in a supercell cloud the ascending stream is very powerful, the velocities in it reach 240-260 km / h (60-80 m / s).The main characteristic that distinguishes this type of cloud from others is the presence of rotation. A rotating updraft (when visible on the radar screen, it is called a mesocyclone) contributes to extreme weather events such as giant hail (more than 5 cm in diameter), strong gusts of wind (more than 40 m / s) and violent tornadoes.
The environment is a strong factor in organizing a structure. Air flowing in from different directions maintains the rotation. Precipitation forms in a powerful updraft and is then carried away by a strong downdraft.It is unlikely that precipitation can fall down through the updraft, and this maintains the long life of the system – it does not collapse. Light rain is usually observed at the forefront of the precipitation zone. Heavy rainfall occurs closer to the updraft, with very heavy rainfall and hail to the north and east of the main updraft. The area near the main updraft is characterized by the strongest manifestations of severe weather.
What do thunderclouds look like?
Thunderclouds may look like a large cauliflower or may have an anvil.An anvil is a flat cloud formation at the top of a thundercloud. It appears when the rising warm air reaches an altitude where the ambient temperature is about the same (temperature equalization level). The growth of the cloud suddenly stops – then a flat anvil appears. If the airflow is very strong, a bubble can form above the anvil, rising above the anvil. This often happens within a few minutes. But, if a rising bubble exists for more than 10 minutes, then this indicates a high probability that the cloud is capable of producing dangerous weather phenomena.So the shape of the anvil can be used to assess the degree of danger of a thundercloud.
Why do lightning happen?
Small ice crystals and larger particles, snowflakes and ice floes are formed in the rising air in a thundercloud. Small ice crystals rise in an updraft up to the top of the cloud, while larger and heavier particles can also slowly rise upward or begin to fall downward. Particles can hit each other and receive an electrical charge.Small particles acquire a positive charge, while large particles acquire a negative charge. As a result, the upper part of the cloud is positively charged, while the middle and lower parts are negatively charged. At the same time, the ground under the cloud acquires a positive charge. When the difference in charges between the ground and the cloud becomes very large, then a conductive channel develops between the cloud and the ground, and a small charge (leader) moves along it to the ground. When near the ground, the ascending leader of the opposite charge connects to the first leader.When connected, a powerful discharge occurs between the cloud and the earth. We see this discharge as a bright flash of lightning.
During a thunderstorm, there are almost no safe places in the open air.
The vast majority of victims were struck by lightning while searching for a safe place, which turned out to be far enough.
More than 80% of deaths from lightning strikes occur in men between the ages of 15 and 40. Perhaps because they are more active and more likely to be outdoors.
Incidents occur mainly in the middle of the day and in the evening.
The energy of a lightning flash is colossal, it can provide a 100-watt lamp for 3 months. Numerous wildfires occur as a result of lightning strikes.
The air channel through which lightning travels can heat up to 10,000-33,000 ° C – this is higher than the temperature of the sun’s surface. Rapid heating and then cooling causes a blast wave that turns into sound, and we hear thunder.
How far is the thunderstorm?
During bad weather, such a simplified calculation algorithm is suitable. (In an amicable way, of course, the time elapsed since the moment of the lightning flash must be multiplied by the speed of sound, which, by the way, depends on humidity). But you can count the seconds between the flash of lightning and the sound, thunder. The sound travels 1 km in about 3 seconds. It is necessary to divide the number of seconds that elapsed from the moment of the flash before you heard the thunder by 3 and you get the distance to the thunderstorm in kilometers.For example, if thunder was heard 6 seconds after the flash, then the lightning flashed two kilometers away.
Remember that if you are outside and can hear thunder, you are in danger of being struck by lightning.
Almost all lightning incidents occur outdoors. Circumstances under which it has been most common in recent years are:
boating, horseback riding, lawn mowing, golfing, mountain climbing, camping, standing under a tree, swimming, sports, watching chasing a storm, driving a truck, fishing, running on water.
Myths and facts
| If there is no rain, then there is no danger from lightning |
|Rubber shoes or tires on wheels can protect against lightning||Rubber shoes or tires cannot protect against lightning.Steel parts of the car increase protection if you don’t touch them. Although you can get hurt if lightning strikes your car, it is better to be inside it than outside.|
|People who have been struck by lightning must not be touched because they have received an electrical charge.||People who have been struck by lightning are not electrically charged and must be treated immediately.|
Flurry – strong, gusty wind not associated with tornado rotation.These winds account for most of the destruction.
The squall speed can reach 125 m / h. The downdraft of air quickly descends from the thundercloud to the ground. It is capable of producing the same destruction as a strong tornado. It poses an extreme danger to aviation.
Dry squall – a squall that passes without rain or with a little rain.
Tornado (“tornado” in America)
Tornado (thrombus, tornado) is an intense vortex with a quasi-vertical axis descending from a cumulonimbus cloud to the ground.
Tornado is a local phenomenon. Due to the low frequency of occurrence and small size of tornadoes, it is extremely rare when it is possible to measure the characteristics of a tornado using conventional meteorological observations. Therefore, each case of direct measurements of a tornado is of interest for clarifying the physical nature of its formation. The most complete data are available from NOAA specialists, since of about 2000 tornadoes (tornadoes) that form on the planet annually, about 1300 are observed in the United States.
The tornado can remain almost invisible until it draws dust and debris into its circulation or until a cloud begins to form inside the funnel. An average tornado moves from southwest to northeast. But in reality, a tornado can move in any direction.
The average speed of a tornado is 13 m / s, but it can reach 30 m / s.
According to indirect estimates, the maximum wind speed in a tornado can reach 200-300 m / s. The strongest tornado recorded in America had a speed of almost 90 m / s.322 km / h
A tornado causes catastrophic destruction due to a very significant force of wind pressure and a large pressure difference in it and in the surrounding space. Typically, a tornado descends from a cumulonimbus cloud, called the mother cloud, to the surface of land or sea, drawing in dust, sand, stones, grass and water. As the tornado approaches, a very strong noise is heard, created by the wind in the collision of various objects drawn into the rarefied central area of the tornado.
The duration of the existence of a tornado is short: from several minutes to several hours, the length of the path is on average 5-10 km, sometimes more than 30 km (in the USA, the length of a tornado’s path can reach 100 km or more). The speed of the tornado is different: from 10-20 to 60-70 km / h and more, which is mainly due to the nature of the distribution of the wind in the middle troposphere. On the territory of the former USSR, tornadoes are a relatively rare phenomenon. They are observed in the Baltics, Belarus, Ukraine, the Central regions, the Volga region, the Urals and Siberia.Water tornadoes occur off the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, off the coast of the Crimea, over the northwestern part of the Black Sea, off the coast of the Curonian and Riga Bays.
Tornadoes are usually observed during the warm season, they are observed at any time of the day.
The Fujita scale, which determines the tornado hazard category, is based on an assessment of the wind speed and the damage produced:
|Category||Speed, m / s||Speed, km / h||Repeatability, % of cases||Tornado characteristic|
|F0||18 – 32.5||64 – 116||38.9||Storm.Damages chimneys and television towers, breaks old trees, demolishes signs|
|F1||32.5 – 50||117 – 180||35. 6||Moderate. Tears off roofs from houses, demolishes mobile homes from foundations, moves cars|
|F2||50 – 70||181 – 253||19.4||Significant. Tears off roofs from houses, destroys mobile homes, uproots large trees, knocks out windows|
|F3||70 – 92.5||254 – 332||4.9||Strong.Tears off roofs from houses and breaks some walls, knocks over trains, uproots most trees, lifts heavy vehicles into the air|
|F4||92.5 – 116.5||333 – 418||1.1||Destructive … Raises light houses into the air, partially or completely destroys durable houses, carries cars over a considerable distance|
|F5||116. 5 – 142.5||more than 419||less than 0.1||Incredible.Demolishes solid houses from the foundation and carries them over considerable distances, tears off asphalt, carries heavy vehicles over a distance of 100 meters|
How does a tornado form?
The formation of tornadoes is largely due to the instability of atmospheric stratification. However, the formation of tornadoes, even with great instability of the atmosphere, is extremely rare. Existence in the atmosphere and other favorable conditions for their formation is necessary.
Tornadoes are usually associated with two types of mesoscale circulation:
– with clouds with a horizontal axis of rotation (swirling cloud bank), observed on lines of instability (squall lines) ahead of rapidly moving cold fronts.
– with clouds rotating around the vertical axis. The latter type of circulation is more common on cold fronts, along which mesoscale cyclonic eddies move.
In the front part of the mother cloud, initially, before the tornado emerges, there is a cloud shaft rotating in the direction of travel.Most often, tornadoes appear on the right side of the cloud (in the direction of its movement), representing, as it were, a continuation of the right side of a rotating shaft, while cyclonic rotation of the wind is observed. There are cases when anticyclonic wind rotation occurs in a tornado.
Tornadoes are associated with mesoscale cyclonic circulation in the layers above the tornado, the diameter of which is from several kilometers to 50 km, and in height it extends up to 10-12 km. This type of circulation is called “cyclone-tornado”.On the radar screen, the cyclone-tornado looks like a horseshoe-shaped formation with a gap in the center.
|The development of the storm is preceded by the formation of an invisible rotating shaft due to vertical wind shear with a horizontal area||The rolling shaft falls into a zone with upward movements that begin to lift it in the vertical plane||rotation measuring 2-6 miles, penetrates much of the storm.Most tornadoes form in these strong spinning areas|
According to NOAA, 88% of all tornadoes are weak. They account for less than 5% of deaths. Their lifespan is 1-10 minutes. Wind speed less than 110 m / h. Produce destruction category EF1.
Strong tornadoes account for 11% of all cases. They are responsible for about 30% of deaths. Their lifespan is 20 minutes or more.The wind speed in them is from 111 to 165 m / h. The destruction they cause is categorized as EF2 or EF3.
Less than 1% of tornadoes reach Category 4 or 5 on the Fujita scale. But they account for 70% of fatal incidents. May last more than 1 hour. The maximum wind speed in them is more than 160 m / s.
Forecasting such intense eddies as tornadoes, blood clots, tornadoes is an extremely important and difficult task. This requires a dense Doppler radar network.Even if it is present, the most effective is the early detection and forecasting of already existing systems.
On the screen, a tornado looks like a small area where red (indicating the wind moving away from the radar) and green (the wind blowing radar) come very close to each other.
Strong tornado observed in Oklahoma.
Myths and truths about tornadoes (according to American meteorologists)
|Myth|| || Lakes, rivers and mountains protect the neighboring territory from tornadoes|| There are practically no safe places.A tornado near Yellowstone National Park made a devastating journey uphill to 10,000 feet and descended|
|Tornado causes buildings to explode as they enter the vortex|
|Open windows will be able to equalize atmospheric pressure outside and inside||In fact, all buildings are not airtight anyway.We must leave the windows closed. We urgently need to go to the shelter – basement, basement, or the safest room. If there is nothing suitable, you need to go as far as possible from the windows into the interior of the room|
|Spaces under the highways can be safe||Quite the opposite. The spaces under the highways are very dangerous during tornadoes. If you are in a car, you urgently need to seek refuge in a solid building. Only as a last resort, you can stay in the car, but you must definitely wear your seat belt.In this case, you must try to lower your head below the glass and close it with your hands. If somewhere nearby there is a place located below the level of the road, then you can get out of the car and lie down, hugging the ground and covering your head with your hands. And, of course, depending on the specific circumstances, your choice may be to drive fast away from the tornado|
|You can hide in bathrooms, washrooms or in the hallways of mobile houses||Mobile homes are not designed for the power of a tornado! Everyone living in such homes should keep in mind in the event of a tornado the paths to quickly reach the shelter in the nearest permanent buildings|
Flash (rapidly developing) floods occur for several hours (usually less than 6 hours ) heavy and very heavy rains, when dams can break through, when water that has accumulated above due to ice jam quickly breaks through.
Flash floods are the first cause of death during thunderstorms. More than half of drowning cases occur when a vehicle is dragged into a stream of water. Most of the disasters associated with flash floods occur at night. The rapid flow of water 15 cm high can knock a person off their feet. The 60cm high stream can blow away vehicles including SUVs and pickup trucks.
A strong updraft of air carries rain drops upward from a thundercloud to heights, where at negative temperatures they freeze.Ice particles grow and become heavy. They can no longer be supported by air currents and begin to fall down. Hail is larger than ice grains (with which it is often confused) and only forms during a thunderstorm.
Large hailstones can fall at a speed of 100 m / h. In the USA, hailstones of 15-20 cm in size, with a circumference of up to 42-47 cm and weighing more than 700 grams are often observed.On July 23, 2010, an incredible amount of hail fell in Viviana, South Dakota. One of the hailstones, which were kept in the refrigerator, was registered by American meteorologists as a record one. Its diameter is about 20 cm, the circumference is 47.3 cm. And the weight is 880 grams.
Large hailstones are also often noted in the south of Russia. A hazardous phenomenon is considered to be hail, the particle size of which is 20 mm or more, and falling out during any period.
But there must be something good in a thunderstorm?
Nature could not think of a thunderstorm and everything that accompanies it, just to add to the list of natural hazards.
Thunderclouds are the main way for the atmosphere to realize energy. When a cloud forms in an unstable atmosphere, an enormous amount of heat is released. It serves as a source of enormous energy of thunderclouds, which is mainly spent on precipitation, which in the overwhelming majority of cases is beneficial.
Thunderstorms help maintain electrical balance. The earth’s surface and atmosphere are conductors. Usually the earth’s surface is negatively charged and the atmosphere is positively.There is always a flow of electrons directed from inside the planet through its surface upwards. Thunderstorms allow a negative charge to be transferred back to Earth (lightning is negatively charged). In the absence of thunderstorms, the electrical balance of the earth-atmosphere would disappear in 5 minutes. And it is not known how all this would have ended in reality! (True, thunderstorms are not the only mechanism that maintains this balance. Besides it, the solar wind and the wind of the ionosphere are at work).
Of course, such global effects mean a lot for our lives.But it is much easier for us to feel positive emotions if, after observing all the rules of conduct and precautions, we go outside after a thunderstorm and breathe in deeply clean and fresh air filled with the aromas of ozone and plants that emit essential oils. Showers free the air from harmful impurities – dust, pollen, aerosols that settle on the ground.
During a thunderstorm, nitrogen oxides and nitric acid are formed, which act as natural fertilizers for plants, helping them to better generate the substances necessary for life.
It turns out that there are timeless witnesses of rapid lightning. These are fulgurites – “petrified lightning”. From Latin the word “fulgurite” is translated as “brilliant, glowing burn.” They appear as a result of lightning striking the surface of the earth, when the minerals located there are melted under the influence of heat and electrical discharge. As a result, they are solid objects, similar to smooth, curved glass tubes. Their shape and size depend on the strength of the lightning discharge and the mineral composition of the soil.Most often they are found in sandy areas – on the coast or in the desert.
Of course, the thunderstorm simply mesmerizes with its wild beauty and power. Lightning is one of the most beloved and frequent subjects of photography – both ordinary and artistic.
And how good are rainbows after rain (during daylight hours)! ..
Storm wind, lightning, hail, injured: a powerful thunderstorm struck Moscow
The Ministry of Emergency Situations warns that bad weather will rage for several more hours
The strongest thunderstorm in the last 28 years hit the capital of Russia.While the Ministry of Emergency Situations warns the townspeople about the intensification of bad weather, residents of Moscow are posting photos and videos on social networks illustrating the “scale of evil.”
According to eyewitnesses, a whole “heavenly light show” was observed over the capital – for quite a long time the Moscow sky was illuminated by lightning.
A little about the weather: my husband has been walking around the house for 20 minutes and looking for our window screens # weather # thunderstorm # lightning # rain pic.twitter.com/TSbhTGPXFG
– Belenkaya Evgenia (@ chertovka00) July 13, 2016
In addition to lightning, a stormy wind hit the capital, and in some areas a large hail fell as a “bonus”.
Thunderstorm with hail in Moscow 07/13/16 pic.twitter.com/Roz8KMJu4Z
– Irina Padalka (@padalka_irina) July 13, 2016
Also, users of social networks report about a traffic light blown down by a strong wind in the TsUM area.
– Irina Kudryavtseva (@el_viento_viene) July 13, 2016
The Ministry of Emergency Situations has not yet said anything about material damage from the rampant elements – they will calculate the losses later, however, it is already obvious that the downpour has seriously affected the life of the city.Traffic on some highways is paralyzed, some tunnels are flooded.
Almost completely all of the Third Transport Ring and the Moscow Ring Road are “up”, a number of tunnels are flooded … “Alekseevskaya” partially interrupted the movement of vehicles, “- said the Ministry of Emergency Situations in the city of Moscow, adding that the thunderstorm with rain will continue in the capital until 10.00 am on July 14 with increased wind with gusts of 12-17 m / s.
Rescuers also do not exclude damage from lightning discharges to objects that are not equipped with a lightning rod, damage to power lines, damage and fall of trees and weakly reinforced advertising structures.
The most powerful thunderstorm in Moscow hit the lenses of cameras
See the related photo gallery
It is already known about several victims of the disaster. According to sources in Moscow law enforcement agencies, two men were injured by electric shock near Krymsky Val Street. Now the victims have been taken to the hospital.
Three more people were injured in the Moscow region, as a result of the collapse of a part of the metal roof structure due to strong winds.
Sports commentator MK.RU Alexei Safonov just by the will of his wife who sent him (to the store) found himself on the street in the midst of a riot of elements. Injured:
– The fact that the thunderstorm would not be ordinary at all was clear, if only because the whole street was illuminated with lightning. But for a long time it was just lightning, not even thunder was heard. About 15 minutes later a strong wind started, but it was vital for me to get to the store for milk. And I continued on my way.
There was no warning drop: the downpour covered instantly, and in a second I was completely wet. By the way, the fact that there was no umbrella played into the hands: he still would not have saved the water, but he would have taken it to the ISS. I, a 93-kilogram boy, was knocked down.
The visibility was maximum 10 meters, the rain was gushing in a continuous mass, and the seas and oceans instantly appeared on the roads. Running under such a downpour was also not very good: I was really choking. Branches were constantly falling from the trees, and all the lights were turned off from the blow of one of the lightning.
Alas, even at home the problems are not over. A huge puddle poured on the floor by the window of the room, although the window itself was closed, and on the windowsill it was dry. How she got there – I have no idea, but the only option is that the most powerful pressure of water simply “pierced” some cracks in the good old Soviet building.
Let us remind you that a thunderstorm of a similar scale (even stronger) struck Moscow in 1998. It was accompanied by a hurricane wind and led to serious problems in the city – numerous gusts of power lines, destruction of public transport stops, falling trees and billboards, partial collapse of balconies and damage to personal property of citizens, including cars.
Time in the city of Tulle ‘t Val dnes
night 0 : 00 +13 ° C Krekki djdove : weak vyatar , north-west
speed: 4 m / s
Poriv to vyatra: 9 m / s
Relative humidity in the air: 96%
Deadwood sum: 0.1 mm.
3 : 00 +11 ° C Cloudy
breeze: breeze -western
speed: 3 m / s
Poriv on Vyatara: 8 m / s
Atmospheric nalagane: gPa Relative humidity air: 95%
sutrin 6 : 00 +10 Much cloudy
Breeze: lec breeze , westernized
speed: 907 81 2 m / s
Poriv on Vyatara: 5 m / s
Atmospheric nalagane: 1027 hPa
970780 Relative humidity %
9 : 00 ° C A lot cloudy
0 : lek breeze , western
speed: 2 m / s
Poriv to Vyatara: 6 m / s
Relative air humidity: 85%
den 12 : 00 +14 ° C Short djdove
Breeze: weak vyatyr 90 , northwest
speed: 4 m / s
Poriv to Vyatara: 7 m / s
Atmospheric nalagane: 1027 hPa 1027 hPa 1027 hPa 1027 hPa 1027 hPa 1027 hPa 1027 hPa
Deadwood sum: 0.2 mm.
15 : 00 +15 ° C Short djdove
speed: 5 m / s
Poriv on Vyatara: 9 m / s
Atmospheric nalagane: 1027 g Pa on the air: 67%
Deadwood sum: 0.1 mm.
evening 18 : 00 +14 ° C
7 970787 weak vyatar , northwest
speed: 5 m / s
Poriv to vyatra: 9 m / s
Atmospheric 8 nalyagane
Relative humidity in the air: 74%
Dead weight: 0.1 mm.
21 : 00 +10 ° C Much cloudy
speed: 3 m / s
Poriv to vyatara: 7 m / s
Atmospheric nalagane: 1025 hPa 4 Humidity 9086 hPa 4 : 92%
907 9000 9000
Stepper motor FL86STH
|Full step value, deg||1.8|
|Angular step error, deg||± 0.09|
|Resistance error of motor windings,%||10|
|Error of inductance of motor windings,%||20|
|Maximum radial runout of the motor shaft, mm||0.02|
|Maximum axial runout of the motor shaft, mm||0.08|
|Maximum permissible axial load on the shaft, N||60|
|Maximum permissible radial load on the shaft, N||220|
Description of FL86STH Series Hybrid Stepper Motor
Powerful and dynamic FL86STH stepper motors are the best solution for machine tools with
CNC for working with
plastic, wood and aluminum alloys.
CNC programs for CNC machines: DeskCNC, Turbocnc and MACh4. Control devices: SMSD ‑ 4.2LAN,
SMSD ‑ 8.0LAN, SMD ‑ 4.2DIN,
SMD ‑ 8.0DIN.
|Item||Operating current / phase||Resistance / phase||Inductance / phase||Max.moment 1||Length||Moment of inertia of the rotor||Weight||Email scheme|
|Shaft on one side||Shaft on both sides||A||Ohm||mH||kg * cm||mm||g * cm 2||kg|
Overall and connecting dimensions of FL86STH65 stepper motors
Overall and connecting dimensions of FL86STH80 stepper motors
Overall and connecting dimensions of FL86STh218 stepper motors
Overall and connecting dimensions of FL86STh256 stepper motors
FL86STH stepper motors wiring diagram
Serial connection Parallel connection
Scheme 1 Scheme 2
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