Building A DIY Carbon Fiber Airbox For Project RoughThe Power Of The Internet
The internet is a fascinating place.
Besides providing a perfect safe zone for trolls and keyboard warriors to unload their mindset on others, the internet can be an endless source of information shared from all corners of the globe. This can be especially fruitful when trying out new projects for the first time. Stuck or not confident in the next steps? Google and YouTube are you friends. The trick is how to sift through the information overload to get what you need.
For as long as I can remember, I’ve wanted to play around with composites. University provided an opportunity to try my hand, but those times were always under the careful guidance of an instructor. Never had I attempted to construct something myself from start to finish.
A goal with Project Rough, my ER34 Nissan Skyline, is to try and improve various skillsets whenever possible – composites being one of them.
But before diving into
I wanted to try and work with both fiberglass and carbon fiber, because ultimately I’d like to be able to produce various parts in carbon with high quality results. I knew it was impossible for me to get it spot-on the first try, but I would try my best to end up with a professional-looking result. Since the airbox is mostly hidden, I felt like it was the perfect thing for me to attempt first.
I decided to go with a method that didn’t involve vacuum forming or autoclaves for two reasons. With advancements in technology, getting your hands on a suitably-sized vacuum kit and autoclave for small projects has never been easier, but I decided to go down the path that virtually anyone could, if they so choose to. This method is perhaps the least complicated, but it requires a lot of patience and dedication – more than I had imagined. I now fully understand why carbon fiber parts fetch such hefty prices.
To get an absolutely perfect finish with carbon fiber requires a lot of skill and experience, something I had none of. The trick is not to give up – you have to keep trying. Yes, the first (and maybe next few parts afterwards) may not be perfect, but with each go you improve leaps and bounds. Hopefully I can show you my progress as Project Rough continues.
When I picked up the car, a corrugated plastic separator of sorts had been fitted in the engine bay by the previous owner. The theory behind it is that once the hood is closed, it would become the top, sealing the intake off from the rest of the engine bay in the hope of sucking cleaner and cooler air into the T04E turbocharger.
I suppose it worked, though I would question the efficiency. I really wanted to try my hand at improving things with a custom DIY carbon fiber/fiberglass airbox. But how?How Hard Could It Be?
This is where the power of the internet, determination, and some ignorance comes in.
After countless hours of researching and watching different methods, I came upon a video where a special effects wizard creates body kits from scratch, and discusses almost the entire process. Two hours of screen time later and with more confidence that really made any sense, I was ready to dive in.
To form the basic shape of the airbox, I used some old cardboard boxes I had laying around.
My thinking here, was that the cardboard would be easy to manipulate and strong enough to take the weight of the clay I’d be laying over the top to form the shape of the airbox, without deforming. I could also make extra supports wherever needed.
With the basic form pretty much the way I had envisioned it, I covered the cardboard in plastic cling wrap to protect it from the clay’s dampness.
Next, I had to channel my inner sculptor in order to create the mold. You really don’t need to have expensive clay for this step, though it would help with the sculpturing I’m sure. The clay I bought said it was good for beginners, and honestly it was.
The next step in the process was to wrap the clay in aluminium foil and then add packaging tape on top of the foil. The foil makes for a good barrier between the epoxy and clay, and the tape helps break the fiber mold away from the foil.
The added bonus of the foil is that it keeps the clay moist so it can be reused for your next project. The drawback is you really need to take your time to smooth everything out or you will have to spend more time in the finishing stage. It may be a bit more expensive, but using aluminum tape on top before laying down the packing tape could help create a nice flat surface.
The first and pretty much only ‘oh sh*t, I may have bitten off more than I can chew’ moment came when I went to figure out the resin-to-hardener ratio. The guy in the video had neglected to mention the ratios he used. A quick look online revealed that most kits come with clear mixing ratios, but the product I had got my hands on didn’t, thus I was flying blind.
I tried some math using a calculator I found online which ended up causing the exothermic reaction to go a bit out of control, and it was legit terrifying. Remember to keep a good amount of acetone to neutralize the reaction and a respirator on hand for times like this.
With the accident cleaned up and a newfound respect for what I was about to do, I tried again with a much smaller amount of hardener. In hindsight, I should have used even less to give myself more time to try and cover the the mold in one complete sheet of fiberglass instead of three individual cutouts. The result of this was a lot more time sanding.
With the fiberglass mold coming away from the aluminum foil and packaging tape combo with relative ease, I finally was able to see the results.
Erring on the side of caution, I had added more fiberglass than necessary to give myself some breathing room in case my mold shape was off. More sanding and cutting was going to be required because of it, but to say I was over the moon with excitement at the completion of this step would be an understatement.
I strengthened the radius with chopped fiberglass before getting the overall fitment correct.
Besides wanting a carbon fiber exterior finish on my airbox, I wanted to add a bit more strength to the part, although the odds of this ever seeing any type of serious load is slim to none.
Learning from my earlier mistakes, I used magnets and a slower curing batch, and took my time adding the carbon fiber layers. At this stage it’s important to cover the entire part in epoxy, something I thought I had done, but hadn’t.
A few more layers of carbon fiber and some trimming later and here we were.
During my research, I saw a number of different ways to finish off the carbon fiber. For this project I decided sand the epoxy wax coat off, and then work my way up from 120-grit to 2,000-grit paper before applying some clearcoat.
And here’s the final result. I’m not sure I would have gone this finishing route again if I was to do it all over, but I could have spent more time sanding and used a different type of clear to make it really pop.
I’m sure you’ll agree that it’s lot better than the plastic separator originally fitted. Of course, the function aspect of the airbox needed to be present for this to be a true success in my eyes.
I won’t say that it’s a huge gain, but it does seem like the turbo is spooling up a little faster now, though I want to build either a ramp or tube to really create a ram-air effect. An added unexpected bonus is that the turbo fluttering sound that occurred when the boost wasn’t high enough to trigger the blow-off valve is now amplified. Since the blow-off valve is set to try and minimize lag, the fluttering only occurs at low vacuum levels. Sure, it’s not the loud
If you’re keen on learning a bit more detail on what I did with this DIY project, let me know in the comments. I plan on building a lot of things for Project Rough, and although this was one hell of a learning curve, I’m hooked.
The SH Garage on Speedhunters
Carbon Fiber Guitar Body – Made at Techshop : 13 Steps (with Pictures)At this point, you should have a nearly functional guitar. Make the frets, put some strings on and it’ll be ready to play. Trouble is, all the cutting, sanding and scraping can make the body look awful looking. And residual stickiness from the epoxy will attract all kinds of dust, lint, trash and stray carbon fibers. One person in the workshop called his guitar “Urban Blight” at this stage.
Protect wood components
My method of finishing uses wet sanding – this can damage un-finished wood components. I suggest finish coating the wood top and protecting the other components – I kept my bridge and fretboard covered with painters tape for this step.
I had some big ridges of un-evenly dried epoxy on the bottom of my guitar, as well as many small drips and runs. I sanded these down with a sanding block and 80 grit sandpaper.
Use this corse sandpaper sparingly – epoxy isn’t easy to break, but it can easily be scratched away. I only used this for the highest of high spots, and frankly 120 or 180 grit might be a safer choice. Once you get everything mostly even, move up to a higher grit and start wet sanding.
Wet sanding is exactly what it sounds like, you use waterproof sandpaper (black or grey, as opposed to brown or red) and frequently rinse the area being sanded with water.
Wet sanding is good for hard clear-coats like epoxy because it keeps dust from settling into the surface and makes the sandpaper more efficient.
- Using waterproof sandpaper, I started with 180 grit, then moved up through 220, 320 and 400 grit papers
- The surface always looks PERFECT when wet (very deceptive). So between grits I wiped away the muddy dust with a damp rag and let it dry a minute.
Once dry, I wiped away any remaining dust with a tack cloth and looked at the surface. I was looking for the scratch pattern – a uniform grey with evenly spaced and sized scratch marks.
- Larger, deeper scratches remaining after a thorough sanding, they are left over from a lower grit of sandpaper. You may have to drop down to a lower grit to remove these before continuing
- Shiny spots are areas that have not been sanded. You want to sand everything evenly before moving to higher grits.
Hopefully the surface is starting to look good at this point, but there are probably some flaws. In my case, I had tiny tiny air bubbles trapped in my finish – millions of them. This made the finish beautiful in some places, but very cloudy in others. To fix this I thoroughly cleaned the surface of the guitar, then added one final gloss-coat of epoxy. I carefully measured out the epoxy with a kitchen scale, then brushed it on with a foam brush, and I let it cure one whole day in a warm room.
In addition to epoxy, you can also use other finishes I saw one person use polyurethane, and another use black tinted epoxy for a matte-black finish. But I wanted the carbon fiber weave to show through on mine, so I just used the same marine epoxy I had used to form the body.
Continue wet sanding
After the new layer of epoxy dried, I started sanding again with 400 grit paper, then 600 and 1000 grit. At this point, it had a semi-gloss appearance, which is all I needed. For a glossier look, keep using higher grit papers, then polish.
After sanding I used some auto-body rubbing compound (Turtle Wax). I rubbed it on thoroughly with a buffing pad, then gave the guitar a wipe-down with a damp rag.
The last thing I did was rub on a little paste wax, let it dry, then hand-buffed the body to a semi-gloss shine. I don’t even know if this is appropriate, but it’s what I’ve done with lacquer finishes on wood, and I like the look, feel and smell of the wax, so I’m glad I did it.
Diy carbon fiber stock tutorial
Making a carbon fiber stock: part 1
[color=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]Ok my fellow air gun enthusiasts, get ready for a new addiction – making stuff with carbon fiber. Once you learn, you will want to replace everything you own with a carbon fiber version up to and including some family members.[/color]
I am going to show you a number of different methods of making lightweight carbon fiber stocks including: a cosmetic piece, stocks made with carbon fiber sheet molding compound (like the ones made by Steyr), an easy “structural piece” with a coated surface, custom carbon fiber grips molded to the shape of your hand and how to make cf tubes for handguards and LDC’s.
There is a lot to write so I am going to post it in sections so bear with me. I know there is a lot of text but if you don’t have the patience to read it, I promise you don’t have the patience to make a cf stock and I don’t want to leave you with more questions than answers.
All of these methods can be used to make a stock for any type of air rifle. They can also be made by anyone with arms and a face. No special talent required! We are going to start with a cosmetic piece (with exposed glossy carbon fiber) which is what I assume most people want / expect to see with a cf stock. If you intend to paint your cf stock then you might want to wait for the second project write-up as it will show an easier / quicker method.
I am going to state upfront that my method is not the absolute best way or the quickest, or the one you would choose if you were starting a business with tons of cash to invest. There are limitations. It is however a method that can be done at home on a smaller budget without buying any special equipment and it works very well. If you follow the process, you will end up with a stock that is as good or better than most of the commercial cf stocks currently on sale – a bold statement that I will stand behind (where nobody can see me).
You are going to need a budget of around $200 in raw materials. It’s not a cheap diy project but it’s a bargain compared to store-bought composite stocks. For comparison, a version of the M24 / Remington 700 pattern stock I made for this tutorial is available to buy from the awesome Russian company “Raven Arms” (who also make the cf Ataman BR stocks) for $1100 plus shipping.
As with any diy project, you are responsible for your own safety and researching any safety measures etc etc…. This is well covered in lots of others websites so I am not going to spend much time on it. Just make sure to buy a decent respirator before sanding any carbon fiber…
Carbon fiber is typically bought as a woven fabric which is coated in an epoxy resin and pushed into a mold where it hardens into your chosen shape. The cf fabrics come in different style weaves, weights and yarn tightness. You can research the different styles on your own but for the most part, your selection will be based on how it will conform to your pattern (shape) and which one you like the look of best. Some weave styles drape over corners better than others. We’ll get to that in more detail later….
Step 1 – select a pattern and prep it for mold making. Making a mold is imo the most difficult, annoying, frustrating and expensive step to get right so don’t give up too early as the process gets easier in the steps that follow. The cost of the mold is largely responsible for the high cost of commercial cf products. The cnc cut aluminum molds used in commercial operations can cost up to $80,000. The high price means many operations only have one or two which is abottleneck of inefficiency. This is what the Raven Arms molds look like:
There is a misconception that you can’t achieve good results without a metal mold. The only real difference between the metal molds and what we’ll use here is durability. Those metal molds will last for hundreds or thousands of uses while ours only needs to survive for 2-3 but we are going to achieve the same high quality finish believe it or not. My molds have all survived many more uses than that BTW.
It is worth putting in the time upfront for the mold because the quality of your stock surface will mirror the surface of the mold cavity. Any major imperfections in your mold will also reflect in your final product. Unlike wood, carbon fiber does not sand well into new shapes so you won’t be able to fix a lot of problems later on.
In most cases the mold will be in 3 parts – left side, right side and inletting. We are going to deal with the inletting separately in this method so for now, we’re going to make a 2-part mold for the outer shell or “blank”. You’ll then be able to use this same mold to make cf stocks for all your rifles.
The aim is to create two mold halves that fit perfectly together so we can eventually pull finished stocks from it without any alignment issues. You are going to start with the master stock known as the “plug”. This can be an existing stock you want to replicate in carbon fiber or an original design that you carved out of foam, wood, plastic etc. I’ll cover plug making separately so for now, we’ll assume you have a stock pattern to copy. For the purpose of this tutorial, I am going to make a cf version of this M24 stock which is an easier beginners project than some of the CF bullpup stocks I have made:
Regular shaped stocks like this one are the easiest to make in carbon fiber because there are no tight corners, long flat sides or 90 degree angles which are all difficult to replicate with composites. Think about that when choosing your stock design. Remember that cf starts as a relatively thick woven fabric that is folded into the shape you want. It’s hard to fold any thick fabric into complex shapes so a simple stock pattern gives less headaches. The rounded edges are also optimal for strength in composites as they don’t flex like flat sided shapes.
If possible, avoid using an uncoated wood stock as the master because wood is porous so it won’t release as well from your mold. You should be fine with a wood stock with a glossy coating (like many commercial wood stocks have). If you are carving your own stock pattern from wood, buy a decent plug coating from a composites store or something to seal it first.
If your plug is a stock you don’t mind altering / ruining, then prep it by sanding it glossy smooth. If you plan to alter the shape of an original stock then do it before you start this project so you are creating a mold from the new shape. If you plan to replicate a stock that you want to use again, you might want to wait for the next project write up where I’ll show you a more appropriate method. Remember, you can use any stock as the pattern as long as the outer dimensions are wide enough to fit your action / air cylinder. It doesn’t have to be the one that came with your air gun. I chose the M24 pattern because it is a long range sniper rifle designed to accommodate heavy barrels. It has plenty of width for a 1.25″ or even a 1.5″ tube without the original inletting.
Sand off any textured coating. A textured surface will stick to the mold and cause air bubbles in the CF . I’m going to assume that you know how to work a piece of sand paper. Start at 150 and go all the way up to 2000. Wet sand when you get above 600. This is the most time consuming part of the process but it is worth doing it right. Don’t use sand paper that is rougher than 150 unless you have to. Don’t paint the stock or you will end up with chipped off paint stuck in your mold surface and then in your cf part.
A CF mold is ideally mirror smooth. The pros can spend weeks polishing their metal molds before use. You won’t have to if you get your plug smooth enough at this stage. We don’t need a mirror finish for this process but the smoother the better. Anywhere that isn’t smooth will cause a gap between the cf and the mold which will mean air bubbles in the surface of your cf part. You can sand the mold surface later if you miss some texture but it is much easier to sand the plug now where you won’t bump up against the walls of the mold.
When you are done sanding, wash it thoroughly. Loose dirt will get stuck in your mold surface and then get into the surface of your cf part and you won’t be able to remove it at that stage if it is engrained between the fibers. If you are going to wipe the plug with rubbing alcohol then let it dry and wash it off before the next step as it can cause it to stick to the mold.
Step 2 – applying mold release wax
Next, apply mold release wax to the stock one side at a time. Mold release wax is cheap and easily available on eBay. I use a buffing pad to apply it, or a paper towel. Each layer should be thin and buffed shiny smooth. I use Meguiars mold release wax. It stinks and gives me headaches but an eBay seller accidentally sent me a whole crate when I ordered one pot so I am stuck with it for a while. It seems to be the go to brand for projects of this nature.
Feel free to try other brands but only use proper mold release wax. Don’t substitute with auto wax etc. They aren’t the same and plenty of people have ruined cf parts by assuming that any old wax or oil would be fine. Make sure what you use is compatible with pva. This is important if you want to be able to pull the stock out of the mold ever. In fact, this goes for the whole project. Don’t substitute materials.
Let the first layer of wax dry and apply a second layer. I use 2 layers of wax. Some people use more but whatever. The key is to make the layer thin and not noticeable. If you can see large clumps of wax then you have too much on. On the other hand, don’t over-buff and wipe all the wax off either. I use an auto buffing cloth (which I got from Walmart for $3) to buff the surface coat glossy smooth. Even if you apply the wax with a paper towel, buy something made for buffing to polish it smooth after. It may look like you wiped all the wax off but unless you see it all stuck to your buffing cloth then it is still on your plug. Wax shouldn’t be visible if you have done it right. Less is more.
When the wax is dry, repeat the process for the other side of the plug. Rest the stock on a clean surface while doing this or bits of dirt will get stuck to your mold release and as anyone who attended Sunday school will tell you, dirt in your wax makes baby Jesus cry.
Wear disposable gloves when applying wax. You don’t want fingerprints and it’s hard to get the nasty smell of that wax off your hands. It really is filthy nasty stuff. In fact, wear disposable gloves for every part of this project. Buy vinyl or Nitrile, not latex.
Step 3 – apply PVA mold release
Coat the plug with PVA mold release (on top of the wax). It should be applied thin and smooth. A little goes a long way. A 24oz bottle will last for a number of projects. Buy the purple one unless you plan on heat curing which we aren’t for this project. I got mine on eBay for less than $10. Don’t worry about using pva on your stock. It dissolves away with warm water when you are done (with no residue). I spray it on or apply it with an auto buffing cloth but I have used a paper towel before too. Don’t use a brush or toilet paper though. You don’t want brush marks or bits of wet paper stuck in the pva coating. I learnt that the hard way….
You shouldn’t be able to see the first layer of pva when it’s dry. If your plug is light in color, you might see a faint purple tint but nothing more. Any excess drips should be wiped off before they dry or you will have to wash it off and start the whole thing again. There will only be drips if you are using too much btw. Don’t think that pouring on an extra thick layer will help parts release easier or save you time, or make your original stock safer. It won’t. The opposite is true. As always, less is more.
Apologies if I’m over-stressing the “apply it thin” point. It’s just that I ruined a number of projects early on with that mistake.
Wait for the first layer of pva to dry (which won’t take long) and apply a second layer. When dry, apply one more. I use a total of 3 layers of pva . Some people like to use more. I have never found a benefit as long as you cover the whole surface properly.
Repeat the process to apply pva to the other side of the stock and let it dry.
Step 4 – prevent mechanical locks
Next, Fill any cavities on your stock with something that is easily removed after. I use play doh which works very well and is cheap. Buy enough to fill the inletting cavity, screw holes and any other holes that could cause the mold to get stuck (if mold making materials get in them). You don’t want to create a “mechanical lock”. Even the mold release won’t help if the stock is trapped in a poorly thought out mold.
Leave clean (smooth) edges with the play doh and don’t cover any of the outside of the stock. You don’t want bits of play doh stuck in you mold. As a side note, if you plan on using heat cure resin ever, don’t use play doh. Even a tiny amount stuck to your mold causes it to release horrible smoke in the oven. It burnt my throat and eyes last time I made that mistake… It really was nasty.
Step 5 – making the first mold half
Now we’re ready to make the first half of the mold. The basic idea that most mold-makers follow is that the part is separated into two halves by a flat board before resin is poured over it. I don’t like trying to do that with uneven shapes like a stock where the center line is at different heights at the rear than it is at the front. Read step 3 of this guys mold making process if you can’t visualize what I’m talking about here:
I get around this problem by using epoxy putty as my mold material instead of pouring a liquid resin or using fiberglass. With Epoxy putty, you can carefully cover just the first half without needing anything to separate the two halves. It may not sound like it but trust me, it’s a huge time and hair saver. I nearly gave up after trying it the other way. If you find it easier, you can draw a line down the center of the plug before you start so you have a guide. I just eye-ball it because I’m the dare-devil type.
There are various types of epoxy putty. The ideal is “tooling epoxy putty” which is designed just for this purpose. The main difference between epoxy putty types is strength, heat tolerance and ease of use. You don’t want it to break when you demold (obviously), melt in the oven or stick to your gloves…
For more traditional carbon fiber production methods, a mold is required to be able to withstand heat and pressure. That isn’t important for this method but if you plan on using your mold with a vacuum or with commercial prepreg, then buy proper tooling putty. It’s more expensive but that is what you need and make sure to check the “heat deflection temperature”.
I use a cheaper putty from Smooth-On. I love that store because they ship so quickly and it’s an Aladdin’s cave of fun diy materials to experiment with. Just don’t try and ask them for any advice as they don’t know carbon fiber. My epoxy putty cost around $80 (plus shipping) for a gallon which is way more than enough. If your stock isn’t very big, you might be able to get away with one of their $25 “trial size” pots which is approx 2 quarts. The one I use is called “Free Form Air”. It’s not the strongest but it is strong enough if applied in thick enough layers.
Free form Air is very light and easy to use. Importantly for me, it has a low “shore hardness”. Shore hardness is a measure of how easily you can scratch or dent the surface. For our purposes here, a low shore hardness means it will sand easily. I hate sanding so I prefer to spend less time on it…. Curiously, they proudly advertise that it will cure even under water. I bet many great men drowned to bring us that info….
It will be easy to damage a mold with a low shore hardness but that only matters if you plan on making tons of stocks. For reference,I have pulled 8-10 parts from a Free Form Air mold without so much as a scratch. The other reason I chose free form air is because I use it for a number of other things. It’s good for making new designs, altering existing stocks and sticking parts together. Smooth-on also sell a flame retardant / heat tolerant putty which is much stronger and probably better for making molds. It is much harder to work with though and you can’t apply it with your hands (it just sticks to your gloves). Choose the one that is best for your needs though. Tooling putty can be found at composites stores btw.
Most epoxy putty products come in two parts which are mixed together before use. Free Form Air has an easy 1:1 mix ratio so you could eye-ball it. I prefer to weigh it though. One part is gray, the other is white. When you see the white putty, try to resist the temptation to spread it on a bagel:
Like all room temp epoxy products, free form air’s cure time depends on temp and volume. Normally, it has around 30 mins to an hour of working time before it starts to set which is perfect. If you mix too much at once and / or the room is hot, it might set too quickly. I like to mix ping pong ball sized pieces which I measure out ahead of time.
Curiously, a ping pong ball sized piece of the white putty look exactly like an actualping png ball:
Mix your putty and apply it to the first half of the plug. Push it into the surface firmly to avoid air pockets which would result in a cavity in your mold surface. A good tip is to spread a thin layer onto the surface first (like you were spreading butter), then a thicker piece will stick better. Just be carful to not disturb you mold release surface and only use a gloved finger to apply it. My hands were covered in gray goo when I was doing this step so I couldn’t take a pic but, for reference, here is a pic of somebody else applying the stuff to something completely unrelated:
Don’t worry about making the edges super straight and even. It is actually better if they aren’t perfectly straight. If you are determined to create neat flat sides, you will need to add keys to make the two parts fit together. Google mold-making for an explanation of keys if that is the way you want to go. I don’t bother as rough edges do the same job for me (they make it so it only fits together in the right position). As a side note, if your goal is to have neat exposed seams between the two halves, you can go slightly passed the center line and sand the edges into a flat straight edge after it has dried. I plan to cover the bottom of the stock with something with a little grip so no need to bother with that step here.
Now, you are going to have to use a little common sense to identify areas that need extra reinforcements so you don’t snap the mold when you pull your plug. I like to make the perimeter and the middle a little thicker. 1/2″ – 3/4″ thick should be plenty thick enough for most of it. At 1″ thick, you couldn’t snap it if you tried.
On most stocks, the neck or the area just after the comb in the middle are the most vulnerable to snapping.
Step 6 – smooth the rear surface of the mold
When you have covered the first half of the plug in putty, go over it and smooth any major cracks with a gloved finger. I use Vaseline to smooth the surface. Small cracks can become large cracks when under pressure or when you are demolding so remove as many cracks as you can. You will go through a lot of Vaseline with this process so buy a big tub.
When waiting in line at the drugstore with a bunch of Vaseline and rubber gloves, you may feel the need to explain yourself to people. Don’t, it’s your God-given red white and blue right to buy whatever you want and who cares if they assume you are some kind of pervert! If a woman with young kids is shaking her head at you with a revolted look on her face, take it as a sign that you have bought enough gloves and Vaseline. When you are done, it should look something like this:
Leave it to dry overnight in a warm room. I leave mine next to the boiler. When you come back the next day it should be rock solid.
Step 7 – demold the first half
Before we make the second half of the mold, we are going to check that the first half releases properly. It might seem like it is stuck when you first attempt to demold and you’ll be muttering something about this being the last time you take diy advice from a Zebra. Don’t worry. If you run it under hot water for a few minutes while going round the edges and gently easing them free with a flathead screw driver, the PVA will dissolve. I use this glass cutting tool which cost $3 from Home Depot and it’s one the most useful tools I own for this process:
As an edge is pulled away from the plug, I let hot water pour into the space to melt more of the PVA. It could take up to 30 minutes to release the mold. This step is a real PIA. Don’t get impatient and put too much pressure on any one edge or you will break your mold. Gentle even pressure and warm water will eventually get it free. In case you are wondering how the pros do it, they use compressed air. They jam a wedge into a space they created between the mold and part and feed a compressed air line into it and the mold just pops free. If you have a compressor, feel free to do the same. I actually do have a compressor but I don’t use it for this as it can just as easily break this type of mold and I can’t be bothered setting it up.
This is what my first mold half looked like:
Step 8 – inspect your work
Inspect the surface of your first mold half to make sure there is no major defects that are too big to repair. There might be a few small defects but don’t worry about these. We’ll fix those later. This is to be expected with epoxy putty. If you want to avoid this problem, buy a gel coat from a composites store to coat you plug before applying the epoxy putty. Read up on that on elsewhere as most cf mold making tutorials use a gel coat. I deliberately leave it out of this process to save costs and make sanding easier.
Step 9 – redo the mold release step and grease her up
If you had to use hot water to remove the plug, you probably have to redo the mold release step before you can go on to make the second half of the mold. Clean the plug and redo that step for both sides even though you already have your first mold half. It can still get stuck again when you put it back in.
Grease up the first mold half over the whole surface and around the edges with Vaseline,then, put the plug back in the mold. The Vaseline will help you ease your plug back in without cracking it. You still want to be careful though. I have broken a number of molds at this stage thinking I was home free. No fat lady has sung yet.
Step 10 – prep the mold edge
Coat the outside edge of the first mold half with Vaseline with a line that is at least 1″ wide all the way around the perimeter. The second mold half is going to overlap the first half so you get a perfect fit. The Vaseline will act as a mold release to make sure the two halves don’t stick together so layer it on thick. Just like my wife always says, don’t be stingy with the Vaseline. Um… Anyway….
Step 11 – make the second mold half
Cover the exposed half of the stock with putty like you did with the first half. Remember to push it firmly against the surface again to avoid trapped air pockets. Go over the edge of the first half a little but obviously don’t go passed where you put the layer of Vaseline. It should look something like this when you are done:
Leave it to dry overnight again.
Step 12 – demold
When it is dry, ease the two mold halves apart by going round the edges with the same tool you used to get the first mold half free. Getting the second mold half off the plug will be just as annoying as the first I’m afraid. Don’t get impatient with it. You are nearly done so don’t screw it up this late in the game. This is what my two mold halves look like when I finally got them free:
Not as pretty as the $80,000 aluminum tooling but it will do the same job. If you do accidentally snap your mold, don’t panic (too much). After an appropriate amount of time cursing, kicking your dog and banging your fist against the wall, you can fix it by putting both of the broken pieces of mold back on the plug and applying more putty to the back. If this happens, put an extra thick layer where it broke so it doesn’t happen again. That was obviously a point of weakness we missed the first time round.
With epoxy putty, the two broken pieces will stick back together very well. You will still see a faint line in the mold surface where the joint is but it won’t be visible in your finished part after you sand it smooth. Cf just doesn’t pick up that level of detail (luckily for us). You can also apply a tiny amount of putty over the crack on the mold surface and sand it smooth later, if you are worried about the potential for a trapped air pocket there.
If all went according to plan, congrats, you now have a rigid carbon fiber mold to work with. Give yourself a brief but well deserved pat on the back. The most difficult part is over! Getting the finished cf parts out of the mold won’t be nearly as difficult as pulling the mold off the plug, I promise.
Step 13 – finishing the mold surface
Run your fingers over the mold surface to check how smooth it is. It’s hard to tell in the pics but mine came out fairly glossy smooth already.
Sand any rough patches using high number sand paper only. Start at 350. You want to make the mold surface as smooth as you can but don’t drive yourself crazy over this. You don’t want to burn the house down to catch a flee. Free Form Air Epoxy putty sands fairly easily so sanding too much can easily change the shape of your mold in a way that you don’t want. Using 350 or higher sand paper should prevent this to some extent.
Sanding too much will create dents in the mold surface that you might not even be able to see on the gray putty but, every defect will be clearly visible on the glossy carbon fiber part. It is the least forgiving material ever.
As a reminder, carbon fiber does not sand well at all. You can sand it smooth but you can’t shape it. You can’t sand out a dent to make it flat, for example, so make sure the mold surface is in the shape you want and be extra carful. Any flat surfaces should be sanded with a sanding block to keep them flat. Fill any noticeable holes with epoxy putty and sand smooth when it’s dry. Use only enough putty to fill the holes. A few tiny holes are ok for the method we are going to use. Carbon fiber doesn’t pick up tiny details so a few pin holes won’t show on the final product (although they would with every other method).
If you pushed the putty firmly into the plug when making the mold and prepped your plug properly, then you shouldn’t have much repair work to do. I had some minor stuff that took all of 5 minutes. Check that your two mold halves fit together easily. You will see a line down the middle but that’s ok, as long as it closes up for the most part when you squeeze the mold halves together. These will be clamped shut when used to make the cf part.
To be continued…
The Ultimate Guide to Carbon Fiber Design and ApplicationWhy Would You Use Carbon Fiber as Opposed to Another Material?
Reason 1: Strength
The primary reason why one would consider the use of carbon fiber is its high stiffness to weight ratio. Carbon fiber is very strong, very stiff, and relatively light.
The stiffness of a material is measured by its modulus of elasticity. The modulus of carbon fiber is typically 34 MSI (234 Gpa). The ultimate tensile strength of Carbon Fiber is typically 600-700 KSI (4-4.8 Gpa). Compare this with 2024-T3 Aluminum, which has a modulus of only 10 MSI and ultimate tensile strength of 65 KSI, or with 4130 Steel, which has a modulus of 30 MSI and ultimate tensile strength of 125 KSI.
High and Ultra-High Modulus carbon fiber or High Strength carbon fiber are also available due to refinements in the materials and the processing of carbon fiber.
A composite carbon fiber part is a combination of carbon fiber and resin, which is typically epoxy. The strength and stiffness of a carbon fiber composite part will be the result of the combined strengths and stiffnesses of both the fiber and the resin. The magnitude and direction of local strength and stiffness of a composite part are controlled by the local fiber density and orientation in the laminate.
It is typical in engineering to quantify the benefit of structural material in terms of its strength to weight ratio (Specific Strength) and its stiffness to weight ratio (Specific Stiffness), particularly where reduced weight relates to improved performance or reduced life cycle cost.
A carbon fiber plate fabricated from standard modulus plain weave carbon fiber in a balanced and symmetric 0/90 layup has an elastic bending modulus of approx. 10 MSI. It has a volumetric density of about .050 lb/in3. Thus the stiffness to weight ratio or Specific Stiffness for this material is 200 MSI The Strength of this plate is approx. 90 KSI, so the Specific Strength for this material is 1800 KSI
By comparison, the bending modulus of 6061 aluminum is 10 MSI, the Strength is 35 KSI, and the volumetric of density is 0.10 lb. This yields a Specific Stiffness of 100 MSI and a Specific Strength of 350 KSI. 4130 steel has a stiffness of 30 MSI, a strength of 125 KSI and a density of .3 lb/in3 This yields a Specific Stiffness of 100 MSI and a Specific Strength of 417 KSI.
|Material||Specific Stiffness||Specific Strength|
|Carbon Fiber||200 MSI||1800 KSI|
|6061 Aluminum||100 MSI||350 KSI|
|4130 Steel||100 MSI||417 KSI|
Hence, even a basic plain-weave carbon fiber panel has a specific stiffness 2x greater than aluminum or steel. It has a specific strenght 5x that of aluminum and over 4x that of steel.
When one considers the option of customizing carbon fiber panel stiffness through strategic fiber placement and includes the significant increase in stiffness possible with sandwich structures utilizing lightweight core materials, is it obvious the advantage that carbon fiber composites can make in a wide variety of applications. The specifics numbers depend on the details of construction and the application. For instance, a foam-core sandwich has an extremely high strength to weight ratio in bending, but not necessarily in compression or crush. In addition, the loading and boundary conditions for any components are unique to the specific structure. Thus it is impossible to provide the thickness of a carbon fiber plate that would directly replace a steel plate in a given application without careful consideration of all design factors. This is accomplished through careful engineering analysis and experimental validation.
One example of design flexibility in carbon fiber is the custom design of beams with tailored stiffness along specific axes. Element 6 Composites has developed patent-pending methods for the fabrication of carbon-fiber tubes for optimum stiffness along each bending axis. Such tubes are similar to I-Beams in their resistance to bending, yet retain the high torsional stiffness found in a tube.
How to Make Your Own Carbon Fibre Panels – Part 1 – Attack Tech
Carbon fibre. It’s that stuff that Formula 1 cars have been made of for the last 30 years, yet we still consider it high tech and somewhat elusive. Unlike the other forms of paneling which have been around for literally hundreds of years, composite panels are somewhat still the new kids on the block. Techniques are improving all the time and costs are coming down of both equipment and the raw materials, so more than ever more people are doing their own carbon fibre panels.
Carbon fibre monocoques were first used in Formula 1 by McLaren in the early 80s and soon filtered down to all other forms of motorsport. Carbon fibre composite panels found their home in motorsport due to their stiffness to weight ratio. Composite panels can be lighter than aluminium for a given thickness, yet have the stiffness of steel. And when combined with a core of foam or aramid fibre / aluminium honeycomb become some of the stiffest materials on the planet. On top of this the carbon weaves can be combined with other materials with different characteristics for different applications.
So the question then becomes why not use carbon fibre for everything? We’d all love to have carbon bodies on our race cars, but while the basics can be achieved relatively easily, once a beginner starts getting into larger scale panels the process becomes evermore difficult. When at the top end it starts getting hideously expensive, but more on this another time.
There are three main types of processes for creating carbon fibre panels.
- Wet layup: This involved manually wetting the carbon fabric with resin and adding layers until the desired thickness is reached.
- Vacuum Infusion: While the technique has similarities to the wet layup the entire layup is encased in a vacuum and the resin is sucked in under vacuum, to wet out the layers of fabric. The result is much less resin and better resin to fabric ratio – and a lighter stronger part.
- Autoclave with Pre Preg: Pre Preg carbon is fabric with the resin already infused at the perfect ratio. The fabric must be keep at freezing temperatures to stop it from curing. Pre Preg is much easier to work with so creating complex shapes is much easier. You’ll also need a computer controlled plotter to cut Pre Preg properly, and then an autoclave that puts the entire assembly under compression as well as high temperature to cook it. The result is what you see at any high level motorsport event. F1, Indy, F3, DTM etc. Budget a house.
Right now, below, you can watch a video on the basics of creating your own carbon fibre panels. Enjoy.
How to Make Simple Carbon Fibre Panels
3D Printing Carbon Fiber and Other Composites
What Composites Do for 3D Printing
Composite fibers boost specific properties of traditional 3D printed parts – usually strength, stiffness, heat resistance, and durability. This gives them a strength advantage over more traditional thermoplastics used in 3D printing like ABS or PLA, so the applications of 3d printing can expand with these additional materials and the properties they bring to the table.
Thermoplastics are plastics that can change state without a change in chemical properties. This makes them popular 3D printing materials because they can easily be melted, extruded layer by layer, and immediately cooled into a shape. However, the properties that make them good for 3D printing make them a poor fit for engineering-strength applications – many of these thermoplastics have a relatively low melting point and aren’t very strong or stiff.
Composite materials, on the other hand, are parts made up of more than one material that, when combined, have properties different from their original materials. Materials like concrete and particleboard can be considered composites, because they are mixtures of a variety of materials. However, when we talk about composites from an engineering standpoint, we usually refer to composites with reinforcing fibers. Carbon fiber, fiberglass, and Kevlar are three of the most common fiber materials used for composites in industry. As we covered in the Physics of 3D Printing, the fibers are like spaghetti – thin, brittle, and easy to snap if bent. These fibers are almost never used by themselves – they are woven into sheets, wrapped into rods, or formed into custom molded shapes with the help of a matrix material to harden the fibers into an optimized shape. When many fibers are bound together to create larger structural elements, forces can distribute and disperse loads along the lengths of all of the fibers.
Fiberglass strands being laid down in a mold and cured with a thermoset resin.
Carbon fiber has one of the highest strength-to-weight ratios out there, making it very valuable for creating lightweight, strong parts. The fibers themselves are made up of carbon atoms whose crystal structure is aligned into strands, making the strands incredibly strong in tension. Traditionally, thermoset resins are used as the bonding agent to set these fibers into a designated shape, cured around a matrix material like foam. So you can create a sandwich panel by “sandwiching” the foam between to sheets of fiber weave, and curing it all with resin. In the context of 3D printing, the fiber can take two different forms:
Chopped Fibers are short-length fibers chopped into segments less than a millimeter in length and mixed into traditional thermoplastics to form what is called a filled plastic. These can be printed with an FDM printing process.
Continuous Fibers require a slightly different 3D printing method, in which continuous fiber strands are coated in a curing agent and laid down into a thermoplastic matrix extruded via a secondary print nozzle. This process is called Continuous Fiber Fabrication (CFF).
Two forms of 3D printed carbon fiber: on the top is a chopped fiber 3D printing filament, and below is a continuous strand of carbon fiber.
Either way you add fiber, the addition of the fibers boosts part strength and other material properties, but the amount it helps differs depending on the way that fiber is used, and what fiber it is. Generally speaking, a continuous carbon fiber 3D print is stronger than chopped carbon fiber 3D because the continuity distributes any applied loads.
Chopped Fiber 3D Printing Materials
Chopped fiber filled plastics are the most common type of composite 3D printed plastics. The most widely used chopped composite 3D printing material is chopped carbon fiber – where carbon fiber pieces are mixed with traditional 3D printing plastics like nylon, ABS, or PLA. Adding this “filling” to thermoplastics is a material booster pack. The fibers take on some of the stresses of the part, like how concrete is added to cement to boost its strength. The fibers handle some of the applied stresses on the part, boosting the properties of typically lower-grade materials. The addition of carbon fiber also improves the thermal stability of mechanical properties, which widens the range of operating temperatures and improves predictability of material behavior in both high and low temperatures.
A close-up of chopped carbon fibers used in 3D printing, taken on an SEM.
These fibers are chopped up into fine pieces and mixed into the plastic before it gets extruded into a spool for use with material deposition-based 3D printers. In this case, the 3D printing process remains the same, because the fibers are just suspended in the thermoplastic – so it gets heated, extruded, and cooled into the part just like any other FFF style 3D printed. Chopped composite 3D printing materials take normal plastic that may be lacking in certain properties and boost it. In the case of carbon fiber, the fibers boost the strength, stiffness, and dimensional stability of the part to make it higher-performing than its base plastic.
Chopped carbon fiber 3D printing materials can be used like normal 3D printing plastics, boosting some material properties.
The quantity of fibers and the length of chopped segments impacts the strength and quality of the part. Different vendors blend different amounts of fiber into their plastic, yielding materials with different strengths. Below a certain threshold, and the fibers boost surface finish, print quality. Above that threshold, mixing in a large quantity of longer fibers, and you get a stronger material, but you sacrifice surface finish and part accuracy because there is a smaller percentage of plastic in the material overall. The thermoplastic is essential to the mixture because it makes the printing process work well, so your parts can only get so strong.
Continuous Fiber 3D Printing
Continuous fiber 3D printing adds continuous strands of fiber reinforcement to the part (think back to fiber strands), to achieve metal-strength properties at a fraction of the weight. Using two print nozzles, the printer builds the matrix material out of a thermoplastic, and irons down continuous strands of continuous fibers into the part. This process is called Continuous Fiber Fabrication (CFF).
Continuous Kevlar strands are ironed into this part to increase its impact resistance with a composite fiber printing nozzle. A thermoplastic matrix material forms the skin and core of the part.
The power of CFF comes from the continuity of the strands. Unlike chopped fibers, continuous strands can absorb and distribute loads across their entire length. When placed within a thermoplastic matrix, the part can handle higher loads and absorb larger impacts. This allows these parts to achieve the strength of metal at a fraction of the weight.
Continuous fibers form the backbone of a 3D printed part, because the loads distribute along their length, rather than into the plastic.
The CFF 3D printing process consists of two steps per layer – first, a thermoplastic is extruded to form the infill and shells of the part – this serves as the “matrix” material of the composite. Next, the continuous fiber is ironed into that matrix, fusing with the thermoplastic by use of a compatible resin coating. This process repeats layer by layer, forming the fibers into the backbone of the 3D printed part, while the thermoplastic acts as a skin. This process is also similar to how rebar can be laid down inside concrete to reinforce it.
The fibers form the “backbone” of the part and can be laid down in specific patterns to optimize a part’s strength for its weight and material consumption. You can place fiber in specific areas based on how the part will experience load, putting the strength exactly where you need it. This is very different from standard deposition-based 3D printers, including with chopped fibers, because these methods have an even distribution of properties throughout the entire part. Different fiber reinforcement options can be used for different loading conditions and behaviors. You can learn more about the different reinforcement strategies in Fiber Reinforcement Strategies.
A variety of different fibers can be used for reinforcement as well, depending upon what material properties your part needs to have. Markforged 3D printers offer a few different fiber materials so that you can choose the strength behavior of the reinforcement:
Carbon Fiber is a stiff and strong fiber that behaves like 6061 Aluminum, so it can be used for lightweight components that support heavy loads.
This 3D printed carbon fiber can match the strength of aluminum when continuous. Both are supporting a 27.5 lb load.
Fiberglass is a sturdy, cost-effective reinforcing material with some compliance to it. It boosts part strength above that of plastics and is a good starting point for printing with reinforcement.
Fiberglass is a robust 3D printing fiber option, exceeding the strength of chopped fiber, ABS, and PLA when supporting a 7.5 lb weight.
Kevlar has high toughness and shock resistance, making it ideal for shock-loading and high-impact conditions. It bends instead of breaking.
PLA, ABS, and Kevlar reinforced 3D printed parts getting shock-loaded with some big hammer hits!
High Strength High Temperature (HSHT) Fiberglass maintains its strength and stiffness at high temperatures because of its high heat-deflection temperature. Its heat resistance allows it to hold up in more extreme environments.
This test was performed after heating each beam to 300 degrees Fahrenheit in an oven. HSHT does not lose strength at high temperatures, so it still supports the 5 lb load.
So between selecting different fiber types for certain material needs, and controlling where the fiber can be placed layer by layer, you can control the behavior and performance of your parts. This is one of the primary advantages continuous 3D printed composites have over chopped fiber materials. Not only do you get stronger parts, but you also can produce parts optimized for their application.
Teach me: How to build a carbon fiber chassis – Technical DiscussionFoster:
There is a discussion here on the cost of building a carbon fiber chassis. https://www.chiefdelphi.com/forums/showthread.php?threadid=158979
A long time ago I built a fixture and used carbon fiber roving like I would have done fiberglass. (Mold, release agent, epoxy, fiber, epoxy, bag it, dry, release, sand/drill wearing a mask)
I’m clearly missing the time/effort/cost in building a carbon fiber chassis.
So tell me, in beginner robot terms, what is involved with building a carbon fiber chassis.
To really do it properly and obtain all the benefits of using carbon fiber, step one imho would be to design a drivetrain that uses the strengths of CF in it’s structure. Instead of just taking something like a WCD (which is proven that alumium works fine) and recreating it out of CF.
I’ve though about doing something with foam core, like on a longboard/surfboard. Using some high density foam machined/shaped to your design and then doing a few layers over it with expoy. Afterwards sanding it smooth and clear coating.
I’ve seen battlebot teams do solid CF chassis made from prepreg, example hypershock: https://www.facebook.com/Shenanigansnco/photos/a.1626817397536137.1073741829.1620454364839107/1713938375490705/?type=3&theater Worked out pretty well, obviously for FRC it’s a bit overkill on the thickness they used but it was solid.
Overall it’s very labor intensive in doing the layups correctly and then even more intensive if you want it to look nice. I don’t think the effort is worth the returns on trying to do an entire drivetrain out of CF when alumium is cheap, easy to work with, can be welded and so many COTS products designed around it. After design, it took us less then a weekend to produce our two drivebases. But using CF on mechanisms can be beneficial, we bought CF thin wall tubs and made rollers out of them. Definitly lighter and stiffer then it would have been compared to aluminum. Also CF plate is stiffer then anything plastic or aluminum for the weight but however it will crack vs flex.
Edit: </insert obligatory safety warnings with working with fiberglass and carbon. It’s nasty stuff>
Basic manufacturing methods for carbon parts
The quality of carbon parts primarily depends on the correct choice and quality of resin and carbon cloth. If you make mistakes in choosing the density of the carbon fabric and resin for carbon, you will not be able to neatly lay out the workpiece in a mold, press firmly and completely remove air bubbles.
Basic manufacturing methods for carbon parts
The basic manufacturing methods include:
- molding from prepregs, that is, semi-finished products,
- application method,
- molding directly in a mold with vacuum,
- molding by pressure (manual roll-in).
Making carbon at home does not require complex equipment, and with certain skills you can get decent quality parts. Therefore, it is quite possible to make carbon fiber of satisfactory quality yourself.
Carbon for auto tuning
Attention! The so-called 3D-carbon, car vinyl or film “under carbon” has nothing to do with carbon, except for an excellent imitation of the surface of carbon. These are visual effects multi-colored vinyl and PVC films for decorative surface finishes only, not for hardening.
But for the manufacture of some lightweight elements where high strength is required, for example, for bumpers, hoods, small body parts, expensive real carbon can be used. You can even try to make a carbon fiber covering with your own hands of medium-sized elements, but remember that this material is very sensitive to pinpoint impacts and there is a risk of damage by small stones and rubble from under the wheels.
And here the skill of the auto repairman plays a decisive role, how perfectly he has the skills to select the canvas, resin and layer thickness.And repairing carbon parts is also an expensive process.
If aesthetic parameters play the main role for you, and not lightening the weight of a car or motorcycle, then take a closer look at PVC films “carbon look”, aqua printing or airbrushing.
Manufacturing of carbon parts by prepreg method
The industrial process of molding a prepreg product (blanks for molding) in an autoclave is a simultaneous flow of complex processes:
- polymerisation of the compound,
- vacuum removal of air and excess resin,
- high pressure (up to 20 atm) presses all layers to the matrix, compacting and leveling them.
This is an expensive process, therefore it is not suitable for small-scale tuning at home.
But the separation of these processes reduces the cost and lengthens the entire procedure for the independent production of carbon. At the same time, changes are made to the prepreg preparation technology, so you always need to pay attention to which technology the workpiece is intended for.
In this case the prepreg is prepared as a sandwich. After applying the resin, the workpiece is covered with plastic wrap on both sides and passed between two rollers.This removes excess tar and unwanted air.
The prepreg is pressed into the die with a punch and the entire structure is placed in an oven. That is, in this case, the prepreg is a completely ready-to-mold blank, with compressed layers and removed air.
This method is most often used by auto repair shops when buying carbon blanks, and the dies are made of alabaster or gypsum, sometimes they are turned from metal or the part itself is used as a model.which you want to repeat from carbon. Sometimes the models are cut out of the styrofoam and remain inside the finished part.
Do-it-yourself CFRP is the easiest way to make the method of “wrapping” or application of carbon fiber to the workpiece.
Application method (hand gluing)
You can make carbon by hand using the gluing method, which includes five main stages:
- Thorough preparation of the surface to be glued: sanding, degreasing, rounding the corners.
- Adhesive application.
- Bonding carbon fabric impregnated with epoxy resin with hardener.
- Coating with protective varnish or paint.
Resin fillers are used both for decorative purposes and to prevent resin from dripping off vertical surfaces.
- Adhesive for fixing carbon fiber to the surface.
- Carbon fiber fabric which is laid over resin in layers with a hard roller.
- Medium viscosity epoxy with hardener (sometimes used as an adhesive).
- Protective varnish. Polyurethane is best for scratch protection. You need to choose waterproof and lightfast. It will not get cloudy. For high gloss, acrylic varnish can be used as a topcoat.
Apply the resin 2-3 times with intermediate drying and sanding.
This method differs from the traditional model making of carbon products by applying an adhesive rather than a separator for easy removal of the resulting semi-finished product.
The 3M company even offers a self-adhesive carbon cloth, but working with it requires good skills.
And the carbon remains on the bonded part, strengthening it. Such carbon production is most often used for pasting bumpers, dashboards, etc.
Method of forming carbon in a mold with vacuum
This method requires special equipment and good skills.
- Application of a release agent to the model surface.For matt and semi-gloss surfaces, release wax is usually used, and for glossy surfaces (plastic and metal) – WOLO type release agent and priming solutions, which are used for small-scale production.
- Layout of carbon fiber in a matrix, without wrinkles and bubbles.
- Resin impregnation of carbon fabric.
- There can be several layers. In some cases, carbon fiber can be alternated with fiberglass.
- Perforated film overlay to squeeze out excess resin and release air.It is advisable to overlap.
- Absorbent liner.
- Installing the vacuum tube and port for connecting the vacuum pump.
- Placement of the entire structure in a strong vacuum foil, gluing with a sealing tape to the tooling.
The whole procedure is like placing an object in a vacuum bag, which are sold in stores for storing things, and then evacuating air from it. You can experiment with these vacuum bags.They are very durable and come in a variety of sizes. A vacuum pump for home use will cost an average of $ 150-200.
Another option for vacuum technology – the molding process involves applying layers of carbon fiber to a mold, bagging the entire assembly and removing excess air using a vacuum system. The resin mixture is then fed from one end and then sucked into the bag assembly by the vacuum inside. After a cooling period, the molded part is detached from the mold and the excess material is trimmed off.
Method of forming carbon using pressure (hand rolling)
It is used for self-production of parts from carbon and is similar to the method of forming by vacuum, but without the use of expensive equipment. Kits include resin brushes and rollers for air extrusion and rolling.
For simple car tuning you will need:
- carbon cloth with a density of 200-300 g / m,
- epoxy resin,
- hard roller and a brush.
On Alibaba.com, 200 gsm carbon canvas. weave twill is offered at prices ranging from $ 10 to $ 25 per square meter. True, you need to buy from 10 meters. But you can agree to receive samples that will allow you to independently make small carbon products.
In general terms, the process of making carbon fiber with your own hands looks like this:
- A separating wax, gelcoat is applied to the surface of the mold to form a protective and decorative layer on the surface of the finished product.
- After it dries, a thin layer of resin is applied, onto which the carbon cloth is rolled or pressed to release air bubbles.
- Then another coat of impregnation resin is applied. Several layers of fabric and resin can be applied, depending on the desired parameters of the product.
- Resin can be cured in air. This usually occurs within 5 days. You can place the workpiece in an oven heated to a temperature of 140 – 180 ◦C, which will significantly speed up the polymerization process.
Then we remove the product from the mold, grind, polish, varnish, gelcoat or paint.
Each layer is rolled with a roller to remove air bubbles and obtain maximum adhesion.
With this method, a high consumption of resin is obtained (three times higher than the density of carbon cloth), but in this way you can make any part of carbon with your own hands.
Author Irina Khimich
DIY heater from a heating cable
For most home-builders, an attempt to make a heater from a heating cable with their own hands is not only an interesting experience, but also an opportunity to relatively inexpensively assemble a device with which it is quite possible to heat a small room.The design turns out to be simple, and most importantly, it is reliable and safe enough so that it can be left on for a long period of time.
Homemade hob with heating cable
How the heating cable works
It is clearly not possible to make a heater out of ordinary copper or aluminum wire. A standard cable of two to five cores has a negligible electrical resistance, therefore, even with a very strong electric current, the sheath heats up, followed by melting of the insulation and fire.
Alternatively, you can make a heater with your own hands from a heating cable. This is a kind of heating device made in the form of a long flexible cord. In this case, heat is generated on the surface due to the dissipation of electric current energy on a high resistance conductor or on a graphite matrix imprinted between two copper or aluminum conductors.
Many models can be plugged directly into thesocket
These cable heaters have several significant differences:
- The presence of a soft heat-resistant sheath, usually a conductor heater made of a thermal cable can withstand heating up to 200 about C;
- The set includes a temperature sensor and regulator of current or amount of heat generated;
- Inside the heating conductor-heater there is additional insulation that protects from moisture, a reinforcing mesh or a layer that takes mechanical stress.
Important! As with any heater, the cable heater regulator has a contact system for voltage supply, grounding and temperature control. These are essential attributes for the safe operation of a cable heater.
You can, of course, make a homemade heater from a heating cable, as they say, “by eye”, without calculation and connect to the network without automation. In theory, an experienced electrician will be able to make such a homemade product, but in practice, this option either quickly burns out from overload, or heats up very badly.
In any case, the use of a heating cable for a home heater is already a modern approach to the problem. The efficiency and safety of such a device is an order of magnitude higher than that of a nichrome coil or of expensive and unsafe halogen lamps. Therefore, making a homemade homemade product – a heater from a heating cable will be the cheapest and safest option.
Types of heating cables
Heating systems using low-temperature heaters are widely used in the arrangement of warm floors, equipment for local heating of satellite dishes, and of course, for protected heating systems for industrial equipment, gutters and gutters, water supply and sewerage pipes.
There are four main types of cable heaters:
- Semiconductor self-regulating cable. It is used for heating downpipes and gutters of any structures in contact with moisture;
- Resistive cables are used for direct heating, most often in the installation of underfloor heating, heating parts that require a large amount of heat;
- Inductive cable heaters, the simplest and most effective, heat transfer to the environment occurs due to electromagnetic waves and industrial frequency fields, the efficiency is high enough, but in order to generate heat, a conductive medium is required, for example, water or metal;
- Carbon fiber cable heaters.A relatively new technology that uses conductive graphite and carbon fiber.
Almost any of the above can be used for a homemade stovetop heater. The best option depends on the power of the future heater, its location and method of use.
Heating cable assembly
The ceramic tile of the heater itself is needed only in order to remove and dissipate heat and protect the heating circuit from mechanical damage.Of course, not all of the listed types of heating cables are equally convenient for making a homemade ceramic tile heater. First of all, due to the different power input and different operating temperature range. Therefore, it makes sense to dwell in more detail on how cable heaters are arranged.
Self-regulating heater can be easily recognized by the flat structure
Thermal cable with self-regulation effect
The heater consists of two nickel-plated copper or aluminum conductors located at a short distance from each other.A conductive mass is pressed in between the conductors and around the conductors.
Self-regulating wire device
An important advantage of such a scheme is the presence of a self-regulation effect, that is, the resistance of the filler changes depending on the ambient temperature. The higher the heater temperature, the greater the matrix resistance and the lower the current.
As a result, the heater generates a lot of heat at low temperatures ranging from -10 o C and up to +5 o C.The heating cable approximately halves the heat generation at an air temperature of over 5 degrees, and practically does not heat up when it reaches 60-80 about C.
The heating cable device was developed primarily for maintenance-free structures installed on the roof, in gutters, pipes, closed boxes, underground utilities.
Important! In theory, such a heater can be laid out in any not suitable place, connected to the regulator and not even interested in its state, the loss of electricity will be 100-150 W per day at a positive air temperature.
With the onset of frost, the heat release of the heater will increase several times and amount to at least 30 W per meter of length. If you follow the rules for laying on tiles, then the cable heater turns out to be quite durable and safe, the risk of a short circuit is practically reduced to zero.
Another important advantage of the matrix self-regulating heater is the unlimited cable length. The supply voltage is applied to the contacts of each of the cores. Therefore, you can cut the required length of the wire, roll it up in a spiral or wave and lay it on the tile or porcelain stoneware.
A significant disadvantage of self-regulating heating cables is their high cost. On average, the price per meter of wire is 3-4 times higher than for other types of conductor heaters.
Alloy cable heaters
Structurally, a conductive heater consists of two cores separated by a heat-resistant insert and packed in one silicone sheath. One wire is made of copper or aluminum, the second is made of a special high-strength alloy like nichrome.
Resistive heating cable structure
This design provides a very high reliability and performance of the heater, while there is no need to lay additional wiring lines in order to connect the contact of the nichrome conductor from the opposite end.
The simplest resistance heating cables are just a thin nichrome coil wrapped in a silicone sheath. Such a heater is placed permanently on metal and conductive structures.Otherwise, you have to lay an additional cable or core to connect to the network. Despite the low cost and simplicity of the device, this is not the best option for making a homemade heater from a heating cable and ceramic tiles.
Heating systems using an alternating electromagnetic field are made of thin copper wire wound like a transformer coil on an elastic and strong core. When an electric current passes around the heater, a magnetic field is created, which easily heats up ice, water, and snow in contact with the shell.This scheme is ideal for arranging heated porch steps.
To make a heater from a heating cable and porcelain stoneware, you will need to cover the tile surface with a conductive layer of varnish, foil, and galvanized nickel. The heater will turn out to be very reliable and efficient, but the technological process itself turns out to be quite complicated to reproduce at home.
Carbon fiber heaters
A relatively new type of heating wire.Basically, these are several conductive carbon or carbon fiber strands wrapped in a heat-resistant silicone sheath. The internal contents of such a device are similar to the stuffing of a self-regulating cable, the only difference is that inside there is not a pair of metal conductors, but a carbon base.
The material is very lightweight, plastic, according to the assurances of the manufacturers, one wire can withstand 10,000 bends without breaking the insulation and heating core.
Carbon wall heating
Advantages of using a cable heater
At first glance, a homemade product made from a heating cable and porcelain tiles looks rather primitive and unconvincing.In fact, such a solution is very convenient for those who are primarily interested in the reliability and efficiency of heating. The pluses of a homemade cable heater include the following:
- Simplicity of manufacture, the simplest heaters can be assembled at home, as they say, on the knee;
- High heating efficiency. One tile is able to produce at least 200 W of thermal energy, which is comparable to the heat transfer of industrial ceramic, wall and ceiling heaters;
- Simple repair and maintenance.In order to repair the cable heater, it is enough just to determine the place of damage, cut and spliced the contacts.
But the most important advantage is the very high reliability of the heating cable. The absence of contact of the heating surface with air oxygen and water ensures a long service life of the heater. And even in the event of an emergency, for example, they dropped or broke a tile, nothing catastrophic will happen.
It will be possible to simply transfer the heating cable to a new ceramic base.
DIY self-regulating heating cable heater
The easiest way to make a homemade ceramic heater is from carbon wire. The price of a carbon fiber cable heater is about $ 1.2-1.5 per meter, it is much cheaper than self-regulating cable “heating pads”, the price of which reaches $ 8-10 per meter.
In addition, a carbon heater has a huge advantage over other types – the coefficient of thermal expansion is several times lower than that of metal heaters – thermal cables.
This means that a 3 mm diameter cord can be easily laid with a snake on the back of ceramic tiles and filled with epoxy or even ordinary alabaster.
Option for laying the carbon cord
In order to make a homemade heater, you first need to know the mains voltage, usually it is 220-230V. Accordingly, the heat dissipation of one linear meter will be 145-150 W. In order to make a 200 W tile, it is enough to cut 140-150 cm, which will cost almost a penny.
At low mains voltage, heat transfer drops
For comparison, a meter of a self-regulating thermal cable emits 25-30 watts. This means that a tile with a capacity of 200 watts will require at least 8 9 m of wire. All this mass will need to be laid on the back of the ceramic and fixed with heat-resistant silicone. Such ceramic tiles will cost more, but the main thing is that they will heat less efficiently, although they will save a certain amount of electricity. Especially if you leave the tile heater on for a long period of time.
A heater made of a heating cable and ceramic tiles is quite reliable and convenient to use. If you need to periodically quickly warm up the room, it is best to use a carbon fiber cable, with a mandatory output to the temperature controller. For constant heating of the room, you can use a self-regulating cable, it will cost more, but as a result, it will save some of the electricity.
90,000 Carbon Fiber Armor vs. Zombies
You can make carbon fiber armor, but it will be difficult.
Crafting Good Armor is not only the ability to shape the material in question, but also the ability to shape armor out of it.
First, you need to know what shape to make the armor. Blacksmithing is a skill that has evolved over millennia, and not something that a group of teenagers might easily discover is a post-apocalyptic boat shop. What parts of the armor are needed, how they are all connected, where to attach the belts, etc.
Of course, one of your heroes may have this knowledge, but even then it will not be easy to put it into practice.Each piece of armor had to be tailored to fit the person wearing it. In addition, each piece of each set of armor will need its own shape, which must be precisely shaped before the carbon fiber is applied over it. Assuming they have all the materials, and that the boat shop still has electricity during the zombie apocalypse, and that the group knows exactly how to make the armor and what all the parts should look like, this will take a while, perhaps at least at least weeks, if not months.
Other forms of armor would be better.
Zombies do not attack with swords or clubs. Zombies don’t even attack with their feet or fists. They have one weapon, biting, and they’re not particularly good at it.
Humans and zombies have short faces and weak jaw muscles. We are not used to using our teeth as weapons, and therefore our teeth make a terrible weapon. They lack strength and penetration. Instead of looking for something like carbon fiber, it would be wiser to build the armor out of something like leather or ballistic nylon.
These materials can easily withstand a bite and are difficult for zombies to rip with their hands. They are both fairly easy to repair, especially compared to carbon fiber, and will be easier to work with and move around with. The materials also do not require power tools to work, which is a plus compared to carbon fiber, in which such tools will be almost necessary for making molds.
I would prefer a double layer of ballistic nylon coated with urethane everywhere except the inside of the joints.It would be almost impervious to zombies and pretty easy to do. Luckily for your heroes, all of the materials for making such armor can be found in the boat shop, and ballistic nylon and other similar materials are currently used as a material for making sails in the racing world.
Homemade glass for a boat
How to make a windshield for a motor boat with your own handsModern glazing for motor boats made of monolithic polycarbonate.
How to make a windshield for a motor boat from polycarbonateFor glazing you need a new windshield made of monolithic polycarbonate. It is better that the model is solid or with a minimum of partitions.
Preliminary workThe glass structure is made according to the template of the old windshield. To do this, you need to:
- dismantle the old glazing;
- to outline its outlines on cardboard;
- Cut out a new glass template from cardboard and attach it to the boat in order to check in advance all inaccuracies, if any.
- Attach the template to the monolithic polycarbonate and cut out the glass. You can send the received template to us. Based on the template, the master will carve the wind whip himself. In this case, you will not need to overpay for the leftover material.
Mounting the windshield on a motor boat The finished glazing is inserted into a frame made of a metal profile, the lower part of which serves as a guide for mounting on a boat. Polycarbonate is attached to the profile frame using moisture resistant silicone glue – Q3-7098 (England) or Silliconemastic (China).Rubber seals provide additional tightness.
To install the frame on the boat, you will need drills (2; 4; 4.8 mm), screws, rivets, knife, tape measure, pencil, drill or screwdriver, rubber sealing cord.
Installation of the structure is carried out in stages together with a partner:
- First, dismantle the fasteners of the previous structure, cut off the upper part of the seat for the old glass. Adapters are riveted to the remaining base – aluminum angle plates with round cutouts for a new frame.The joint is treated with a sealant.
- Using a tape measure and a pencil, mark the locations of the side framing elements, the center point of the deck and the middle of the frame wicket.
- Glazing elements are set according to the control points. Between the wicket and the frontal part, the intervals are maintained within 3 mm.
- Drill holes with a diameter of 2 mm in the boat hull through the holes in the back of the sidewalls.
- Fix the frame with self-tapping screws at the control points, and then align, aligning the middle of the wicket with the center of the deck.
- Drill the rest of the holes in the body through the holes in the frame, screw in self-tapping screws. During installation, make sure that the hole for the wicket does not deform.
- Having finished fixing the frame, the groove with the self-tapping heads is closed with a rubber sealing cord.
- The wicket is reinforced with support posts, which are riveted.
Why monolithic polycarbonate is the best option for glazing a motor boat
- Polycarbonate is a high-strength thermoplastic.
- The material has high light transmission.
- Cut to fit any size, even the smallest.
- Possibility of shaping in any hot state.
- Light weight – there is no unnecessary load on the boat, maneuverability does not suffer.
- Does not break into fragments even in the event of an accident.
- Choice of transparent or tinted product.
Reasons for replacing the windshieldGlazing becomes unusable due to an abnormal situation, becomes cloudy or worn out from time to time, cracks from improper winter storage. Often, boat owners install new glass to improve comfort or to modernize the boat’s appearance (tuning).
If high-quality polycarbonate was used for the manufacture of the structure, and the assembly was carried out in compliance with the technical requirements, the windshield will correctly perform all functions.
Glass use on superyachts
Glass use on superyachts
2015-01-21By Marilyn Mower
Nauta Streamline 105 demonstrates the ambitious use of top glass on sailing yacht
Yes, there is much more glass on board today than ever before but glass is still a portal — access through a structure to the desired view, not the structure itself. Glass is a little cocky; glass is intriguing. There is no other barrier material that connects and separates at the same time.Glass is unique in nature: neither solid nor liquid, it is classified by scientists as an amorphous solid.
With tall, glass-fronted skyscrapers such as the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the Taiwan World Financial Center in Taipei or The Shard in London, it is no surprise that requests for increased use of glass are growing rapidly and furiously.
James O’Callaghan of Eckersley O’Callaghan Structural Design, who has designed some of the world’s most viewed glass designs – staircases that are an important feature of some Apple stores – says the ultimate goal is an all-glass structure.Its glass steps at the Apple store in New York, 1.8 meters long and less than five centimeters thick, are composed of four panels of a DuPont laminated product called SentryGlas Plus.
This is a sheet glass formed on an ionomer-based interlayer used for protection against hurricanes and bombs. SentryGlas tempered glass has been approved by Lloyd’s Register for exterior glass balustrades and windshields on the Fincantieri Ruby Princess and Azura cruise ships.While the ISO / Lloyd rule change in 2005 required a change from plain tempered glass to toughened laminated glass, the previous standard laminate, called PVB, was 10kg per square meter heavier than SentryGlas, saving 50 tonnes on Ruby Princess.
Glass cutout embedded in the outer shell of the superyacht by Azure Naval Architects
“With the growing demand for larger beach clubs, more natural light and a greater connection to the marine environment, last year we began a project to investigate the use of large glass surfaces on yachts, ”says Hugo van Wieringen of Azure Yacht Design and Naval Architecture in the Netherlands.“Structures with deck-to-ceiling windows are attractive, but can cause problems with the strength of the vessel.
“Our ultimate goal is to use more glass on the superstructure and hull; to blur the line between indoor and outdoor, ”he says. “Our research has shown that load-bearing glass is not recommended on a yacht due to the dynamic behavior of the sea route, so our focus has shifted to using glass with an alternative construction method.”
One of the few things that glass cannot do is redistribute the load.Forces must have a free load path through the glass to the structural supports. Even with tempered glass, it is important to minimize concentrated loads on the joints, so designers must separate the glass from the metal with a more gentle material such as silicone or neoprene. This research has led to amazing results.
Luis de Basto’s 90-meter design for Oceanco is a fully reflective superstructure for full-height panoramic views from the inside.
A glass research project at Azure has resulted in a concept that manifests itself as full glass walls on all superstructure decks, resulting in stunning panoramic views, especially when accompanied by glass railings, without compromising structural integrity.
In addition to the use of glass in the superstructure, the project focuses on the use of glass in the stern. For example, tender garages can be converted into beach clubs with swimming areas.
Azure, an independent Dutch design bureau with over 20 employees, plans to integrate the results of its research project into its own projects, but will also offer its expertise in this area to partner yacht designers and builders.
Glass can be used to form interesting columns, but so that it does not warp, it must be laminated into bundles – either rods glued together, or two laminated tubes of a small diameter, connected in series with epoxy resin in a continuous hollow cylinder, or several strips connected with resin.
Each of these three processes has been compression tested to withstand a load of over 3500 kg for a 2.9 nm column and a diameter of only 10 cm. Meanwhile, new glass rib technology allows glass to replace pillars in glass walls in ground construction. yachts lag far behind?
Glass cutout integrated with the outer skin of a superyacht from Azure Yacht Design
How far can designers go?
Glass provides superyacht architects with a virtually unlimited playing field.If used skillfully, it can significantly change the appearance of a yacht.
The architects and designers at Blohm + Voss Shipyards have had experience with A – from Martin Francis’ technical and naval architecture to Philippe Starck’s concept – and Palladium designed by Michael Leach Design.Francis was an F at RFR, a Paris-based engineering firm that invented the design of the glass wall with cables used in the glass pyramid of I. M. Pei in the Louvre.
“The way the composition of the glass components harmonizes with comfort, privacy and security challenges the expertise of the shipyard engineers,” says Matthias Witzel, naval architect at Blohm + Voss.“Recognizing the interdependence between installation site and position in relation to the ship, as well as internal and external effects that can affect glass construction, is fundamental.
Modern glass forming techniques allow architects to adjust the curvature of the glass to match the design of the ship. They have more freedom in designing the contours of the ship when it comes to glass. The design grabs and directs attention through the use of colored glass elements integrated flush with the exterior. “
Espen Oino used curved glass, gaining recognition in the Danish yacht Shooting Star
. the structural element was Eco, designed by Francis and launched by Blohm + Voss 20 years ago, Espen Oino was the designer of this project.
“We researched glass for about three years and were confident that we would get more strength from the geometry of the glass, like an egg,” Oino recalls. “Many so-called skilled professionals convinced the owner that he would need a lot of spare parts for these windows.This tempered glass with a unique shade and shape had to be made in a single pass. Spare glass has been stored in the yard for many years, and as far as I know, none of these windows have cracked. ‘
The irony of the project is that the manufacturer of the Eco convex windows was Flachglas, which means flat glass in German. …
“Glass is a great material, I love looking at it. But it’s heavy; you have to find a compromise. We are building a 63 meter track for Sunrise in Turkey and the superstructure is largely glass covered.The point is that there is no need to clean and paint the glass, ”says Oino. “You just can’t use it as a primary supporting structure, and classification societies are tightening up on glass balustrades and bastions.
A steel and glass structure on the aft terrace of the 73 meter Hot Lab project in Milan could be a greenhouse, gym or living room
“The quality of thicker glass structures that can be achieved gives designers the ability to solve a problem they haven’t yet considered.With traditional portholes, the hull window design is not yet fully understood. A 40 cm porthole is the standard approach. It’s time to tackle this issue and incorporate window design into the chassis design.
“In addition, the crew and guests, whose living quarters are often housed in the hull, need more natural light as well as the enjoyment of life that decorative glass can provide,” notes Witzel.
Problems with glass, which are now being solved, are heating and transmission of glare and UV rays.The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) says that heating, cooling and lighting in buildings accounts for 36% of US energy use. And despite the recession, or perhaps because of it, the US government is providing grants to companies that make “dynamic windows »- Panels that can change opacity to help reduce heat build-up and glare.
There are two ways to create dynamic windows or “smart glass”, as it is more commonly called in Europe: thermotropic and electrochromic.The first is passive, caused by heat from the sun; the latter requires an electric current to switch the glass from clear to tinted; it can be part of a building or ship management system or be individually controlled by the occupants. Both systems block UV rays.
SPD SmartGlass – used at ITV’s Daybreak studio – gives off its looks, warmth and glare at the flip of a switch.
In the field of thermotropy, Pleotint is one of the largest manufacturers in the United States.It uses a heat-sensitive film sandwiched between two or three glasses, and the outer glass can be tinted or clear.
The film darkens when heated, blocking up to 50% of visible light, and the secondary coating reduces heat transfer through the glass to the inside of the room. The glass always remains transparent. Since it is passive, only the sun side of the room darkens. Currently, the largest possible thermochromatic windows are 15.2 x 30.5 m.
In the electrochromic sector, Boeing chose its 787 Dreamliner – Sage Electrochromics from Minnesota.In November 2010, Saint-Gobain, the world’s largest construction products manufacturer and second largest glass manufacturer, pledged $ 80 million in a strategic investment in Sage to expand its Minnesota plant to allow all of its dynamic glass products to be produced there, albeit sold under the Quantum label in Europe.
Flachglas, one of Europe’s largest glass manufacturers in the transport sector, also works with an electrochromic glass called Infraselect, which turns blue to reduce visible light.
Dynamic windows are more expensive than regular windows: thermochromic windows cost about $ 15 per square foot, and electrochromic windows cost about $ 50 per square foot, although the price decreases as applications and performance grow.
This bold design from Nuvolari Lenard includes exterior glass lifts, a retractable glass helicopter hangar and an infinity pool.New York-based company
Research Frontiers recently developed a SmartGlass controller that allows infinite control of the amount of light.which can pass through glass or polycarbonate. Its SPD film contains randomly oriented microscopic particles. When there is no voltage, the particles absorb light and block its passage through the film. When an electrical voltage is applied, the particles align so that light can pass. By adjusting the voltage, users instantly adjust the amount of light and heat passing through the windows.
This allowed the creation of the world’s first car dynamic window called “Magic Sky Control” in the Mercedes-Benz SLK Roadster.At the touch of a button, the roof of this car goes from very dark to transparent.
Finally, while some designers are incorporating photovoltaic cells into glass roof structures, New Energy Technologies says their SolarWindow technology generates electricity.
The company has coated the transparent surface of a working prototype on a laboratory scale with newly discovered organic coatings that generate electricity, composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon.These nanotechnological coatings affect the electronic, electrochemical and optical properties of the window, creating a very transparent and aesthetic soft window tint that is retained by generating electricity.
Indeed, glass is the material of the future and will become an increasingly important component of yacht interior and exterior design as it provides the almost limitless design freedom and visual freedom that yacht owners crave..
S Glass | Design Net Boat
Forget the misunderstanding of concrete. What do you think you mean when you say, “A half CF and half E glass structure will be about half as rigid as a fully CF structure, and about twice as heavy”?I would appreciate an explanation of what I misunderstood about concrete. If you have a link to a concrete structure that has higher tensile strength than the steel it contains, I would love to see it.If you say that concrete is usually used for compressive loads, then I agree, but this has nothing to do with why S glass is not used more widely.
Are you amplifying the air?
Click to Expand …
If you want to make a structure containing both carbon fiber and E glass, of course, you need resin. Since resin will be needed, regardless of the choice of fiber, it is possible to study the effect of different fibers by considering the resin as constant. The role of the fiber is primarily to provide tensile strength and stiffness, so the tensile properties of the structure can be studied with the known but nearly constant approximation that the resin does not contribute to the tensile properties.The actual design will require a satisfactory quality resin, and the strength properties are largely dependent on satisfactory performance, but the resin is largely unrelated to stiffness.
Carbon fiber is commonly used as a reinforcing layer laminated between layers of E glass, with resin impregnating the entire laminate. I call this a parallel structure. When such a structure is loaded, the resin stretches, leaving the load on the fibers from which the glass stretches, leaving the main load on the carbon fiber.
The Young’s modulus of epoxy is 3.5, E-glass 81 and carbon fiber 230, so it looks like a jelly reinforced with rubber bands and rope: when you pull on it, the part that yields the least will take on the load ( string / carbon fiber).
Sometimes the carbon fiber is in the form of a pillar that ties together 2 large E glass elements. I call this serial to distinguish it from the aforementioned parallel case. In this case, you will get most of the deformation in the softer material, unless the E glass has a much larger cross section than carbon fiber (3 times).In most cases, such a structure requires careful design to bond the two materials together without stress concentration leading to gradual failure. Many designs solve this problem by using a lot of excess material in the area overlapping the joint.
If we ignore the shared overhead, the sequential mixed module is still ineffective. If we compare 1 meter of E-glass with half a meter of carbon fiber in series with half a meter of E-glass (with the same cross-sectional area), the mixed glass is slightly lighter (0.5 * 2.15 + 0.5 * 2.62) / 2.62 or 91%, again assuming the resin is the same for both. The serial design is also slightly stiffer by 1 – (0.5 / 81 + 0.5 / 230) / (1/81) or 32% less deflection. (This is a bit harsh on carbon fiber because it optimally uses 1/3 of the cross-sectional area for the carbon fiber piece. On the other hand, switching to glass S for all this, one can reduce the cross section to get the same weight as the series, and get 1 – 81 / (89 / (0.91 * 2.62 / 2.5) or 13% less deflection (compared to original E glass). The overhead of linking and joining is more complex than I am going to investigate at the moment, but by necessity it will; Whether it eats up all the winnings depends on the details of the particular application. It’s not that carbon fiber is inferior, but that S glass is MUCH cheaper than carbon fiber and it seems like it should be a better choice than E glass in any application where both price and performance are important. …
If performance is not an issue for you, the E glass is sure to suit you. If you are on an unlimited budget, then carbon fiber is definitely a good choice.
I imagined that, like me, most real-world applications for most people relate to both.
Neopets – Glass Bottom Boat ToursGlass Bottom Boat Tours
Many neopets love to ride the world famous glass bottom boat.It’s not nearly as scary as a trip to the Deserted Fairgrounds, but it’s an enjoyable way to have fun. You can see all the wonders of Kiko Lake without even having to wet your coat!
|The boat departs once an hour from 10 am to sunset. Each side of the boat is lined with six plush green seats and the front of the boat can accommodate two other passengers as well as a guide.|
|Your knowledgeable guide will take you through Lake Kiko’s most magnificent attractions, including beautiful corals and algae.gardens, some of the oldest and most magnificent buildings on Lake Kiko; and Lake Kiko’s main street. with its quirky gift shops.|
|The use of cameras is highly encouraged. The inhabitants of Lake Kiko take great pride in their impeccable cleanliness. a small village and find it amusing that people actually flock to take pictures of their homes.|
Once you have finished your tour, you can always hire a pedal boat or sample some delicious homemade treats from the pastry shop on the beach.If you like adventure, just swim to the bottom of the lake, where there are many more places to explore.
What Homemade Weapon Could Destroy an Apache Helicopter In Flight?
Okay, I probably shouldn’t talk about this … Let’s take a look at the plane as a whole. A fixed-wing aircraft can fly easily and is not as prone to breakdown as a helicopter. This is because of the moving parts. I fly a fixed wing airplane and a helicopter.
The rotor is a rotating wing, because of this, any object that destroys the rotor, even a small one, can cause harmonic imbalance. This can wobble the plane to pieces. I saw a small plastic bag of groceries stuck on the tip of the helicopter’s propeller and they landed on the spot. They had to get the inspector out to make sure the imbalance wouldn’t hurt.
Therefore, if you made or used something that could get caught in the rotor, such as rope, wire, balloon or the like, you could cause damage.I almost took off on the released balloons and it could kill me. Especially if they looked like a random flock and not one group. I will not add other examples, I think this explains enough.
This small change is related to the answer. I watched the rotor cut through the tail of the double cessna like butter. However, thin cables and lightweight things seem to wreak havoc.
I also dynamically balance the blades. I only used a mist of paint to smooth out the blade sets.I also wax the rotor blades to suppress vibration. This is for two reasons. One is that bugs that appear on the leading edge cause slight changes and vibration. But blades can lose lift from contamination. They are just a rotating wing. Aircraft lose ip up to 30% lift from ice formation on the leading edge. I measured the change in lift from the cleaning blades. I regularly fly with two sets of rotors, one is a 28ft extruded aluminum with an 8 “cord. The other is a 28ft carbon fiber with a 9” cord.They rotate between 325 and 450 rpm depending on the load.