Move the hand to indicate the direction of service.
Extend the arm to the side of the team that will serve.
Raise the forearms front and back, and twist them around the body.
Place the palm of one hand over the fingers of the other, held vertically (forming a “T”), and then indicate the requesting team.
Circular motion of the forearms around each other
Show a yellow card for a warning; red card for a penalty.
Show both cards jointly for explosion.
Show red and yellow cards separately for disqualification.
Cross the forearms in front of the chest, hands open.
Lift the extended arm, the palm of hte hand facing upward.
Raise eight fingers, spread open.
Raise both arms vertically, palms forward.
Make a circular motion with the forefinger.
Point the arm and fingers toward the floor.
Raise the forearms vertically, hands open, palms toward the body.
Slowly lift the forearm, palm of the hand facing upward.
Raise two fingers, spread open.
Raise four fingers, spread open.
Indicate the respective side of the net.
Place a hand above the net, palm facing downward.
Make a downward motion with the forearm, hand open.
Point to the center line or to the respective line.
Raise both thumbs vertically.
Brush with the palm of one hand the fingers of the other; held vertically; USAV: Brush fingers of opposite hand once over palm of vertical hand.
Cover the wrist with a yellow card (warning) and with a red card (penalty).
Lines: Point down with flag.
Lines: Raise flag vertically.
Lines: Raise flag and touch the top with the palm of the free hand.
Lines: Wave flag over the head and point to the antenna or the respective line.
Raise and cross both arms and hands in front of the chest.
Badminton Hand Signals And What They Mean
If you are playing badminton competitively you should definitely know what the referee hand gestures are and what they mean. They are very useful and help you to understand what you are doing that may be incorrect or against the rules.
Read more:Badminton official terms that you should know.
If you are a badminton enthusiast who loves to watch and follow badminton on TV, knowing what the referee is trying to communicate during the match can prove to be very useful as it will help you completely understand the game.
You won’t be lost as to what happened during the game or why a particular player lost a point if you understand these signals.
#1.Undue delay of serve:
Even the receiver should be ready for the service and shouldn’t cause undue delay. The judge will swing their right arm to the left to indicate that the player has been penalised.
Read more:How to serve better in Badminton?
#2. Feet on the service line or even off the ground:
The server and receiver both should stand diagonally opposite each other while at the time of service and receive and they cannot stand outside the bounds of the court lines.
#3. Service too high:
This is one of the most common hand signals you will see a judge using. This kind of fault occurs quite often in a match even at the international level.
#4. Racket handle should face down while serving:
If it is not facing down, it calls for a violation of the service rules and the service judge will make this gesture to indicate the same:
#5. When the shuttle falls outside the lines of the court:
This is a very common signal seen on TV and even in other matches. It is also a very important signal as it is the final decision though it can be reviewed.
#6. When the shuttle lands inside the lines of the court:
This is very crucial as the decision of the line’s judge is the final one with regards to whether the shuttle was in or out. It is very important that the line’s judge stays alter and gives the right signal at the right time.
These are the most important hand signals one should know about in badminton as they can come in handy especially while watching the sport on tv.
The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of our Company, partners and other organizations. While any information provided on our blog is true to the best of our knowledge, we do not guarantee the veracity, reliability or completeness of the information presented. Any advice or opinion is purely for information purposes and should not be construed as an alternative to professional advice.
delay in service hand signal in volleyball
You will need to put in the work and time to learn the basic skills and lay the proper foundation. SUBSTITUTION PROCEDURE FOR VOLLEYBALL ~ Volleyball is a sport played by two teams on a playing court divided by a net. northeastern university intramural sports volleyball training program summer 2006 MISCONDUCT AND DELAY SANCTION SCALE The following is an excerpt from the 2014-2015 Indoor Volleyball Rulebook (Misconduct and Delay Sanctions, Diagram 9 R.21, Page 59) MISCONDUCT SANCTION SCALE CATEGORIES OCCURRENCE OFFENDER SANCTION CARDS CONSEQUENCE RUDE CONDUCT First Any member Penalty Red A point and service to the opponent Second 2. His/ her contacting official is the 2nd referee in this instance. Question 2: Can hand clappers be used at volleyball matches? The Laws are the “basic” rules of the game and are mandatory for all sanctioned table tennis events, whereas the Regulations are supplementary to the Laws and are only mandatory for ITTF (International) events. Server must be in (or jump from within) the 8m width of the court. 3 minutes ago. Thank you for taking this information into consideration as you begin post-season play. 32. The line judges must indicate with the official flag signal the nature of the fault called, and maintain the signal for a moment. Feet on the service line or even off the ground: Ball out. ball down instead of four hits with the ball out of the net 5. Thank you for taking this information into consideration as you begin post-season play. The illegal substitution can be verbalized to the coach. BALL CROSSING THE LOWER SPACE OR THE SERVER TOUCHES THE COURT (END LINE) OR THE PLAYER STEPS OUTSIDE HIS/HER COURT AT THE MOMENT OF THE SERVICE HIT. DRAFT. The R1 facilitates the match. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. Play this game to review Sports. Under volleyball rules and regulations, service may be of two types, underhand serve and overhand serve – two overhand services is the one that is effective, and underhand is the easiest service. USA Volleyball’s response to COVID-19 and guidelines toward Return to Play. Indoor Volleyball: Possible Rule … to the court/service zone than they would normally be situated. 20 Previous officials signal #20 is deleted and signals renumbered. Service … C. If the ball is served before the official’s whistle and signal, the serve shall be canceled and a re-serve directed. Delay in Service When the server doesn’t contact the ball within 8 seconds, raise both arms above your head. True Question 46 Answer saved Marked out of 1.00 qaid=495942150& 0 0 Flag question Question 6: May teams huddle on the court prior to the signal for serve? Service Rotation Most people who have played any volleyball have been introduced to the idea of service rotation. Ball in. • Signal result of play, point/loss of rally, replay or re-serve; • Signal the violation, and hold the hand and arm signal long enough to be seen; • Verbalize the decision when necessary, except #15, signal for serve. 66% average accuracy. Over-the-net 6. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF VOLLEYBALL ARBITERS, INC. c/o 17 Chico Street, Amang Rodriguez Subdivision, Marikina City Tel. True B. 7. In some leagues in United States first yellow card doesn’t result a loss of rally. Playing the guitar is a skill like any other and will require you to start from the beginning. When the service judge deems that one or both feet of the player were moving when the service took place, the service judge has to extend the right leg and pointing the hand towards the foot, while calling “fault!”.. A coach has to make use of the corresponding hand signal in order to request a substitution when such a need arises. Volleyball Advice is a free resource for volleyball players, coaches, and anyone who has an interest in this great sport. d. Visual, informal hand signal and whistle. Physical Ed. a. Wrapping Up. Please provide feedback, good or bad so that I can improve it each year. After that, an arm is extended towards the team who requested for the time-out. Participants are subject to all of the policies and procedures in the Intramural Handbook. For an illegal substitution, only use the unnecessary delay signal. Signals should be demonstrative and clearly visible. Identify this hand signal. Unnecessary delay occurs when: The first unnecessary delay by a coach, player, substitute, replacement or team results in a warning (administrative yellow card), but shall not result in the head coach being required to remain seated during play. The R1 has final say on all calls. Umpires hand signal for a let. Related Posts. In another condition, they lifted the hand and then immediately reached out and grabbed a tennis ball. One sign that the problem is in your servos is if the RC responds only to some commands from the transmitter but not others—for example the wheels will turn but it won’t move forward. All requested time-outs last for 30 seconds. Signals should be demonstrative and clearly visible. If the service has a turnaround time of above five days, it may not work for daily wear. For an illegal substitution, only use the unnecessary delay signal. Begin Serve 16. Unnecessary delay occurs when: The first unnecessary delay by a coach, player, substitute, replacement or team results in a warning (administrative yellow card), but shall not result in the head coach being required to remain seated during play. Service … b. Whistle only. 2. Ball Touched 10. … Delay in service. team points. Czuppon S, Racette BA, Klein SE, Harris-Hayes M. Variables associated with return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review. • In the spirit of fair play, player should use hand signal & opponent should adjust position, without delay. A receiving team player is out of position when there is a service fault. If there is an assistant umpire, he or she should also use the same hand signal to attract the umpire’s attention when making a decision within his or her jurisdiction. The volleyball substitution rules: Substitutes can replace players of the starting line-up only once per set. Raise the forearms front and back, and twist them around the body. No, you can’t block or spike the serve in volleyball. Mechanics-Signal 14 Timeout. Extend the arm to the side of the team that will serve. DIAGRAM 11: REFEREES OFFICIAL HAND SIGNALS. … delay of service. Server is permitted one toss per service attempt. Net Fault or Net Serve 7. Volleyball Referee Hand Signals … FIRST to the team who earned the next service and point • Next, the hand signal explaining the reason why (or what the game/ball fault is) is indicated … the hand facing upwards DELAY IN SERVICE Raise eight fingers, spread open a. Time-outs. So unless … Thank you for taking this information into consideration as you begin post-season play. IMPORTANT NOTE. Same-day or next-day deliveries are usually very handy. They do not include any major changes to the current rules in use but there are some minor alterations and clarifications 32. In the video below, you can see how the judge called fault when the foot is moved while serving. F Authorization to Serve 1 Signals are given w Under volleyball rules and regulations, service may be of two types, underhand serve and overhand serve – two overhand services is the one that is effective, and underhand is the easiest service. FS. 6. All Fargo Park District volleyball leagues will follow the USVA Rules, except where FPD rules apply. … Place opposite palm on top of vertical hand, forming a “T.” Then, extend an open hand on the side making the request to indicate which team … When the substitution is enforced through injury to a player in play this may be accompanied by the coach (or game captain) showing the corresponding hand signal. True B. On the other hand, the teams are not allowed to … May sometimes give incorrect signal e.g. The R1 is the most important of volleyball … 20 Previous officials signal #20 is deleted and signals renumbered. For an illegal substitution, only use the unnecessary delay signal. • In the spirit of fair play, player should use hand signal & opponent should adjust position, without delay. Volleyball Hand signals DRAFT. Volleyball is an exceptional sport requiring tons of energy and enthusiasm. COED AND WOMEN’S SAND-VOLLEYBALL – SUMMER 2021. Hand of outstretched arm on the side of the net on which the fault occured with the palm parallel to the net Signal the player at fault number Signal the point given to the appropiate team . Unnecessary delay occurs when: The first unnecessary delay by a coach, player, substitute, replacement or team results in a warning (administrative yellow card), but shall not result in the head coach being required to remain seated during play. … Move the hand to indicate the direction of service. 16. b. Whistle only. Position, Activity, Coordination of Movement as 2nd referee Stands to one side of the pole Stands to one side of the pole Must start on the correct side for service Always in the correct How is Beach Volleyball Different to Indoor Volleyball Here’s what offside is all about: A player is caught offside if he’s nearer to the opponent’s goal than both the ball and the second-last opponent […] After the signal is made, the referee gestures to the player who has committed the fault or the team that has made the request. … referees’ official hand signals … Ball Touched . Screening: serving team may not impede the receiving teams’ view of the server and the flight of the ball. A new signal for unnecessary delay will be used by officials — “The new mechanics call for the official to raise the hand on the side of the offending team, beside the head with palm facing the shoulder, and hold the appropriate card on the wrist of the raised hand.” a. Illegal Attack 8. For an illegal substitution, only use the unnecessary delay signal. Positional / Rotational Fault Ball “IN” Make a circular motion with the forefinger Point the arm and fingers towards the floor. Serving team should adjust position, without delay. 0 times. KCRG | Cedar Rapids, Iowa City, Waterloo, Dubuque | News, Sports and Weather Natural fibers, on the other hand… These signals (except #15, signal for serve) shall be used by the first referee and second referee. Undue delay of serve. 2. Rule 9 9-9-1 34 The appropriate signal to be displayed when a team is assessed an unnecessary delay/administrative warning is: The referees will place their hands on their waist to indicate the unnecessary delay. www.nfhs.org Rule Change www.nfhs.org But like any other game, it requires rules and regulations. Tags: Question 3 .
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change court volleyball hand signal
Volleyball Referee. A powerful attack that puts the ball into the opponents court by jumping and hitting the ball with one hand Assist A passing or setting the ball to a teammate who attacks the ball for a kill. (1) 2. Ball Lands Inbounds 14. If the server wins a rally, the server scores a point and will then serve again from the alternate service court. The Olympic beach volleyball court is 16m (52.5ft) long and 8m (26.2ft) wide. Authorization to Serve Extend the arm to the side of team that will serve Move the hand to indicate the direction of service Team to Serve 3. VOLLEYBALL SIGNALS. Rationale:Simplifies mechanics for unnecessary delay signal and clarifies side at fault. 5-4-1c: Clarifies that the inspection of net antennas is a prematch responsibility of the first referee. VOLLEYBALL CANADA 2018-2019 OFFICIAL VOLLEYBALL RULES Published and distributed by Volleyball Canada. 2018-19 VOLLEYBALL MAJOR EDITORIAL CHANGES Official 21. Inbounds: Arms extended in front of body, hands open (palms down) toward the floor area between the attack line and the net. .essay on Volleyball ! The court is divided into two sides of 5m deep by 6m wide. There are different versions available for specific circumstances in order to offer the versatility of the game to everyone. Invented in 1895 by Clara Baer, a physical education instructor at Sophie Newcomb College, Tulane University in New Orleans, it rivaled volleyball in popularity and participation in the 1920s. The game is significant because it was invented by a woman and . Volleyball referee signals for officiating volleyball. Rationale:Clarifies timer and second referee responsibilities during time-outs/intervals when multiple courts are in use. Authorization to Enter 18. They serve from the appropriate service court – left if the score is odd and right if it is . Point 19. In this video, I’m going to show you the top ten signals of volleyball referees.This video is not only for volleyball players, coaches but also for fans and people watching volleyball from time to time. Ball Out (Hand Signals Volleyball) When the ball goes out of bounds without being touched by the defender or the ball hits the antennae or crosses the net outside the antennae, you signal by raising both arms while keeping the upper arms parallel the floor. But we’ve got that covered, too! Gravity. During this time period, change of courts and line-up registrations of the teams on the scoresheet are made. Found inside – Page 368Brightly colored umbrellas dotted the beach, and the volleyball courts were full. … Signal if you need a getaway car, and I’ll call you a taxi.” “You aren’t coming with me … Selena twisted in her seat to clasp both of Kayla’s hands. Found inside – Page 48Following the coin toss , blow your whistle and signal the teams to change courts and team benches or to return to the same team benches , depending … The teams decide whether of game . they wish to shake hands with their opponents . VOLLEYBALL COURT 5. 1. According to a 1978 interview of an Outrigger Canoe Club member, George David “Dad” Center put a net up there, and the first recorded game of beach volleyball took place. Official Volleyball Rules – in Easy to Understand Format Volleyball player crossing the center line. referees’ official hand signals. Illegal Attack 8. AUTHORIZATION TO SERVE 7. Test. The middle hitter unsurprisingly will always want to rotate to the middle spot or the 3 position. Found inside – Page 139… Mechanics ( a summary of changes in techniques of officiating , techniques of officiating volleyball , court / game protocol … hand signals , and instructions for use of the official volleyball scoresheet ) ; ( 3 ) Study Questions … Learn. Referees use several hand signals during a volleyball game. place the palm of one hand over the fingers of the other, held vertically (forming a T) and . Found inside – Page 52Last night I then that one , still seduced by change , four blockish buildings of Lutheransat through vespers with … the magazine business ; ball courts and a regulation Isak Dinesen ; his brother up in beach – sand volleyball court . Begin Serve 16. Page 63 2019-20 NFHS Volleyball Rules LINE JUDGE SIGNALS USING HAND SIGNALS 1. It’s worth noting that a toss is carried out by the 1-st referee before a volleyball match. The volleyball substitution rules: Substitutes can replace players of the starting line-up only once per set. When the shuttle is IN:- Lineman will make pledge gesture with his hand When the shuttle is OUT:-He will extend both of his arm making a straight line from his one hand to another hand.When he does not know:-when the lineman is not certain if the shuttle was IN or OUT due to reason like player covered the line . Substitution 17. extend the arm to the side of the team that will serve. Service Rotation Most people who have played any volleyball have been introduced to the idea of service rotation. Many are downloadable. Found inside – Page 176Fouls include kicking the ball, throwing it with two hands, propelling it in any way except by batting it with the fist, and crossing over the … Teams change courts during the half-time rest period. … A soccer ball, volleyball or … The referee blows the whistle to signal the start and end of each play. Found inside – Page 314This handoff signals a change in exercise for the rest of the squad. 2. Punting. … Volleyball 1. Rotating. Place students in the various court positions. Teach them the rotational sequence. As they reach a new court position, … Slowly lift the forearm, palm of the hand facing upward. Illegal Alignment/ Improper Server 2. Found inside – Page 86OTHER BALL GAMES VOLLEYBALL KICK – OVER BALL The official volleyball court is 40 by 80 feet in size . … The boundaries of the court support themselves by placing their should be clearly marked with lime or other hands on the floor … 2. PLAY. CHANGE OF COURT 9. Volleyball Referee is a user-friendly and complete application for refereeing indoor and beach volleyball matches. Match. What are the most common signals of volleyball referees? All signals which are made with one hand shall be made with the hand on the side of the team that commits the fault or makes the request. Found inside – Page 142Screening is illegal in volleyball.  (e) (i) Duties of Line Judges : (a) Stand on the two corners opposite the service corners and outside the play court (b) Signal the first referee for (1) Landing of ball (both inside or outside … OFFICIAL VOLLEYBALL SIGNALS PlayPics courtesy of (www.referee.com) 1. . The motion starts at the thigh and there is less bend at the elbow. Newcomb ball (also known simply as Newcomb, and sometimes spelled Newcombe (ball)) is a ball game played as a variation of volleyball.. Found inside – Page 120(2009) showed that tennis players were less able to differentiate between cross-court and ‘inside-out’ forehand … is primarily driven by pick-up of advance information from upper body sources, notably the bowling hand and arm over the … Service Rotation Most people who have played any volleyball have been introduced to the idea of service rotation. Its primary function is to cause the game to progress with as little interference as possible. Found insideReferees (2) The senior high official platform, on a the other on Rest area Scorer For players Records between games points and keeps RULES CHANGE Beach volleyball differs from regular volleyball in several ways. For example, in beach, … Authorization to Enter 18. In noisy gyms its impossible for the setter to talk to her hitters that may be in the back row or on the opposite side of the court. Some of these it Found insideSee the play calling signals on pages 117 and 118. The second kind of set to the … A tip is directed to a difficult area for the opponent to cover by a front-row player (setter, opposite) using one hand. The difficult areas to cover … The server has to contact the volleyball and put it in play before stepping on the end line or into the court. Speech, Debate & Theatre Directors & Judges, Kenny Owens Named DCSAA Executive Director, NASO Elects New Board Members, NFHS’ Pappas as Vice Chair, #DontMissYourShot: Defend for One Another, Thanks to Mitigation Strategies, Performing Arts Events Return to High Schools Nationwide, Poor Sportsmanship, Pandemic Contributing to Shortage of Officials. Out-of-Bounds/ Antenna Violation 15. liliilldli PlayPics courtesy of Referee . Rationale: Eliminates further delay of the set by removing the option to request additional substitutions after a team is charged with an unnecessary delay. you are not allowed to touch the ball beyond the net in this case. Raise the forearms vertically, hands open, palms toward the body. Step over to the other side of the court so that they can drop straight back and play defense. Gravity. ✅ MY STUFF► Learn volleyball online https://geni.us/online-course► Knee pads https://geni.us/volleyball-knee-pads► Equipment \u0026 Apparel https://geni.us/volleyball-equipment✅ MY FAVOURITE GEAR► Macbook Pro https://geni.us/AUXA► Nikon D750 https://geni.us/O5zfTHv► Nikon 24-70mm f/2.8G https://geni.us/4dFP9► Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8G https://geni.us/tJaBZtw► Samsung T7 2TB SSD https://geni.us/aCaqoLh✅ Follow► SITE – https://volleycountry.com► FORUM – http://inside.volleycountry.com► FACEBOOK – https://www.facebook.com/volleycountry► INSTAGRAM – https://www.instagram.com/popelkavolley/► LINKEDIN – https://www.linkedin.com/in/jiripopelka/PS: Some of the links in this description are affiliate links that I get a kickback from Thanks for watchingJIRI POPELKA#volleyballadvice #referee #volleycountry Ball Touched 10. For example, position 2 is always in the front court on the right hand side, and position 6 is always in the middle of the back court. Diagram 11: Official Hand Signals (Indoor) 1. After the signal is made, the referee gestures to the player who has committed the fault or the team that has made the request. VOLLEYBALL SIGNALS. 11-5-3 (NEW): Between sets, teams may warm up in their playing area, but may not hit volleyballs over the net into the opponents playing area. 2018-19 VOLLEYBALL MAJOR EDITORIAL CHANGES. Hand signals are used to call volleyball plays because. They do not change the substitution areas. Usually a server uses one, open hand to swing overhead and send the ball over the net from behind the end line. Unnecessary Delay 22. Referees’ Official Hand Signals 71 Line Judges’ Official Flag Signals 77 Definitions 79 SECTION IV – FIVB . Inbounds: Arms extended in front of body, hands open (palms down) toward the floor area between the attack line and the net. There are six positions on the To start, take a quick look at the court shown on the right. Unnecessary Delay 22. 1900: A special ball was designed for the sport. Official 21. The job of the 1-st referee is to determine . In fact, the most complicated part of the court is actually the volleyball net. Two captains also represent their teams during a toss. Official USA Volleyball Hand Signals. Found inside – Page 12Junior Dixon , Reporter . also hard to manage your feet and hands , and All clubs are reminded that the March 4 – H … Frank W. Stout , included tennis and volleyball courts , soft- meeting each member was assigned a part of various … 10-2 PENALTIES 2: After a team is charged with an unnecessary delay, the coach may request no further substitutions until the next completed rally. raise the forearms front and back and twist them around the body. Replay/Re-serve 20A. 1. There are six positions on the FIVB International Referee Ching-Ju Chung／TPE Volleyball Referees’ Official Hand Signals D1 authorisation to serve D2 team to serve D3 change of courts D4 ti. Volleyball is a team game which has six players that play on either side of the net. OFFICIATING A VOLLEYBALL GAME 2. Found inside – Page 177This may also refer to opposing teams that switch sides of the net at the end of each game or at the mid – point of the … uses one hand to try to softly place the ball over the blockers or into other open areas of the opponent’s court … The position was created to promote ball-control. Found inside – Page 248Although the task is repetitive , some of the requirements of the task may change slightly with each dribble . … That information is processed in the brain into signals that we recognize and interpret – a colorful visual image … Change of Courts – Basic Rules of Volleyball After each set, the teams change courts with the exception of the deciding set. (Obviously, for this to be possible, the ball must be at . Time-out. The first referee repeats the timeout signal (photo at the right). Zone 1 is in the right back corner, where the server is. Over-the-net 6. The first referee would signal the start of the rally and indeed the start of the serve by blowing the whistle and waving their hand from the servers side to the receiving teams side. Found inside – Page 30They want a volleyball court . … On the other hand , the alliance was a model which other biotech firms might find 59 57 Louis Galambos and Jeffrey L. … Ten deals that changed biotechnology ‘ , Signals Magazine , 17 November 1998 . Found inside – Page 46There’s room for up to 45, but these events are very popular, so sign up early. … a construction site where numerous basketball and volleyball courts are being installed, and even a Montessori school (pre-K through sixth grade). To start, flip a coin to determine which team serves the ball first. There are only two (different) actions when you are permitted to reach beyond (over) the net: blocking and attack hit. Obtaining First Referee’s Attention: Wave arm overhead to obtain the first referee’s attention, when necessary. Found inside – Page 34Blocking is a technique in volleyball game by which the players in the attacking area raise their hands above the net … (1) Stand on the two corners opposite the service corners and outside the play court (2) Signal the first referee … Question 8: There seems to be a lot of confusion concerning the end of set protocol for a non-deciding set. The second referee will signal to the first referee the number of timeouts taken . With closed fists, place your left arm in front of your body and your right arm behind you. The ball must be returned over the net in 3 hits or less. Found inside – Page 21Set up cones about 30 feet (9 m) apart, or use the sidelines on a volleyball court. … Follow hand signals from your partner to sprint forward, back, left, and right. She should change the signals every three to five seconds. While the court size changes, the net is the same size on a beach volleyball court as an indoor volleyball court. A volleyball game consists of two teams of six players each, separated by a net. If the timeout is to the left, the left hand will form the stem of the T. The right hand forms the horizontal portion. Rationale:Supports the second referee’s responsibilities as outlined in the Officials Manual. The “Official Volleyball Signals Using an Electronic Whistle” video provides officials with tips and techniques to assist in creating seamless signal sequences when using an electronic whistle. Each player moves into a new “zone” for which he is responsible when there’s a rotation. time out. FIVB International Referee Ching-Ju Chung／TPE Volleyball Referees’ Official Hand Signals D1 authorisation to serve D2 team to serve D3 change of courts D4 time-out D5 substitution D6a misconduct warning D6b misconduct penalty D7 expulsion D8 disqualification D9 end of set (or match) D10 ball not tossed or released at the service hit D11 delay in service D12 blocking fault or screening D13 positional or rotational fault D14 ball “in” D15 ball “out” D16 catch D17 double contact D18 four hits D19 net fault D20 reaching beyond the net D21 attack hit fault D22 penetration D23 double fault and replay D24 ball touched D25 delay warning D25 delay penalty It results in a point for the server. Point the arm and fingers toward the floor. The zones move clockwise, so Zone 2 is the right front, and Zone 6 is the rear middle. At the end of each non-deciding set, show the change of courts volleyball referee signal. OFFICIAL VOLLEYBALL RULES 2017-2020 7 GAME CHARACTERISTICS Volleyball is a sport played by two teams on a playing court divided by a net. Check out the diagram below or view our Quick Facts About Volleyball Court Measurements. This edition of The Code is an adaptation of the original. Beach volleyball most likely originated in 1915 on Waikiki Beach in Hawaii, at the Outrigger Canoe Club. It’s perfectly fine for players to jump, hit the ball in the air, and then land on the line or inside the court. Lift the extended arm, the palm of hte hand facing upward. 5-5-3b(10) (NEW): The second referee has the responsibility to ensure that the head coach remains in the replacement zone no closer than 6 feet to the sideline, when standing during play. Twist your arms around your body once in a counterclockwise movement. • Create beach volleyball matches with official or user-defined rules . 13. In the vast majority of cases, indoor volleyball is played in a multi-purpose gymnasium either at a school or university, and the court lines are superimposed on the floor along with basketball, badminton, handball, and so forth. 5-5-3b (13) & (20): Clarifies that the second referee shall use a double whistle to indicate the warning during a time-out and when an intermission is used. A point is indicated by one finger at the side of the court to indicate the winner of the rally. There are six zones. THE CODE The Players’ Guide to Fair Play and the Unwritten Rules of Tennis The Code is not part of the ITF Rules of Tennis.Players shall follow The Code, except to the extent to which an official assumes some of their responsibilities. Players are allowed to block serves, but one “cheek” must be . 13. Found inside – Page 6Brightly colored umbrellas dotted the beach, and the volleyball courts were full. … Signal if you need a getaway car, and I’ll call you a taxi.” “You aren’t coming with me … Selena twisted in her seat to clasp both of Kayla’s hands. time out. Double Hit 12. During play on court 1 a ball from adjacent court 2 enters court 1 and rolls along the back end line. Make a circular motion with the forefinger. Title: Rules Author: [email protected] Subject: Rules Created Date: 191021006192135 Volleyball hand signals Exit Ticket Why are hand signals to a modified game of volleyball? Found inside – Page 132(iv) Asks authorisation for change of equipment, verification of ground, net, ball, etc. (v) Verifies position of the team. … (c) Define the terms setter and ace in a game of volleyball. … Verbal or hand signal is given for warning. All rights reserved. Found inside – Page 162Reduce the players on the court to five so that fewer people need to cover more space. To deCreASe diFFiCuLTy • Play a … To inCreASe diFFiCuLTy • Switch defenses within the minigame using hand signals. To deCreASe diFFiCuLTy • Focus … Ball Not Released This signal is for when the ball isn’t released from the hand at the moment of service contact or if the server doesn’t execute the service properly. True T/F: Play should continue if CF on Team S reaches across the net makes no contact with the ball, but touches Team R setter’s hands after the ball has left the setter’s hand. Supporting information in the video includes examples of various signals conducted by the first and second referees in applying proper mechanics. SIGNAL #21: To signal unnecessary delay, raise the hand on the side of the offending team beside head, palm facing shoulder, hold the appropriate card on the wrist of the raised hand. . In volleyball it is illegal to serve without the official signalling the start of the rally. After making an attack hit, you are allowed to pass your hand beyond the net, but the contact must have been made within your own playing space.I.e. 2:3 The court players position themselves anywhere in the playing area. . Rationale: Clarifies that no team member may assist a player during an attempt to play the ball. Team 20B. Libero Do’s and Don’ts.
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Football Disconcerting Acts or Signals Penalty
If there’s one penalty that you have almost certainly never seen during a game, it’s a disconcerting signals penalty. Football disconcerting acts, or a signals penalty, is a very rare penalty which is almost never called during gameplay. This penalty is when the defensive team is trying to mimic the offense’s cadence to trick them. This means that the defense will pose falsely as the quarterback and “hike” the ball, hoping that the offensive players will jump offside. This penalty is very rarely called because it’s a move that players seldom attempt.
In football, a disconcerting act or signal penalty occurs when a defensive player pretends to be the quarterback, mimicking their cadence and causing confusion on the offensive side of the ball. The penalty is under the umbrella of unsportsmanlike conduct. This penalty cannot be called on anyone on the ball’s offensive side, as they cannot mimic their own cadence. The penalty is often hard to call because of yelling going on from both sides of the field. At times a referee or umpire will hear the defense intentionally mimicking the offense.
|Disconcerting Acts or Signals||15 yards||15 yards||15 yards||15 yards||15 yards|
A disconcerting act or signal penalty is under the umbrella of unsportsmanlike conduct penalties on the entire defense. It is a team penalty, rather than an individual penalty. Because of this, the penalty for a disconcerting act or signal is 15 yards for the offense and an automatic first down for the offense. As the penalty is called so rarely, you may see it only once every few seasons at most. When it does happen, the offense will add an additional fifteen yards and the defense will be warned to not commit the penalty again.
The penalty signal for a disconcerting act or signal is the same as any other penalty that falls under the category of unsportsmanlike conduct. There cannot be a penalty signal for every small penalty, especially for one as rare as a disconcerting act or signal penalty. The signal is a referee holding their arms out, parallel to the ground, with the palms down, followed by pointing in the defense’s direction.
- A defensive tackle near the center yells “hut, hut, hike” to confuse the opposing center and get them to snap the ball before the quarterback obtains it
- The defensive players yell an offensive line adjustment, causing the offensive line to move.
- A player on the defense matches the quarterback’s voice and yells audibly, confusing the offense.
Similar Penalties To Disconcerting Acts or Signals
Understanding 8 badminton judges’ hand signals – VICTOR Badminton
Badminton has a long history, originating from the game of battledore and shuttlecock. A sport similar to modern badminton appeared in western India in the mid-19h Century. The British loved this sport and took it back to the UK.
Due to the lack of a clear set of rules there were often disputes amongst players, that was until Bath Badminton Club completed the first badminton rule book in 1887. When the English Badminton Association was established in 1893 the rules were revised and unified and have since been the main basis for the sport.
Of course, people who play badminton should understand what the judges’ hand signal mean. Below we will explain eight hand signals often used by the service judge and line judges in badminton competitions
Introduction to service judge hand signals
Service fault is one of the most common faults seen in badminton, so, in international competitions, as well as an umpire and six line judges, there will also be a service judge who will sit opposite the umpire and will judge if a player’s service action is in accordance with the rules. Below, we will introduce the hand signals for five commonly seen service faults.
1. Undue delay of serve
BWF rule 9.1.1 states “Neither side shall cause undue delay to the delivery of the service once the server and the receiver are ready for the service. “ After a player finishes raising their racket head backwards any delay is undue delay of serve.
Also, rules 9.1.7 and 9.2 tell us that, once a player begins to swing his/her racket forward, the service is deemed to have begun and the racket must continue moving forward in a continuous motion until the serving action is completed, otherwise a fault will be called–for non-continuous movement.
When undue delays occur the service judge will swing their right arm to the left to indicate that a player has been penalized for undue delay.
2. Feet on the service line or off the ground
According to rule 9.1.2, the server and the player receiving the serve should stand in the diagonally opposite service courts and must not tread on the service court boundary line. Rule 9.1.3 points out that both of the server and receiver’s feet must at least be partially touching the ground and should remain fixed in place from when the serve begins to when the action is completed. When the aforementioned breaches occur the service judge will stretch out their right leg and signal a fault with their right hand because a player’s feet were off the ground or they were on the boundary line.
3. Server fails to hit the bottom of the shuttlecock
According to rule 9.1.4, a player’s racket face should hit the bottom of the shuttlecock. If a player fails to hit the bottom of the shuttlecock when serving, the line judge will open their right hand and lightly touch the palm with their left hand to indicate a service fault.
4. Service too high
According to rule 9.1.5, when the server’s racket hits the shuttlecock the entire racket should be below waist-height (an imaginary line across the lowest rib of a player) therefore, if the racket is too high when the serve is made, the service judge will place their right hand horizontally across their ribs.
5.Racket handle should face up
Rule 9.1.6 states that when a serve is made the racket handle must be facing down at the moment the shuttlecock is hit. If the racket handle is facing up when the shuttlecock is hit the service judge will lift up their open hand with palm facing out to indicate a fault due to the racket handle facing up.
Line judge hand signals
As well as the service judge there are also line judges for the back lines and side lines. A line judge should be seated 2.5-3.5m from the line and judges whether a shuttlecock lands “in” or “out”, deciding whether a player has scored a point.
Below the three most common hand signals are explained
1. The shuttlecock lands out the line
If the shuttlecock lands out of bounds the line judge must loudly and quickly shout “Out” so that both players and spectators hear, and will stretch their arms out to the side level with each other while looking at the umpire with a fixed stare to ensure the umpire is clear about the decision.
2. The shuttlecock lands inside the line
If the shuttlecock lands inside the line, no announcement is needed, the line judge will just point their right hand at the line.
3. If the line judge does not see
If the line judge can’t see the shuttlecock clearly (because their view is blocked by a player’s body or other unavoidable situation), as they were unable to see whether the shuttlecock landed in or out they should cover the eyes with their hands to let the umpire know.
Every should spend some time becoming familiar with the commonly seen judges’ hand signal so that whether you are watching a match or playing in one you won’t have to ask “What is happening now?” “What kind of fault did the judge just signal?” and avoid other situations in which you aren’t sure what is going on!
Yun-Yi Ting, C-class referee certificated by Chinese Taipei Badminton Association
(Edit by VICTOR Badminton )
Umpire Signs & Signals – UmpireBible
Umpire Signs & Signals
Umpires use a number of signals. Some of these are familiar and are associated with the Rules of Baseball, like safe, out, foul, etc. In addition to these, there are signs and signals that umpires use to communicate with one another during the games, saying things like “first-to-third,” “it’s infield fly situation,” and many others.
Following is a summary of three sets of signals. It is very important to cover your umpire signs and signals at your pre-game meeting (see Umpire Pre-Game Meetings):
Basic Signs for the Players and Fans
The right hand is the “action” hand and the plate umpire uses the action hand to signal things like play, strike, out, fair ball (i.e., live ball), infield fly, and so forth. He uses his left hand for controlling the game or when pointing to a partner, when controlling the pitcher, and for holding the indicator and the mask.
There is no signal for a called ball. Instead, simply verbalize the call, “ball”. Call the ball while still down, then come up. On ball four, don’t point to first base, just say “ball.” If the batter doesn’t head toward first base, you can simply say to him “that’s four.”
Signal strikes with your right hand. Use the traditional clenched fist (“pounding the door”), or signal with your hand/finger shot out to the side. On a called strike, verbalize sharply; everyone should hear. On a swinging strike do not verbalize; simply give the signal.
Extend both arms together in front of you and then give a quick, sweeping motion outward, roughly parallel to the ground, palms down. On close plays, you can also verbalize the call, “safe”, or “he’s safe”. This helps sell a close call. You can also verbalize information to help sell an extremely close call, things like “Safe – he’s under the tag”, of “Safe – he pulled his foot.” On obvious calls (“stadium calls”) don’t verbalize the call.
Form a hammer with a clenched right fist and deliver a quick, sharp blow. Some degree of personal style is allowed on the out call, as long you are not distracted from seeing any continuing action. If necessary, verbalize and signal additional information to sell a close call, like “off the bag” or “on the transfer.”
Point the right hand toward fair territory. Never verbalize “fair ball.” On a close call, to emphasize the call, stab your arm into fair territory multiple times emphatically.
The signal for foul ball is the same as for “Time” or other dead ball situation: Raise both hands and call loudly “Foul.” Make the call loud and sharp, so everyone hears. Note that, once verbalized, you cannot reverse a call of foul ball.
Point at the pitcher with the right hand with a stabbing motion and call “Play.”
You must put the ball back in play following every time the ball goes dead, whether foul ball, hit-by-pitch, called “time”, or other reason. When the pitcher has the ball and is ready (he must have engaged the rubber), and the catcher is in the catcher’s box and is also ready, point and call “play”. Under no circumstances should you allow the pitcher to go into his windup until you have called “Play”.
Raise both hands and call “Time” in a loud voice. Make the call loud and sharp. It is essential that everyone on the field hear you.
Important: When any umpire calls “Time,” all other umpires should echo the call by also signaling and, if there is play in progress, also verbalizing “Time.”
(Time with a small “t”). There are occasions when time is out, but “Time” has not been called. An example is when the pitcher is ready but the batter is not yet set; in this case, the plate umpire might put up his hand as a stop sign to the pitcher, signaling him to wait. It is important to understand that when you put up a stop sign like that you have called time. So you must put the ball back in play.
Important: Be very careful with this small-“t” Time. Be certain, for example, that all continuous play has come to a stop, that runners are back to their bases, and that no sudden actions are imminent. You’re in a world of hurt if you’ve got a hand up signaling time, just as a runner breaks and a bang-bang play develops, an overthrow occurs, a run scores, and THEN you have to get everyone’s attention to bring it all back.
Indicate pitch count using the left hand for balls and the right hand for strikes. On fields that do not have scoreboards, give the count frequently; always give the count on an “action” pitch (with three balls and/or two strikes). Call the count loudly, so both benches (and base coaches) can hear it clearly. Finally, don’t abbreviate the count by verbalizing things like “twenty-two” for two and two, or saying “full count” when the count is three and two.
3rd strike not
Give the strike sign, but do not call or signal the batter out. Instead, clear the catcher and give the safe sign.
Advanced Signs for Inside the Game
Several signs are important for communicating with the scorekeeping, coaches, and players.
The only time you should signal that a run scores is on a timing play to indicate that an advancing runner did (or did not) cross the plate before a 3rd out was made on the bases. In this case, signal and verbalize:
Point at the batter with the left hand then signal the strike with your right while verbalizing “Yes, he went.”
Step back from the plate and with your left arm gesture to the base umpire and ask “Did he go?” If the answer is yes the base umpire gives the strike signal while saying “Yes, he went!” If the answer is no, the base umpire gives a safe sign with “No, he did not go!”
Extend you left arm and brush the back of your left hand with your right hand, then signal the strike with the right hand. Never verbalize “foul tip” because this could be confused with a call of “foul.”
Point into the air with the right hand and verbalize “infield fly, batter’s out!” Verbalize in your loudest voice. All umpires on the field should echo the call. For more about the infield fly, see Infield Fly Rule.
Signal a home run by pointing at the sky with the right arm and twirling the index finger.
Signal a ground-rule double by holding two fingers up and by verbalizing “That’s a ground-rule double.” All runners move two bases from time of pitch and the ball is dead.
Point to affected base runner and state “You, second base” or “You, third base”, etc. Move the lead runner first, then following runners in order.
Call clearly: “That’s a Balk!”
Call balks with reference to the action. If the pitcher completes the delivery of the ball, or throws to a base, you are in a delayed dead ball situation. So, point at the pitcher and say “That’s a balk”. Then, if the pitcher stops his delivery, call “Time … that’s a balk” and award bases as appropriate. Otherwise, allow action to complete, then call “Time!”, announce the balk and award bases as appropriate.
Note: In high school play (FED rules), balks are an immediate dead ball. It’s a stupid rule, but it is what it is.
Point at the player committing the interference and verbalize loudly and clearly “Time! That’s interference!” Ensure that all play stops and then enforce penalties, as appropriate. For more information, see Offensive Interference.
First, note whether you have Type (a) or Type (b) obstruction. Type (a) obstruction occurs when a play is being made on the obstructed runner and results in an immediate dead ball. Type (b) obstruction occurs when a play is not being made on the obstructed runner, and this is a delayed dead ball.
In both cases, point to the offending player and verbalize loudly and clearly “That’s obstruction”. If this is Type (a) obstruction, immediately call time and award bases as appropriate. If Type (b), wait for conclusion of continuous action on the play, then call Time and enforce penalties as appropriate.
Signal a catch using the Out sign: raised right arm with a clenched fist. No verbalization is necessary.
For no-catch, use the Safe sign; be sure to verbalize “No catch!” or “On the ground” loudly and clearly. The verbal call needs only to be given on a trouble ball. In cases where the no-catch resulted from the fielder juggling the ball and not securing possession, you can provide a juggling motion to indicate this. When the no-catch results from the ball touching the ground (on a close or trouble ball), point to the ground after signaling no-catch.
Signs for the Umpire Crew
Following are a basic set of signs that umpire crews use to pass important information or ask for it. These signs are not formalized and might vary somewhat from league to league. Be sure to cover your crew signs during the pre-game meeting.
Generally, umpire signals originate with the plate umpire; on receiving a signal, the base umpire then flashes back the signal to indicate that he’s received it. On three- or four-man crews, the exchange is with the interior umpire (the one in positions B or C).
With each new batter (except the first, obviously), the PU flashes the number of outs by extending fingers either at his side, or in front of him. For no outs, use a clenched fist.
When you’re in an infield fly situation, signal by touching the brim of the hat. Some crews indicate the number of outs by touching the brim with one finger or a fist.
With a runner on first, or runners on first and third, the PU should signal the first-to-third rotation by pointing at third base. For more information, see The Basic Rotations (two-man).
With a runner in scoring position (except for first-to-third situation), PU should signal that he’s staying at home – that is, will not rotate to other bases for a play. For more information, see The Basic Rotations (two-man).
When infielders are “playing in” (e.g., to get a ground out at home), the BU should move back behind the middle infielder to avoid interfering with the play. When doing so, move your hand up and down behind your head, with the palm facing home. This alerts the PU to take catch/no-catch on all infield fly balls.
We need to talk
It’s useful to have a signal that says to your partner, “We need to talk.” Some crews use the arms crossed like an “X” in front of the chest, but this might be too obvious. This signal is very useful in situations where your partner is in an argument with a manager over a call and you have useful information for him. You never insert yourself in the middle of another umpire’s call unless that umpire asks for help. But if you have information that could help him, a subtle signal can be a life-saver for him.
With two outs and a runner in scoring position, tap the wrist on the left hand (where a watch is normally worn) with two finger of the right hand to indicate a potential timing play. You could then point to home plate with two fingers to indicate that you’re staying home on the play. Note, however, that a timing play can occur on plays that begin with fewer than two outs, so you must be alert to the possibility on all plays at the plate. In fact, it is for this reason that some organizations now discourage use of the time play signal.
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Referees must show with official signals the reason for their whistle (the nature of the error indicated by the whistle, or the purpose of the permitted break). The gesture must be kept for some time and, if shown with one hand, the hand corresponds to the side of the team that made the mistake or request.
Linear should show the nature of the error fixed by official flag signals and withstand the signal for some time.
The 1st referee authorizes the service after verifying that both teams are ready to play and the server is in possession of the ball.
If the error is signaled by the 1st referee’s whistle, he shall indicate in the following order:
- the command that will issue
- error nature
- player (s) at fault (if necessary)
If the error is indicated by the whistle of the 2nd referee, he must indicate:
- Error Nature
- player (s) at fault (if necessary)
- the command to serve, following the signal from the 1st referee
After each game, teams change courts, with the exception of the deciding set
In the deciding set, as soon as the leading team reaches 8 points, the teams change courts without delay, and the positions of the players remain the same.
If the change was not made upon reaching the leading by a team of 8 points, it must be made immediately, as only this error was revealed. Score reached by the moment when such a change is made, remains the same
Timeout requests must be made by showing the appropriate signal when the ball is out of play and before the whistle to serve.All requested timeouts lasts 30 seconds.
For FIVB, World and Official Competitions it is compulsory to use a buzzer and then a gesture to request a timeout.
Substitution is an action in which a player other than Libero or his / her substituted player, after recording secretary, enters the game to take the position of another the player who must leave the court at this moment.
When the replacement is forced due to injury the player in the game, she may be accompanied by showing the appropriate gesture by the coach (or game captain).
Excluded or disqualified player must be replaced immediately according to the replacement rules. If this is not possible, the command is declared incomplete.
No minor misconduct are subject to sanctions.Responsibility 1 th judges is to prevent commands from approaching the level violations for which sanctions are imposed.
This is done in two steps:
Stage 1: Verbal warning through the game captain;
Step 2: YELLOW CARD presented appropriate team member (s). it an official warning is not in itself sanctioned, but is a symbol that a team member (and team as a whole) has reached the level of sanctions imposed in match.It is recorded in the protocol, but does not have immediate consequences.
First rude behavior of any team member in a match is penalized with a point and service to the opponent.
The team member who was sanctioned for expulsion is not must participate in the game for the remainder of the game, must be replaced according to the replacement rules immediately if on the court and must sit onsite for remote without other consequences.
The remote coach loses his right to intervene party and must sit still for the remote.
First offensive behavior of a team member is punishable by removal without other consequences.
Second rude behavior of the same team member in the same match is punished by sending off without others consequences.
Sanctioned Team Member disqualification, must be replaced in accordance with replacement rules immediately if it is on site, and must leave the Control Zone Competitions until the end of the match without other consequences.
For the first physical assault, or implied or threatening aggression is imposed sanction disqualification without other consequences.
Second abusive behavior of the same member teams in the same match will be penalized by disqualification without other consequences.
Third rude behavior of the same team member in the same match is punished by disqualification without other consequences.
Game, (except for the decisive 5th game) won by the first team to reach 25 points with an advantage of at least two points. In case of equal scores 24-24 play continues until 2 point advantage (26-24; 27-25;…).
The winner of the match is the team to win
If the score is 2-2, decisive game 5 is played to 15 points and a minimum advantage of 2 points.
The ball must be hit with one hand or with any part of the hand after it is thrown or released from the hand (s).
The server must hit the ball within 8 seconds of the 1st referee’s whistle for service.
Players of the serving team must not singles or prevent your opponents from seeing the server and the trajectory of the ball.
A player or group of players of the serving team sets up a screen, swinging your arms, jumping, or moving along the net while serving, or form a group to hide the server and the trajectory of the ball.
The team commits a positional error if any player is not in its correct position at the moment of impact on the ball by the server. Including when the player is on site as a result of illegal replacement.
If the server commits a service error while hit on the service, the server’s fault prevails over positional error.
If the service becomes faulty after the service hit, positional error is counted.
Positional error leads to the following consequences: the team is penalized with a point and service to the opponent; the players take their correct positions.
The ball is considered “in the court” if, at any time of its contact with the floor, any part of the ball touches the court, including the boundary lines.
The ball is considered out when:
- The part of the ball that touches the floor is completely behind limit lines
- it touches an object outside the court, ceiling or of a person not participating in the game
- it touches antennas, cords, posts or mesh behind the side ribbons
- it intersects the vertical plane of the grid partially or completely outside the crossing area, excluding the situation of Rule 10.1.2
- it completely crosses the lower area under the net.
The ball must not be caught and / or thrown. He can bounce in any direction.
the ball is caught and / or thrown; it does not bounce when blow.
The player hits the ball twice in a row, or the ball touches different parts of his / her body consistently.
The team touches the ball four times before return
A player interferes with an opponent’s play, (among other things):
- touching the net between the antennas or the antenna itself during his / her playing action with the ball
- using a grid between antennas as support or stabilization
- creating an unfair touch advantage over an opponent mesh
- performing actions that prevent a legitimate attempt by an opponent to play the ball.
A player touches the ball or an opponent in space opponent before or during the opponent’s attack hit.
The player hits the ball in the playing space the opposite team.
When blocking, the player can move his hands and arms along the other side of the net, provided that this action is not interferes with the opponent’s play.So, it is not allowed to touch the ball on the opponent’s side earlier than the opponent performed attacking blow.
The blocker touches the ball in the OPPONENT’S space before or simultaneously with the opponent’s attacking blow.
The back row player completes an attack hit from the front zone, when at the moment of impact the ball is in completely above the top of the mesh.
The player completes the attack hit on the served by the opponent ball when the ball is in the front zone and completely above the top of the mesh.
The Libero completes an attack hit when at the moment of the hit the ball is completely above the top of the net.
The ball crosses the bottom square, or The server touches the court (endline) or A player steps out of bounds at the time of the hit on service
A player completely crosses the bottom square under the net.
The team commits an error while performing a game action. contrary to the rules (or otherwise breaking them).Judges evaluate errors and determine the consequences in according to the Rules:
- if two or more errors are made in succession, only the first error is taken into account
- if two or more faults are committed by opponents at the same time, this is considered a MUTUAL ERROR and rally is replayed
Decide on errors in the ball game
Any further incorrect request for the same command in match is delayed
The first delay in the match by a team member entails imposition of a “DELAY WARNING” sanction.
Second and subsequent delays of any kind, any members of the same team in the same match are error and entail the imposition of a sanction “NOTE FOR DELAY “: a point and service to the opponent.
Source: Official Volleyball Rules 2015-2016 (All-Russian Volleyball Federation)
How to Reduce Input Lag for HDR Video Games
IMPORTANT: This article only applies to certain models and / or operating systems.Check section , “Applicable Products and Categories” of this article, before proceeding with the steps indicated.
When playing HDR video games and using the HDMI input on your TV, be sure to select the appropriate HDMI input on your TV. Then follow the steps below.
Make sure your Android TV ™ has the latest software before proceeding.
The method for reducing input lag for Game mode depends on your device model.
For Sony Android TV released after 2016, excluding XD93, XD94, XD85 and SD85 series:
Enable Game on your Android TV.
- Press the “HOME” button on the remote control.
- Select Settings .
- The following steps will depend on the menu items on your TV:
- Select Display & Sound – Picture – Picture mode – Game .
- Select Display – Picture – Picture mode – Game .
Set A / V Sync to Auto on your Android TV.NOTE: If option A / V Sync does not appear in the menu, skip this step.
- Press the “HOME” button on the remote control.
- Select Settings .
- The following steps will depend on the menu items on your TV:
- Select Display & Sound – Audio output – A / V sync – Auto …
- Select Sound – A / V sync – Auto .
For Sony Android TVs released in 2015, XD93, XD94, XD85 and SD85 series:
Review of wireless gaming mouse Logitech G305 Lightspeed / Overclockers.ua
After the PixArt PMW3366 sensor was no longer exclusive to Logitech, and other brands received its counterparts under different names, the company began to actively transfer their gaming mice to a sensor of its own design called Hero.In many respects, it is similar to the 336x series of sensors, but this similarity is limited to a greater extent by characteristics than by the internal structure, it is enough to just look and compare the appearance of their microcircuits. Unfortunately, the origin of the Hero is shrouded in the dark of commercial secrets (as well as the AM010, and the Mercury), but there is no doubt that this sensor is unique. And the main difference between the Hero, nevertheless, is its extremely low power consumption (10 times superiority is declared over all 336x sensors) and it is not surprising that it has a firm place in wireless gaming mice.And the first representative of a new cohort of devices with this sensor, which came to our review, was the Logitech G305 Lightspeed manipulator. At first glance, he wants to ask a question – is it a wireless version from G102, or from G Pro? Let’s take a closer look.
|Model||Logitech G305 Lightspeed|
|Type||Gaming (FPS / RTS games)|
|Resolution, cpi||200 – 12,000|
|Number of buttons||6 buttons + scroll (left, middle, right, resolution selection button, two side buttons)|
|Maximum acceleration, g||40|
|Height of separation from the surface (LOD), mm||2|
|Maximum speed, m / s||10.16|
|USB port polling rate, Hz||125/250/500/1000|
|Frame rate, fps||–|
|Internal memory, KB||+ (1 profile)|
|Scroll vertical / horizontal||+/–|
|Receiver type for wireless connection||Nano Receiver|
|Power supply, battery life||1 x AA battery, up to 250 hours at maximum performance, up to 9 months at minimum settings.|
|Wireless protocol (GHz) / radius (m)||2.4GHz / 10m|
|Possibility to change mass||–|
|Adjustable housing shape||–|
|Body surface material||Plastic|
|Backlight zones||Resolution indicator|
|Feet material||Teflon (PTFE)|
|Software||+ (Logitech Gaming Software / G HUB)|
|Dimensions (L x W x H) mm||107 x 63 x 38|
|OS Compatible||Windows 7 and above / MacOS 10.11 and up / Chrome OS|
|Optional||USB 2.0 extension cable 1.5 meters included, one AA battery included, spring-loaded LMB and PCM, 32-bit ARM processor on board, LIGHTSPEED wireless technology.|
|Average cost, $||60|
Scope of delivery
But first, let’s traditionally consider the packaging and delivery set. The box for the mouse is blue and small in size.It features a product image on the front and back, and lists its four key benefits in multiple languages - light weight, Hero optical sensor, LIGHTSPEED wireless technology and economical battery consumption. The technical data can be read on the left side panel. A cardboard damper and a bag are provided inside as protection against damage.
In addition to the mouse, the kit contains a 1.5-meter USB 2.0 extension cable for connecting the receiver, warranty information, short user manual, receiver and one Duracell AA battery.
Exterior and designThe
Logitech G305 has a fairly simple streamlined and symmetrical shape that generally follows the lines of the G102 and G Pro. The size of the mouse is average, and not small, as it might seem at first. The top panel is made of smooth matte plastic, which is highly resistant to dirt. On the back, the G logo is applied in gray paint. LMB and PCM panels are separate, under them there are Omron switches with a MTBF resource of 10 million clicks.In addition, these panels are spring loaded, so they do not have any backlash and quickly return to their original position. In terms of pressure, they are quite light, with loud juicy click sounds. Between the keys is a glossy insert with a built-in scroll wheel, a small oval resolution change button (light, with a muffled click sound), a dot indicator of the current resolution and battery level.
The back of the top panel can be removed by slightly pressing it in the center and sliding it back.Underneath is a centrally located single battery compartment with a pocket for the receiver on the side. There is a soft, springy insert under the top cover, which provides a good grip on the battery. The empty mouse weighs 74 grams.
No matter how great and stable wireless communication LIGHTSPEED technology may provide, the laws of physics have not been canceled. The greater the distance between the receiver and the transmitter, the greater the delay in signal transmission and the more unwanted radio interference interferes with the signal in the currently overloaded 2.4 GHz band.Therefore, the kit also contains an extension cord for the mouse receiver, which allows you to place it next to the mat and reduce these problems to a minimum. The receiver should ideally be less than 20 cm from the mouse and no closer than 2 meters from other wireless devices such as a Wi-Fi router.
The left side panel is made of rough plastic. In the middle, at the top, there are two narrow glossy side buttons. They are easy to press and sonorous in their actuation sound. The buttons do not have a free wheeling reserve.
In the front projection, you can see that the main keys have grooves for the fingers. The fit is good. The scroll wheel is rubberized with smooth transverse notches. It rotates quite quietly, has well-defined fixation positions, well distinguishable tactilely. The middle key is pressed tightly and quietly.
The right side of the mouse is the same as the left side, but without the side buttons.
The mouse feed is streamlined and rounded. Fits comfortably at the base of the palm when gripping with a “claw” or “palm”.
Logitech G305 fits well for all basic grips and will be equally comfortable in both right and left hands. The mouse is the most versatile for small and medium hands; owners of large palms will probably prefer to use it with a purely finger grip.
On the base of the mouse, there are four oval Teflon feet at the corners, an overlay around the sensor, and another small round foot on the back. There is also a power switch. In the center is the Hero optical sensor window with infrared illumination.
We did not open the manipulator, videos about the disassembly of this mouse can be easily found on the Internet. And there we noticed one interesting feature. The Hero sensors on the Logitech G305, G Pro, and Pro Wireless all look very different, although they are named the same. And most of all, the sensor from the G305 resembles the shape of the microcircuit and the external backlight diode to the mysterious Mercury from the G102. As for the Hero sensors in the G Pro and Pro Wireless, although they have a backlight integrated into the microcircuit, they also look different.
Fortunately, the mouse is devoid of RGB lighting to conserve battery power, and the only thing that can light up is the dotted indicator in the middle. It does not shine for long either, but it shows in color what mode the mouse is currently operating in (when turned on), what resolution level is selected and how long the battery will last.
There are two software options to customize the Logitech G305 Lightspeed Mouse.The first is the traditional Logitech Gaming Software generic driver, and the second is a new variant of the Logitech G HUB driver that is still under development and testing. Both software can even be installed at the same time, however, in this case, G HUB will have priority until it is removed. Therefore, we will tell about him. From the main screen, there is quick access to choosing a device, changing a profile, program settings (upper right corner), account (lower right corner), viewing news and access to the official website (feed at the bottom).
If you want, you can create your own account to access the cloud storage of profiles.
The mouse supports one built-in memory profile. In order to edit it, the program needs to be granted access. In LGS, in this regard, everything was a little simpler.
After turning on, we get access to the assignments of any of the six keys. The set of valid commands is standard – keyboard and mouse clicks, Windows functions, and macros. It is also possible to set alternative commands that will be activated in G-Shift mode when you press the button responsible for it.
The macro editor looks pretty funny and allows you to record a sequence of commands from the keyboard and mouse, taking into account delays. At the end of the recording, you can choose one of four ways to play the macro. The position of the mouse cursor and the direction of the scroll wheel are not fixed by the application. You can add text and emoji directly to the body of the macro, embed a connection with the start of the application, a system command or a delay.
In the sensor settings, you can select up to five levels of sensitivity in the range from 200 to 12,000 cpi in 50 cpi steps.For quick selection of a specific level, you can assign the DPI SHIFT key. The polling rate is selectable from 125, 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, but this is only available in high performance mode. When the mouse is switched to sensor economy mode, the polling rate is fixed at 125 Hz.
In profile management (tab in the center at the top of the main screen), you can bind a profile to the start of a specific application, create a use case for it, assign a base profile, add the necessary macros to it.
And this is how the G HUB settings window looks like. Here you can select the parameters for its launch and operation, the interface language, here you can also update the program or view the manual for it. In the “My equipment” section, you can select options for supported devices, and in ARX Control you can configure pairing with an external screen or mobile device to output program data to it.
Ergonomics and Testing
Testing of the Logitech G305 Lightspeed mouse using a monotone black Mionix Alioth M fabric mat.The receiver was positioned right next to the playing surface as instructed. Compared to what is now considered to be “gaming mice”, the G305 looks a little primitive, like a guest from the past. There are no rubber or metal inserts, soft-touch, multi-colored garlands and aggressive shapes. Everything is extremely mundane and if anyone still remembers the Logitech Pilot mice from the early 2000s, they will definitely notice the similarities. But behind this all lies reliability and functionality. The body is assembled strong and light at the same time.The weight of the mouse with the battery is 96 grams, and it is perfectly distributed along the axes of symmetry so that the manipulator does not tilt to the sides when it is lifted off the surface. The mouse panels fit well in the fingers and are resistant to dirt. All keys and the scroll wheel work well – they are crisp and responsive. The main buttons are additionally spring-loaded. The legs are not particularly slippery here and in general the mouse has low inertia.
As far as communication stability is concerned, everything is also very good.When working and playing, either in the maximum mode or in the reduced performance mode, I did not manage to feel delays or lags. This mouse in use cannot be distinguished from a wired one without special devices. The mouse has a sleep mode after a few minutes of inactivity even in game mode, but the power saving is not aggressive and to get out of this state it is enough to slightly wiggle the manipulator, while the cursor freezes literally for a split second. The mode of constant activity is not provided here, therefore this option of automatic saving can be considered an acceptable compromise.
If the mouse is used at the minimum settings, its charge will last for approximately 9 months of active daily use. But at maximum speed, the battery life is up to 250 hours, which is about a month of games for 10 hours a day. Thus, in addition to the mouse, players will have to splurge on a decent battery, or even two (in reserve), if they do not want to use cartridge belts from batteries for a year (especially since in a year the battery will pay for itself completely).
Regarding the operation of the Hero sensor (in the modification that is installed here), I have no complaints. It differs little from PMW3360 in performance, supports high speed and pointer positioning accuracy. It is also impossible to cause the cursor to stall on it, and there are no parasitic features such as acceleration, excessive trajectory smoothing and angular snapping. The only difference is the impossibility of adjusting the lift-off height, here it is fixed at just under 2 mm.The ideal range of resolutions, from my point of view, here will be a segment of 800-2000 cpi.
Logitech G305 Lightspeed is a robust yet simple-looking gaming mouse that is the wireless version of the Logitech G102. Its advantages include an excellent optical sensor, a sturdy and balanced body, light weight, good keys and a scroll wheel, stable connection without lags and long battery life. I could not find any significant flaws in the G305 that could spoil the impression of working or playing on it.
Nevertheless, the recommended price for this mouse looks too high, even against the background of other products of the company, not to mention competing solutions. After all, it is worth considering that in a gaming scenario of use, the buyer will also have to purchase a pair of batteries and a charger for them. As they say – good, but expensive. However, if the convenience of not having a wire is higher than considerations of economy, and the shape of this manipulator fits the hand, then the Logitech G305 Lightspeed is a worthy choice.
90,000 Sound via Bluetooth: versions and codecs, do they affect the sound quality?
Bluetooth is a wireless technology that allows, among other things, to connect headphones or portable speakers, stereos or sound bars to your smartphone or laptop. There are many devices on the market today with different versions of the Bluetooth protocol and with support for different codecs. What does all this mean, which version is the latest, do you need to understand all this, and most importantly for us – does it somehow affect the sound quality? Let’s see.
One important thing to note from the start is that the Bluetooth sound technology you hear has much less of an impact on sound quality than the design of the device itself. If you try to test several wireless headphones or speakers, you will hear the obvious differences between the devices. If you try the same device, but connected with different codecs or Bluetooth versions, the difference may not be as obvious, perhaps even subtle.
Simply put, you should not base your choice solely on the Bluetooth technologies and codecs supported by the device, this is not the first or even the second most important criterion.
Bluetooth has improved dramatically over the years since the turn of the century, and audio compression is not as brutal today as it was in the days of Bluetooth 1.1 or 2.0 (when wireless headsets and earbuds first hit the market). Let’s highlight the main technical differences between Bluetooth versions, devices with which can be found on sale today.
Bluetooth 3.0: Data transfer rate has been significantly increased (up to 24 Mbps versus 2.1 Mbps in Bluetooth 2.0), but power consumption has increased.
Bluetooth 4.0: Reduced power consumption while maintaining 24Mbps speed.
Bluetooth 4.1: Added anti-crosstalk protection when working together with LTE modules installed in all 4G smartphones.
Bluetooth 4.2: increased speed and improved data transmission security.
Bluetooth 5.0: the range is increased by 4 times, the speed is increased by 2 times.
Bluetooth 5.1: it became possible to determine the location and direction with maximum accuracy.
As you can see, the new versions address mainly data rate and power efficiency issues, rarely affecting sound quality directly.However, newer versions may improve data transmission reliability, which may allow heavier codec, such as aptX HD or LDAC, to operate at higher data rates.
Recall that for a specific Bluetooth version to work, both devices must support it. That is, if your smartphone has Bluetooth 5.1, and the headphones are 4.2, then Bluetooth 4.2 will be used for connection.
Bluetooth and Audio Codecs
So, the final sound is now more directly influenced not by the Bluetooth version, but by what audio codec is used when transmitting sound.In fact, a codec here refers to a complex algorithm for processing (encoding / decoding) audio data for sending it wirelessly between your devices. The use of a codec is necessary because the less data is transferred over Bluetooth, the more reliable the connection and the less likely your headphones will lose signal in the middle of a favorite track.
All current Bluetooth codecs work “lossy”, they discard some of the audio data, reducing the audio data transfer rate (bitrate), for example, from CD-quality with a speed of 1411 kilobits per second to about 300 ~ 900 kbps (about that we will talk about Lossy and Lossless separately next time).
Another characteristic that distinguishes codecs is latency. The time it takes for the digital signal processor to decode the encoded audio. Long audio latency creates problems with its synchronization when watching video.
As in the case of the BT version, for the codec to work, it is important that it is supported not only by headphones or acoustics, but also by the sound source – a phone, a player or a computer.
SBC is standard for Bluetooth.This codec can operate at data rates up to 345 kilobits per second. While the source and destination devices can handle high bit rate audio, the audio quality is difficult to distinguish from AAC or standard aptX. But with the delay can exceed 100 milliseconds or more, which creates problems with audio synchronization when watching a video.
However, by the end of 2020, the new Bluetooth codec LC3 should replace the SBC. Bluetooth SIG announced the successor to the SBC at CES 2020.LC3 is used in the LE Audio protocol based on the Bluetooth 5.2 core specification (our material on LC3 from CES 2020).
Ok, LC3 is our future, what happens in the present? Let’s take a quick look at the SBC alternatives presented today.
aptX: This is the core codec from the family owned by Qualcomm. It encodes the difference in level between one audio sample and the next. This approach allows it to run faster and achieve latency that is typically less than 120ms, which reduces the likelihood of timing error compared to SBC.Unlike SBC, which can operate at different baud rates, the baud rate for aptX is always 352 kbps.
aptX HD is an improved version of the Qualcomm codec and now supports bitrates up to 576 kbps (at 48 kHz / 24 bits).
aptX Low Latency (aptX LL) is another variant of the aptX codec that focuses on content such as video and games, as it focuses on reduced latency.With this technology, the audio latency on Bluetooth is reduced to about 40ms, which is well below the threshold that we understand as asynchrony between what is seen and what is heard. Not widely used.
aptX Adaptive is a new version of the aptX codec with an adaptive variable bitrate audio compression engine. That is, it automatically adjusts its operation to obtain the best combination of sound quality, low latency and high data transmission reliability.The bitrate ranges from 280 to 420 kbps, and its latency ranges from 50 to 80 ms.
AAC is so far the main and only (besides SBC) wireless ally of Apple technology users. In fact, the codec is considered something like a more advanced version of MP3, with slightly better sound at the same (especially low) bitrate than MP3 and SBC. When using Bluetooth, AAC operates at speeds up to 256 kbps. If you have an iPhone or iPad, having AAC in your headphones or wireless speaker can be an advantage.However, unlike the aptX codecs, the AAC implementation is not controlled by any one company, and as a result, the implementation on Android devices can be very different and outperform the standard SBC in all respects.
LDAC is the contender for Sony’s aptX HD. Advantages include bandwidth up to 990 kbps (at 96 kHz / 24 bit). Among the disadvantages – LDAC is most often found only in headphones from Sony and in devices with Android 8+.
LHDC (HWA) – Sony’s Chinese answer, supports 400/560/900 kbps bitrates. Only starting to appear in a limited number of devices.
So, let’s summarize:
The Bluetooth version most often does not directly affect the sound quality.
The Bluetooth version and specific codec must be supported by both devices.
The difference between different codecs on the same device can be subtle.
AAC is only meaningful to Apple, not of interest to Android.
aptX and other codecs, on the other hand, are not supported by Apple devices.
Wireless technology shouldn’t be a major consideration when choosing an audio device.Do not automatically write off headphones with not the latest version of Bluetooth or only SBC, they may sound better or be more comfortable than their competitors.
Black Ops Cold War for beginners. Settings & Controls (PC) – Battle.net – BlizzardNews
Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War offers gamers the most flexible customization of any PC game in this series. More than 200 customizable options help you customize the game on any device according to your preferences.If the game runs smoothly on your PC (see the minimum and recommended system requirements here), you can choose the perfect balance of graphics quality and frame rate, as well as assign the desired commands to each button on your mouse, keyboard or controller.
In addition, in Black Ops Cold War you can control a range of carefully selected graphical, audio and game options, such as enabling or disabling interface elements and audio mixing options.
Settings in Black Ops Cold War allow you to personalize the game like never before and give you complete control over your gameplay.In addition to extensive customization options, all checkboxes, sliders, and menu items are provided with detailed prompts.
This guide will guide you through the basic settings of the game. Place a bookmark here in case you need to find the menu item you want or want to take the Young Fighter’s course again.
The following are the default keyboard and mouse control settings. They can be changed in the Keybindings section of the Keyboard & Mouse menu on the first Settings tab.
W, A, S, D – Move: With these keys you can move forward (W), left (A), backward (S) and right (D).
F – Interaction: Press this key to interact with an object (for example, defuse a bomb) or to talk to a character in the game. (If you prefer to hold down the interact key to avoid picking up a weapon by mistake, you can enable this feature in the settings).
Space – Jump / Stand / Jump: This key allows you to jump over holes, overcome small obstacles like fences or window sills and climb some objects in the game.The height and distance of the jump depends on your speed. Also, this key allows you to get up from a half-sitting or lying position. (If you want to tweak the jump functions even further, there is a separate setting for this in the game. You can even assign a special key for jumping over obstacles).
C – Duck / Slide: During normal running or walking, press this key to duck. If you press this key during a dash, you will bend down and slide forward by inertia.
Left Ctrl – lie on the ground: press this key to lie down. This will allow you, for example, to crawl under an obstacle.
Left Shift – Fast Run / Safe Aim: When maneuvering, press this key to switch to Fast Run. If you are using a scoped weapon such as a sniper rifle, press this key to hold your breath and aim more accurately.
Alt – Walk: press to move more slowly.This allows you to silently sneak or peek around a corner.
Mouse – Aim / View: Move the mouse to look around or aim with the weapon. Inversion is available in the aiming section of the keyboard and mouse menu.
Left Mouse Button – Shot: Click to open fire. Remember the firing mode of the selected weapon – single shots, short bursts, continuous fire. You may need to press the button several times.
Right Mouse Button – Aim: zooms in the camera a little, allowing you to aim better.
Mouse wheel forward or 2 – next weapon: to switch to the next weapon (usually secondary), scroll the mouse wheel forward or press 2.
Mouse wheel down or 1 – previous weapon: to switch to the previous weapon (usually the main one), scroll the mouse wheel back or press button 2. Depending on the selected settings, these commands will switch weapons endlessly or stop, reaching the first or last weapons in your kit.
Mouse Wheel Press or G – Lethal Equipment: uses lethal equipment from your kit, such as frag grenades.
Mouse Button 5 or Q – Tactical Equipment: uses tactical equipment from your kit, such as flash bangs.
Mouse Button 4 or E – Melee: Hits an enemy with a pistol grip or other weapon at close range. Hold the key to try to kill the enemy by sneaking up behind you.In the “Fire group” mode, this key also allows you to break through doors.
R – Reload: Running out of cartridges? Press this key to reload your weapon.
X – use field modification: fully charged field modification (eg active shield or field microphone), press this key to activate the modification.
3/4/5/6 – Kill Streak Rewards: These buttons activate the multiplayer kill streak reward from slot 1, 2, 3 or 4.
Z – give a signal: press this button to mark a place on the map and call allies without further ado. Double-clicking marks a point as dangerous, warning allies of the possible presence of enemies.
V – Turn On Microphone: Press and hold this key to turn on the microphone in the game. If you want to be able to speak without pressing a key, open the “Sound” menu in the settings and change the microphone activation settings to “Microphone always on”.Then the microphone will turn on every time the volume of the incoming sound exceeds a certain threshold.
Tab – Result / Challenge Table: Press this key to see how many points both teams have scored, as well as other details of a multiplayer match or game in Zombie mode. In multiplayer, the Tab key shows the entire map. In the campaign, you will be able to see the current tasks and the destination (if any).
ESC – Pause / Resume Game: Press this key to pause the game and open the menu.From there, you can go to your friends list, change the set of weapons in the network game (the changes will take effect after death) and open the settings to personalize the control of the game. Pressing it again removes this menu.
F1 – open / close friends list: press this key to go to the friends list. Here you can see who is currently in the game and join that player.
Numeric keypad 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 – Select consumable 1-5 (Multiplayer only): Press the desired key to select which consumable to use after the next death (for example, numeric key 1 – set 1).This will allow you to quickly switch between sets without going into the corresponding menu each time through the pause menu.
Flexible settings Black Ops Cold War will allow each player to find a convenient option for themselves.
Below, the functions of the various menus, mouse and keyboard settings for all platforms and other parameters, including those relevant only for the PC version, are described in general terms.
Keyboard and Mouse
This menu is split into three sections: sight, gameplay, and keybindings.
The speed of aiming depends on the sensitivity of the view – how quickly your performer turns his head when you move the mouse. In addition to the basic settings, among which it is possible to enable vertical inversion, additional settings include acceleration, smoothing and filtering, a sensitivity slider along the vertical axis and setting the sensitivity in aiming mode.
There are two sensitivity modes in aiming mode. The old mode (Legacy) switches the sensitivity after changing the field of view, while the Relative mode uses an improved mouse algorithm that correlates mouse movements with the movements on the screen and does not depend on the field of view.Relative mode is recommended for advanced players. In relative mode, you can further fine-tune the sensitivity with the monitor’s width factor. This factor allows you to set how far you can move the mouse pointer over the monitor with the same movement, regardless of the degree of proximity. For example, 1.33 is the default and corresponds to 75% of the monitor length with a 16: 9 aspect ratio. With a value of 0, you will notice that aiming at a target near the edge of the screen will require more mouse movement than targeting closer to the crosshair.
The gameplay menu contains all keyboard and mouse settings not related to aiming: movement, weapons and equipment, vehicles and kill streak rewards, panels and links.
The additional menu of this section contains the following settings:
Automatic fast run: if this function is enabled, after pressing the “forward” key, the character immediately switches to a fast run. No other keys need to be pressed. Recommended for players who like high speed.
Fast run cancels cooldown: if enabled, fast run interrupts cooldown. If you disable this option, your performer will reload the weapon during a fast run. Canceling the reload animation during a fast run can be useful if the enemy appears nearby at a time when you have not yet had time to reload.
Mouse Wheel Input Delay: allows you to set (using the scale) a minimum amount of time in milliseconds after which the mouse wheel commands are triggered.Depending on the action to which the mouse wheel is attached, the smallest value will allow you to quickly perform a series of actions. This feature is especially useful for players with a very fast mouse wheel if they use it to change weapons or toggle standing / crouching positions.
Cyclic weapon change: by activating this function, you can continuously change weapons in a circle. If you disable it, the “next weapon” button will change weapons until you pick up the last weapon in your arsenal.The “previous weapon” command will be in effect until the first weapon, respectively. This feature should be disabled for those who prefer to use the “previous weapon” command to select the primary weapon and the “next weapon” command for the secondary weapon.
Changing weapons with spent ammo: if you activate this function, when you try to fire from an unloaded weapon, you will automatically switch to a loaded weapon from your set.Disable this function if you do not want the unloaded weapon to change automatically.
General key for changing the aiming mode: allows you to assign a key for aiming, which is also responsible for another action, for example, turns on the run mode. You can also choose a unique key for aiming, which is not responsible for other actions.
System Key Trigger: allows you to change the action of the system keys when they are pressed. Disable the Operating System option if you do not want system commands to work in the game, such as invoking the Start menu.
The third and final menu in this group is Keymap, where you can change the hotkeys for all actions in the game. Note that some commands, such as turning on the microphone by pressing a key, can also be found in other menus.
From this extensive menu, you can adjust a variety of graphics options, including settings for hardware, image, details and textures, shadows and lighting, ray tracing, and post-processing effects.
In the hardware settings, you can configure the screen mode (windowed or full screen), select a monitor (if you have several), refresh rate (not available in windowed mode), vertical sync in the game and menu (limits the number of frames according to the screen refresh rate) , rendering resolution (significantly increases video memory costs and image quality), screen resolution and aspect ratio.
In addition, there is a customizable alternate color display in the display settings for players suffering from protanopia, deuteronopia and tritanopia.It may be useful for all players to be able to select a separate color for each interface label.
This menu also contains a scale that allows you to adjust the field of view. A maximum value of 120 will give you a wide field of view suitable for wide screens, but if system performance is slow, this can lead to graphics glitches and lower frame rates. At the minimum value, the field of view will become narrower, objects on the screen will look larger, the peripheral image will be severely limited.Note: This option also depends on the aspect ratio of your screen.
Here you can set special parameters of the field of view for the aiming mode – or link it to the total value of the field of view. We recommend the latter option for those who want to maintain peripheral vision while aiming. And the last in this category is brightness and frame rate limitations. These settings can improve game performance and help prevent hardware overheating.
The details and textures menu will allow you to tweak individual game resources to strike a balance between graphics quality and video memory cost.This includes parameters such as texture quality, texture filtering quality, model detail, number of special effects, screen space reflections, and object display range (aka “draw distance”). Note: To set the texture quality to “Ultra”, you need to download an additional texture pack.
The Shadows and Lights menu allows you to customize the volumetric rays and shadows, including shadow quality, dynamic shadows, special effects shadows, and weapon shadows.The ray tracing menu that follows is also related to shadows and lighting. If your graphics card supports ray tracing, you can improve the quality of your game lighting here by including ambient occlusion, sun shadows, and fixed shadows.
In the post-processing effects menu, you can enable NVIDIA DLSS and NVIDIA Reflex Low Latency algorithms (available with supported graphics cards and the latest drivers), as well as adjust anti-aliasing, ambient occlusion and motion blur effect.To achieve a more realistic display of faces, you can also enable subsurface scattering and toggle order-independent transparency to achieve a sense of depth in transparent objects such as car headlights.
The advanced settings menu contains four options: screen gamma (adjust this setting according to your screen), graphics adapter (select which video card will be used in the game), idle frame rate limit (allows you to lower the frame rate when the game is minimized to reduce the load on the system), as well as the ability to restart the compilation of shaders if they could not be configured.
Black Ops Cold War allows you to fine-tune not only the graphics and controls, but also the sound parameters.
In the game sound menu, you can turn off all sounds in the game, except for voice chat, adjust the general volume of the game or a separate volume for music, sound effects, conversations, videos, as well as sounds when a weapon is hit. You can also choose one of the predefined sound settings:
- Treyarch Mix – default sound balance and recommended by developers.
- Dull sound – eliminates the shift in the frequency of the balance of sounds.
- Headphones – recommended when playing with headphones.
- Clear speech – the option is recommended for those who find it difficult to hear speech in the game, even at high volume.
- Quiet mode – suppresses the volume while maintaining the hearing range. Recommended for those who play at night without headphones and do not want to disturb others.
- Bass Boost – Boosts the bass sound for a richer game sound.
- Bass Boost – Significantly boosts bass sound.
- Treble Boost – Boosts high sound frequencies while attenuating low frequencies. The sound of the game becomes more clear and distinct, especially the sounds of footsteps.
In the voice chat menu, you can adjust the microphone sound, as well as the sound of game and group chats. Here you can change the voice chat volume, microphone activation mode, open microphone sensitivity and microphone volume.By configuring the voice and text channel, you can set restrictions so that only players in your group can hear, and not everyone in the game chat, or you can completely turn off voice chat.
In addition to adjusting the size and transparency of the subtitles, in this menu you can choose which interface elements to show and which to hide in order to make the gameplay as convenient as possible.
For example, you can hide hit markers, including various markers indicating the type of damage dealt, scopes, allied and enemy health bars, direction indicator and player names (these can also be abbreviated).In the “Zombie” mode, you can turn off the pop-up indicators of damage (how much damage the zombie received), the names of the zombies and the scale of their health.
In the advanced settings menu, you can enable in-game warnings for packet loss, latency, etc., as well as hover tooltips and input device icons that show which device the players are using in the list.
If you are playing on a PC, this menu also allows you to configure the display of telemetry data such as frame rate counter, temperature, GPU overclocking and computation time, video memory consumption and system clock.
If you want to use the controller, you can change the input device and adjust the related parameters in this menu.
For details on the parameters of your controller, refer to the manual for the corresponding console.
Account and Network Settings
Finally, this menu contains your Activision account settings, network data and game content restrictions.
The first item, Activision Account, allows you to change the display name for your Activision account and the associated email address. You can also enable the cloud save feature here, which allows you to save your settings across all platforms through your Activision account. You can also enable or disable cross-platform play from this menu.
This is followed by “Network data”. We do not recommend visiting this menu if you are recording video or broadcasting.It lists information such as your connection status, NAT type, connection speed, and connection type. You can also see your region and IP addresses here.
PC players can also customize the display of server latency and packet loss indicators, which will allow you to monitor the quality of the connection during the game.
Finally, in the game content restrictions menu, you can configure the display of violent scenes in the game and obscene expressions in text chat.If you do not want to see the group invite notifications and friend requests in the upper right corner of the screen during the game, you can turn them off in this menu. Also, two switches allow you to assign random names for yourself and all players in the lobby. This will help you maintain anonymity while streaming your game.
So, we reviewed all the control settings and parameters of Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War . We hope you find this guide helpful, and in case of further difficulty, we advise you to follow the helpful instructions provided under each setting item in the game itself.If you still have questions, please contact Activision Support.
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Follow @Activision at Twitter , Facebook and Instagram for more details on Activision games.90,000 We play through the TV. What is INPUT LAG and how to get rid of it | Televisions | Blog
The success of virtual battles directly depends on the speed of the player’s reaction. But it is equally important that the information is displayed with a minimum delay.Poor Internet connection and long signal processing on the monitor, TV – all this interferes with the cool game. The latter phenomenon is called INPUT LAG.
High input latency is a frustrating problem. After changing the TV or visiting friends, the lag with which the character on the screen reacts to commands from the controller is striking. Small brakes can take some getting used to, but too much delay spoils the gaming experience significantly.
What is input lag
Any output device, be it a monitor or a TV, takes time to process the incoming video signal.The difference is that the electronics of modern gaming monitors are adapted for broadcasting with minimal input lag. This is achieved by broadcasting the original signal received from the video card.
The architecture of TVs is much more complicated. Before getting to the matrix, the signal undergoes significant correction by the central processor of the TV. In some scenarios, processing takes up to 150ms. This difference is clearly visible to the user of any level. You don’t have to be a pro gamer to catch 1 / 7th of a second lag.
Thus, INPUT LAG is the time from the moment the signal is received by the output device until it is displayed on the screen.
The most important effect latency has on fast-paced games. For fans of shooters and fighting games, a low input lag is critically important. The success of virtual battles directly depends on him. In an on-line duel, the one who first sees the enemy wins. And a difference of even 50 ms will be decisive.
For fans of measured genres – strategy, RPG – low latency is less critical, but it will not be superfluous either.
Which panel is considered slow? There is no definite answer to this question. Where the professional gamer will notice a long delay, the average user will play in comfort. The conditional boundary is considered to be the 50 ms mark. Higher value models are best avoided.
When choosing a monitor, this parameter is often confused with the response time of the matrix, which indicates how long it takes a pixel to change its color. For modern LCD panels, the value usually does not exceed 12 ms.
Input lag is rarely prescribed in official specifications for a number of reasons. Firstly, it is quite difficult to accurately measure the parameter. There are many independent resources on the Internet dealing with this issue. The values obtained in different sources for the same model often differ. Secondly, the input lag depends on the mode and settings of the TV. Specifying only basic options will take up a significant portion of the model’s specifications.
A detailed database with TVs and monitors is presented at https: // displaylag.com / display-database /. The resource allows you to quickly find the model of interest using filters and compare its parameters with other options. The only drawback is that the lowest delay value is given without specifying the settings used. The resource https://www.rtings.com/tv/tools/table/ will allow you to compare input lags in different modes.
How to measure input lag
The measurement technique is reduced to comparing the device under test with a reference, the signal processing time on which is conditionally equal to zero.The most suitable option for this task is a CRT monitor connected without the use of adapters to the DVI connector.
If not available, any monitor or laptop screen will do. But in this case, the result will be lower than the real one. In fact, you will not get a reliable input lag value, but compare the devices by this parameter.
- Connect the second device (TV, monitor, projector) to a free connector in the “Repeating” display mode (Win + P).
- Display any stopwatch accurate to thousandths of a second, for example https://sekundomer.net/ and start it.
- Take a picture of the running stopwatch so that both screens are in the picture. Use a digital camera or phone with manual settings. Select exposure time from 1/200 or less. Adjust the brightness of the frame with the ISO settings.
- Take a series of photographs.
- Difference in stopwatch readings – desired value.
In the case of comparison with a CRT monitor, the test result will be the exact value of the input lag.Otherwise: Input lag = Difference in stopwatch readings + Input lag of the device with a lower stopwatch reading.
How to reduce input lag
If a high latency is noticed in the system and the control feels “jelly”, do not immediately start looking for a new TV or monitor. The first step is to try to reduce the input lag using “improvised” methods. They can be divided into two categories, which must be applied in a complex manner.
- Reducing input lag with PC and game settings.
- Reduction of input lag by TV / monitor settings.
In the first case, the set of measures is as follows:
- Disable image scaling in the system (Win -> Parameters -> System -> Display -> Scale and layout -> 100% (recommended).
- Change power management scheme (Win -> Options -> System -> Power & Sleep -> Advanced Power Options -> Show Advanced Pickups -> Maximum Performance).
- Disable anti-aliasing and vertical sync in the game settings.
On a TV, the main task is to turn off all video enhancement software. Such as artificially increasing the smoothness in dynamic scenes, improving color, etc. The set of parameters for each manufacturer is different. It is worth remembering that such “enhancers” are often included out of the box. A universal tool is to use the game mode, which is available in any modern TV model.
Use the resolution that matches the LCD panel. Stretching a Full-HD signal to 4K or compressing 4K to Full-HD significantly increases input lag.
When connecting the console through a receiver on the latter, use the HDMI input marked Game.
The measures taken, if they do not eliminate the Input Lag completely, will reduce it many times to acceptable values that will allow you to play the most dynamic projects.
What is latency and where does it come from? / studio / Jablog.RuI recently wrote a review of the ESI UGM96 audio interface, which touched upon the topic of audio latency, which is inevitable when using digital devices. There I “measured” the latency based on the data provided by the software: Logic Pro X and Guitar Rig.
Going deeper into the question, it became clear that some sound cards may report incorrect latency values in DAWs and other programs, so the latency should be measured separately.Looking ahead, I will say that there is a certain method for measuring latency, there is even a special test software for Win. Before proceeding directly to the description of the latency measurement technique, I would like to dwell in more detail on a more general question: “What is latency? Where does it come from? ” There is also the most important question: “And what kind of delay is acceptable?” In general, wait for another article. More precisely, at least 2x.In one we’ll talk about how to measure latency, and in another we’ll talk about what kind of latency is acceptable.
Actually, today we are talking about latency in relation to audio interfaces.
Speed of propagation of soundIf you did not skip school physics lessons, you should remember that the speed of propagation of sound (ie the speed of propagation of elastic waves) in the air is 331 m / s. It is easy to calculate that in one 1ms sound travels a distance equal to 0.331 m.Let’s remember this figure, it will be useful to us in the future to estimate the magnitude of latency.
It is easy to guess that ALL sounds that we hear reach our ear with a certain delay, which depends on how far the sound source is from the listener’s ear.
Now let’s imagine that the source reproduces the same short sound with a certain time interval. So, a person will distinguish sounds as separate if between 20 ms and 30 ms passed between them. If one sound is less than 10 ms apart from the other, then most people will think that the sound was not interrupted at all.In the interval from 12 ms to 15 ms, a person is not able to distinguish between two separate sounds, but it will feel that something is wrong here. Of course, specific numbers will be individual for each person, but on average, something like this.
Based on the above, we can conclude that the upper limit of latency when working with sound on a computer is 12 ms. And for reference, 12 ms is the same as if the sound source was at a distance of 3.97 m from you.
12 ms is a rather controversial figure, but we will talk about this in more detail in the next article.
What’s wrong with latency?
Let’s imagine a fairly common and obvious situation. You play your computer at home through Guitar Rig, for example. So, in this case we are dealing with a complete delay. And now imagine that our latency is more than 12 ms. In this case, we feel or even hear that some time has passed between the time we pulled the string on the guitar and the time we heard it in the headphones. This is, to put it mildly, uncomfortable, especially when switching from fully analog equipment.However, the “comfort threshold” here is purely individual – for some, everything is fine even with 17 ms of delay, while for others it is uncomfortable even with 10 ms.
In general, imagine that you are playing an old, broken-down piano, which has a defect. The big defect, I must say, is that when you press a key, the hammer takes three times as long as usual to hit the string. You may still be able to play your favorite Chopin etudes or Professor Longhair solos, but the “feeling” will not be the same, because you have to compensate for the hammer delay.
Or here’s a good example with a drum.
This was the first, quite understandable and obvious harm from the delay. There are also less obvious, but no less unpleasant side effects from latency. We will talk about the second harmful (and even harmful?) Aspect of latancy later.
Latency when using the digital interfaceThe roundtrip latency is the time it takes for the signal to travel from the analog input of the audio interface (which receives the signal from the microphone, guitar, etc.), through the analog-to-digital converter, to the DAW, back to the interface and to the digital-to-analog converter, and then to the analog output of the interface.
Now let’s talk in more detail about the signal path.
Converters (ADC / DAC)The first thing that an analog signal meets at the input to our interface is an analog-to-digital converter, which, in fact, makes a set of bits and bytes out of an analog. This rather complicated process takes about 0.5 ms on average. Do not forget that on the other side of the chain there is a digital-to-analog converter, which makes an analog signal from bits and bytes, that is, another 0.5 ms.
BuffersA buffer is a special area of memory that is used to temporarily store (accumulate) information before transferring it from one place to another. Buffers are used when there is a difference between the speed at which data is received and the speed at which it is processed, or when these speeds are variable. The buffer is an inherent evil in terms of processing speed, but, on the other hand, it is he who makes the data processed accurately and without various artifacts and distortions.
In our circuit, the signal is buffered several times:
- USB input buffer
- ASIO or Core Audio (Driver) input buffer
- ASIO or Core Audio (Driver) output buffer
- USB bus output
Fast drivers and slowdrivers The largest variable that affects overall latency is driver performance (speed).
A driver is a special computer program that allows high-level applications to interact with specific physical devices.For example, any printer needs a driver to communicate with your computer. Typically, a driver communicates with a device through the data bus or through the communications subsystem to which the device is connected. Each operating system and specific device needs its own drivers.
That is why the same interface can give different delays, depending on the operating system and the manufacturer of the motherboard, more precisely, the controller responsible for the USB bus.
One of the main challenges for audio interface designers is to provide better driver performance (hence lower latency) while maintaining overall system stability.
The audio interface drivers allow us to change the buffer size. By decreasing the buffer in the driver settings, or in the settings of our favorite DAW, we can reduce the total latency, but increase the load on the processor, or, on the contrary, by increasing the buffer, we will increase the total latency, but reduce the load on the processor and make the system more stable (this may be relevant when working on large and complex projects in DAW).
Let’s talk about this in more detail.
Back to bufferThe buffer was designed specifically to give the processor the time it needs to process information.The longer the pause is given by the buffer for the processor, the more tasks it will be able to process. But when the buffer is too large, the delay in delivering data from one location to another becomes much greater than is necessary for good overall performance.
If we make the buffer size small, then the processor will have to work “a little faster” in order to have time to process the incoming data stream. Thus, the increased load on the processor can lead to the fact that all other programs, including your DAW, may be less stable.
Imagine the situation. You play your favorite virtual instrument and try to add another part to the project of an already almost finished composition. At the same time, all 42 tracks play at the same time, and each of them has more expensive plugins. Well, in fact, here it is: the sound begins to distort, you hear clicks and twitching of the sound, or even worse – the DAW hangs and / or falls, tk. the processor is heavily overloaded. Thus, it turns out that the 64-sample buffer you set, which would normally give an acceptable amount of latency at normal computer speed, in a complex project, loads your computer too much.
If you increase the buffer size, then perhaps your DAW will stop freezing and crashing, and even clicks and other sound artifacts will disappear. But not everything is so simple.
The more you increase the buffer, say to 128 samples, the more clearly you hear and feel the delay when trying to add your last part to the project. Singing or playing an instrument becomes quite difficult because we have the same problem here as in the broken-down piano we talked about above. Everything you play and then hear in your headphones and monitors falls apart in time.So much for the delay. It turns out a kind of echo tunnel.
Let’s go back to the piano example one more time. We now have a great new grand piano that doesn’t need any repairs. For simplicity’s sake, let’s assume that we don’t have a mechanical delay between when we hit the key and when the hammer strikes the string. The speed of sound in the air is 331 m / s. This means that if we are at a distance of 1 m from the hammer, then the sound will reach us in about 3 ms. So how is it that a delay of 3 ms is completely uncritical for us here, and when setting a buffer of 2.9 ms (128 samples at 44.1 kHz) in the DAW makes it virtually impossible to monitor a guitar passed through a favorite modeling plug-in?
Decoding latencyAs we said above, the total delay is the time it takes for a signal (for example, a guitar solo) to travel from the analog output of the audio interface, through the ADC, then to the DAW, back to the interface, through the DAC to the analog output.We can only affect one parameter in this chain – the input delay, that is, the time it takes for the signal to get into the DAW.
This is where the driver comes in, or rather its performance. In any isochronous driver (namely, this is used both in USB and in Fire Wire when transmitting streaming information, for example, an audio signal) there are two layers. The second layer provides a buffer for Core Audio or ASIO applications such as DAWs. And this is exactly the layer that we can control.
To make things even more confusing, usually we cannot set the buffer size in a temporary value (for example, 2.9 ms), instead we have a list associated with samples, and we can select numbers from the list (for example, 128 samples ). All of this makes calculating latency more difficult. And most musicians would rather remember all the lyrics of Rush than the fact that 512 samples is about 11-12 ms latency at 44.1 kHz sampling rate! (To get milliseconds from samples, you just need to divide the number of samples by the sample rate.For example, 512 samples / 44100 Hz = 11.6 ms)
The size of the buffer that we set in the DAW or driver settings refers to both the input and output buffers. That is, if you set the buffer to 128 samples, then both the input and output buffers will be equal to 128 samples. Thus, in the best case, the actual latency will be twice the buffer we set. However, the best case is not always what is worth talking about in the context of the transfer of audio data by the driver.
For example, if in the ASIO settings you set the buffer to 128 samples, then only the output delay can be equal to 256. In this case, it may happen that two buffers will give a total delay of 384 samples. Which means our 2.9ms (128 samples) will turn into 8.7ms at 44.1kHz.
Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters also have their own delay, because they also have their own buffer. This delay is typically between 0.2 ms and 1.5 ms, depending on the quality of the converter.1ms is not that much and is unlikely to affect performance, but it still contributes to overall latency. For our example with a 128-sample buffer, 0.5ms per transformer adds to the total latency of 1ms, so from 8.7ms we get 9.7ms. But all the same, 9.7 is still below the threshold of human perception and should not affect anything.
So where does the extra delay come from?The reason lies in that mysterious first layer of the audio driver that no one usually talks about.This bottom layer (layer) has nothing to do with audio samples or sampling rate. In the case of USB, there is a time synchronizer called USB Bus Clock. (In the case of Fire Wire, everything is about the same, but here we are talking only about USB).
The USB Bus Timer uses 1 millisecond intervals. An interrupt occurs on this interval clock, initiating audio processing. The problem is that most audio manufacturers, when faced with this, do not provide control over this low-level buffer, and users cannot configure the driver exactly as they would like it to.The explanation for the lack of access to this level is quite simple – the user can set a buffer that is too small, which can cause the driver to crash.
To prevent this from happening, most manufacturers fix the buffer by about 6ms. Depending on the audio driver, this gives us 6ms input latency and 6ms output latency. But here exactly the same thing happens, as we talked about in relation to the ASIO driver – even if the same buffer size is set at the input and output, the output delay may differ from the input.
For example, for simplicity, let’s assume that latency in both directions has 6 ms. And now our riddle is solved – in most audio interfaces, there is at least 12 ms of latency, which is only in the drivers, and this is not counting the 9.7 ms we talked about above.
So I set the latency in the DAW to 2.9 ms, we get a total latency of 21.7 ms. (All numbers in this example are averages. Of course, some developers will optimize the drivers to reduce these numbers).
How to solve the latency problem?Many audio interface manufacturers include direct monitoring on their devices. This is when the signal is taken directly to the output even before the ADC, plus the output signal from the computer is added to it. Yes, in this case there is no delay and we hear the backing track and our own signal, and this is an obvious plus. The downside here is that the signal, for example, from the guitar, we hear “as is.” If we decided to record the guitar “in line”, and then process it with various plug-ins, then at the direct monitoring output we will hear a clean and dull guitar sound.No j-j, compression or panning. Well, of course, the direct monitoring function is useless for those who want to practice using Amlitube or Guitar Rig, for example.
Other manufacturers build DSP into their interfaces. With these special processors, you can process the input signal even before it enters the USB bus and beyond. Effects are usually controlled from the driver / mixing panel, i.e. programmatically from a computer. This is better, but still not the same.Usually cards with an on-board chip are a little more expensive, and the set of effects is not amazing (although it depends more on the price).
Many manufacturers have gone further (eg PreSonus or Line6 with their Tone Direct technology). They do not feed the signal to the DAW, but use their applications for processing and monitoring, bypassing the ASIO layer. This, by the way, works great in the case of Line 6 and using their separate Pod Farm app. Well, if, in addition to this, we also work on optimization by the driver, then everything becomes quite good.
By the way, the same PreSonus say that on modern computers the USB bus buffer can be reduced to 1 ms. But this is ideally, on average, it is 2–4 ms.
Well now, like everything or almost everything is clear with latency.
It’s a shame, of course, that this approach doesn’t work with any audio interface and Guitar Rig, for example. But as far as I understand, here it is necessary for the developer to write both the driver and the application with effects and emulation.
ConclusionWell, in general, we can conclude that, firstly, there is still no escape from the delay, and secondly, the total delay when using the interface with well-optimized drivers in terms of USB and ASIO (Core Audio) can give less than 10 ms latency per round, or even almost half at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Which, of course, cannot but rejoice, tk. the total delay of 7-10 ms is absolutely invisible to me personally.
PS: In the next article we will talk about what kind of latency is acceptable? The answer is not as straightforward as one might think.