African at Heart | Bread for the World
African at Heart
November 22, 2019
By Lacey Johnson
Seventy-five Pan African women of faith gathered in Washington, D.C., in November to advocate for global nutrition on Capitol Hill and empower one another to “re-right” the narrative of Pan-African people around the world.
The three-day summit, themed “African at Heart,” also observed the 400th anniversary of the arrival of enslaved African peoples to Jamestown, Virginia.
“It was timely to bring Pan African Women of Faith together to advocate for global nutrition and to remember the transatlantic slave trade in 1619 during out spiritual pilgrimage,” said Rev. Dr. Angelique Walker-Smith, senior associate for Pan African and Orthodox Church Engagement at Bread for the World.
She added: “They are disproportionately affected by global nutrition concerns and related intersectional issues linked to historic root causes. They are the children or kindred of the ancestors of the transatlantic slave trade in some way. ”
The gathering kicked off with a spiritual pilgrimage beginning at the National Museum of African American History and Culture, followed by a visit to the home of Fredrick Douglass, who escaped slavery in 1838 to become a national leader of the abolitionist movement. The trip closed with prayers at the foot of the Martin Luther King Jr. monument.
“The pilgrimage was an eye-opener. It was really revealing and inspiring for me,” said Princess Sekyere, who founded a nonprofit that works to empower women and girls in her home country of Ghana. “I’m so excited to be in D.C. This city is very symbolic of the American story.”
Sekyere was among the numerous women who traveled internationally to be at the summit, which welcomed attendees from Angola, Congo, Brazil, Bahamas, Nigeria, Ghana, and cities all over the United States.
Paying homage to Pan-African women changemakers
The first day of the summit concluded with dinner, prayers, and presentations at Ebenezer United Methodist Church—an historic Washington landmark that has hosted African American icons like Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and W. E.B. Du Bois. The evening included a presentation paying homage to Pan African women changemakers from around the world, as well as prayers honoring ancestors that came before.
“Africans should take pride in their heritage and take charge of their lives,” said Ann Kioi, the programmes development and fundraising officer at All Africa Conference of Churches in Kenya, speaking from the pulpit. “This is what makes me feel that I am an African at heart. I share the same destiny, and I celebrate my diversity as an African.”
The summit was hosted by the Pan African Women of Faith of Bread for the World, Pan African Women’s Ecumenical Empowerment Network (PAWEEN) of the World Council of Churches, and the African Union in partnership with the All Africa Conference of Churches.
Women broke into groups to visit the offices of nearly a dozen House and Senate members on the second day of the summit. They urged lawmakers to support H.Res.189 and S.Res.260, which recognize the importance of continued United States leadership to accelerate global progress against maternal and child malnutrition.
They also chose to wear black as part of a “Thursdays in Black” campaign launched by the World Council of Churches to draw attention to the problem of gender-based violence.
“This issue is so important,” said Tiauna Webb, a first-time summit attendee from Chicago. “Not only are we trying to push for equitable treatment of women around the world, but we’re also embodying it here.”
A reception that evening featured a powerful speech by Rep. Jahanna Hayes (D-CT), as well as a surprise visit from Rep. Alma Adams (D-NC).
“At the point where I couldn’t stand on my own, I relied on WIC. I relied on food stamps. I relied on lunch for my kids,” said Hayes, who, in January, became the first African American woman from Connecticut to serve in Congress. “And I know, as a Christian, that now I have a responsibility to do the same thing for somebody else.”
‘Wanting a better world’
On the last day of the summit, attendees gathered at Bread’s headquarters for a special visit with Ertharin Cousin, a former United Nations ambassador who served as executive director of the World Food Programme from 2012 to 2017.
Cousin urged the women to use their collective voices to ensure people have access to nutritious food, whether it is in Sub-Saharan Africa or South Carolina.
“Embracing your theme, African at Heart, demands a shared vision of what is possible on both sides of the pond,” she said. “There is nothing shameful, unrealistic, or naïve about wanting a better world.”
Before departing, the women broke into groups to exchange ideas and formulate plans of action going forward. A range of recommendations inclusive of a faith-based advocacy agenda related to ending hunger and poverty emerged.
“We are one, no matter our differences,” said Kari Cooke, a deaf summit attendee and longtime advocate for disability rights. “Just sharing that with black women all over the world is very powerful and reminds us that we are not alone, and we will never be alone. We will continue to do this work.”
Lacey Johnson is a freelance writer and photographer in Washington, D.C.
Seventy-five Pan African women of faith gathered in Washington, D. C. to advocate for global nutrition and empower one another to “re-right” the narrative of Pan-African people. The three-day summit, themed “African at Heart,” also observed the 400th anniversary of the arrival of enslaved African peoples to Jamestown, Virginia. Photo: Howard Wilson for Bread for the World.
The Boy with the African Heart
Written by Nicholas Wright and Robert Jones
Directed by Charles Sturridge
After bringing her deteriorating brother Richard a bowl of porridge, Grace Makutsi rushes off to the No. 1 Ladies’ Detective Agency. As she arrives at the Kgale Hill shopping center, chickens peck in front of still-closed store fronts and a young worker unlocks Rra Sesupeng’s Treadwell Shoes to discover the shop has been robbed.
“I don’t mean that you are going nowhere.” At the Agency, after sharing an odd rhyming letter from a victim of “the glass ceiling,” Mma Ramotswe puts her foot in her mouth, stating that but for her father’s inheritance she too would be just another woman sitting around someone else’s office. Realizing how that might sound to her secretary, that she assures Grace that she didn’t mean she was going nowhere.
As an angry commotion fills the parking lot, the two women dash out to find an irate Rra Sesupeng blaming his forgetful employee for the shoe shop’s break-in. When the beaten-down assistant pleads his innocence, Precious, deeply offended by Sesupeng’s brutality and quick judgment, decides to investigate the crime scene. Much to the amusement of onlookers, the No. 1 Ladies’ Detective concludes the odd theft of three shoes from three different pairs and a small unlocked window prove children were the culprits. Recommending he install some bars on the window, she reprimands the mean-spirited shop owner for abusing his hard-working assistant.
“We think that we will get over the pain but it never happens.” As Mma Ramotswe and Mma Makutsi evacuate the office over-run by a brood of chickens, an American woman clad in expensive designer wear arrives by taxi. A tightly-wound Andrea Curtin wants to find her son who she fears is no longer alive. An idealistic Stanford graduate, Michael Curtin had come to Botswana to work on a farming commune and mysteriously disappeared 10 years ago. Now that her husband has died, a still-grief stricken Curtin needs closure to start a new life.
When Mma Ramotswe introduces Mma Makutsi as her “secretary,” Mrs. Curtin comments how in the States people no longer use that archaic term – instead staff workers are now assistants or associate executives. To Precious’ consternation, Grace loves the more modern and loftier job titles.
Mrs. Curtin’s son wanted to change the world and thought the greening of the desert was a great way to create a self-sufficient populace. He thrilled his parents with beautiful letters about finding his African heart.
When Michael was initially reported missing, she and her husband Jack jumped on a plane to get to the bottom of things. They talked to many people from the farm, even hiring a bushman tracker named Jo Jo. Despite their exhaustive efforts, what happened to their cherished son remained a total mystery. Michael had simply gone to bed one night and was missing the next day. Eventually, a devastated mother and father gave up their search and went home.
“A stale inquiry is unrewarding for all concerned.” Mma Ramotswe decides they must go to the farm, assuring the skeptical American that there will still be echoes of what happened and if they are sensitive enough they will learn something from what remains.
Using common sense, Grace cracks the phone book to track down former commune member Oswald Ranta, now a professor at the University of Botswana. But there is no need to look up Rebecca Soloi because Mma Makutsi already knows the nurse works at a free clinic in Moshupa. “How?” asks Precious. “Coincidence,” is her employee’s vague reply.
On the drive out to the farm, Andrea Curtin shares with Mma Ramotswe her decision of selling the family’s successful business to attend college for African Studies. Just like her son. Still new to Botswana’s generous ways, Curtin wonders if the two women will be safe picking up a little old man hitchhiking. Grateful for the ride, their departing boom-box-toting passenger points them in the direction of Mma Potsane who he knows used to work for the commune.
At the office, Grace calls Rebecca Soloi asking her not to mention her sick brother when she meets Mma Ramostwe.
“Oh, I’m sorry my sister.” After Mma Ramotswe makes the traditional Botswana introductions, the former housekeeper says she remembers the missing American. Welcoming her visitors to her somewhat meager living situation, Mma Potsane graciously makes them a bowl of maize-meal. Cheerfully, she encourages the detective to remarry, suggesting that policemen, mechanics or ministers make for the best husbands.
At the remains of a once flourishing farm, Mma Potsane suggests it would have been easier to grow grass on your head then to try to grow vegetation in the desert. Privately to Mme Ramotswe, she theorizes that Michael had been carried off by the Kalahari winds.
Inside what was once the medical facility, where Mrs. Curtin remembers nurse Rebecca Soloi being one of the first people to recognize the country’s spreading AIDS scourge, they find a newspaper clipping with a photo of the commune members. A happy Michael stands next to Clara Sedibe, a striking young woman unknown to Andrea Curtin. Mma Potsane points out a recently-made fire, as both she and Mma Ramotswe sense in the winds a spirit that can’t get away.
On the way back, as Africa begins to seep into her being, Andrea marvels at the sight two giraffes fighting to prove their manhood.
At JLB’s for dinner, Precious discusses the case. It’s obvious from the photograph that Clara and Michael had a connection. JLB opines it wise for Precious not to mention the winds because although Americans may be very smart, they do not understand spirits. His rather surly housekeeper rudely clears the plates. According to JLB, she’s jealous of Precious. When Mma Ramotswe states she’s not got a reason to be, Rra Matekoni simply replies, “I know. “
After Precious puts the word out that she wishes to speak to Jo Jo, Grace Makutsi asks her boss for a promotion. She doesn’t want more money, just a more fitting title. One that indicates she does some detective work in addition to her secretarial duties. But the aspiring assistant detective’s query is interrupted when BK bursts in with a wardrobe emergency. Only after Precious fixes his pants and drives off does he realize his salon has been broken into. With Mma Ramotswe on the road, Grace investigates. The children have struck again and in her exuberance to prove her case, she breaks off the window latch.
At the Moshupa Clinic, nurse Rebecca Soloi speaks fondly of Mma Makutsi’s great heart before offering some cake to a very pleased Precious Ramotswe. Ten years ago, Mma Soloi’s instincts made her suspicious of Oswald Ranta but now she’s not so sure. Michael definitely had feelings for Clara and they both disappeared that night. So, maybe Precious is looking for two people but she has a feeling Michael Curtin is alive. On her annual trip to her family, she often stops by the abandoned farm. This last time, she too had found the fresh remnants of a fire but also this piece of wood with “Michael Curtin” burnt into it.
“Does he know if the body is man or woman?” Jo Jo and his granddaughter Doris have been waiting for Mma Ramotswe under an acacia tree. With Doris translating a remorseful Jo Jo says he cannot live with his lie anymore. He had sensed a body buried in an ant hill there. He knows he should’ve told the grieving Curtins but Oswald Ranta threatened harm to him and his family if he said anything. As far as who is lying there, the bushman tells the detective she must dig to find the answer.
Precious’ concern that Clara, and not Michael, might actually be the victim pushes her to ask if Andrea would be able to forgive whoever it is that caused such grief instead of seeking justice’s retribution. Mma Ramotswe explains her country’s traditional belief that if a wrongdoer is truly sorry then the wronged must try to find it in their hearts to forgive them.
At the University, Dr. Ranta’s receptionist is packing up on her last day on the job. With very little prodding, the outraged receptionist reveals that Dr. Ranta slept with her cousin’s daughter in exchange for showing her a final examination. In fact, she sees many female students slink in and out of his office and nobody ever says anything of his sexual harrassment. As the receptionist takes her Agency leaflet, Precious suggests only one person need to tell the truth to stop Dr. Ranta’s abuses.
Inside his office, an empowered Mma Ramotswe, loaded with dirt on the arrogant professor, threatens to expose him if he refuses explain what happened to Michael and Clara. Assured she will not turn him in, the small-minded man states he and Clara had been sleeping together before the idealistic American showed up. Ranta’s suspicions that Michael had stolen Clara’s heart were confirmed when the couple returned from a trip up north where they had gotten married. Betrayed and angry, Ranta violently confronted Clara, but Michael came to her rescue. The two men scuffled before Michael chased Ranta out into the black night. Suddenly, all went quiet until Clara started screaming. Her husband had broken his neck falling into an unseen ditch and died. Deciding that the truth would not be believed, Ranta buried Michael’s body in an anthill. Finally, Ranta reluctantly admits he knows Clara is now running a small hotel up near Maun.
On her way out, a triumphant Precious finds the receptionist tacking up a composite of Dr. Ranta’s picture and her Agency leaflet offering help with sexual harassment cases.
“I am Michael Curtin.” Having gotten directions from a lady selling African crafts at the side of the road, Mma Ramotswe finds Clara Curtin and her son Michael Curtin at the Kwane Hotel. Clara had feared telling the crazed Ranta that she was pregnant. Knowing Ranta would try to blame her for her husband’s death, she ran, until settling at the hotel. When young Michael started asking about his daddy, she took him down to the farm, made a fire, and talked and laughed just like she and her husband had once done. Desperate to make amends for hiding the truth, she agrees to tell her husband’s story to his mother.
At the Agency, a relieved Clara emerges from her meeting with Andrea Curtin. At peace with what happened to her son, her grandson Michael gives her a small traditional basket. Explaining the woven pattern represents the tears of the giraffe. “Everyone in the world has something to give. But the giraffe has only his tears. They are all he’s got.”
“There is no one on this great continent who I would rather have as an assistant.” When Precious congratulates Grace on her longed-for promotion, a tearful Mma Matuksi feels she in not worthy of the job. She’s feels a coward for not telling Mma Ramotswe of her sick brother. She was ashamed of his disease. But Precious, moved by Grace’s sense of responsibility, tells her assistant detective how brave she’s been.
At the cemetery with her newly-found family, an unburdened Andrea Curtin, adorned in African styles and colors, buries her son. Then Mma Ramotswe takes Mma Makutsi by the hand to her own son’s grave.
African Caribbean background and heart health
Professor Nishi Chaturvedi tells Senior Cardiac Nurse Christopher Allen how your ethnic origin can affect your heart and circulatory health
People of African Caribbean heritage make up 1–2 per cent of the UK population, concentrated in major cities, especially London and Birmingham. If you’re of African Caribbean heritage, you may have a higher risk of some heart and circulatory diseases.
Explanations for this are unclear. A strong contender is that African Caribbean communities tend to be in more deprived areas and deprivation can make it harder for a person to have a healthy lifestyle. Genetic differences may also be having an effect, and evidence for this is still being researched.
It’s never too early or too late to make lifestyle changes, such as losing weight and being more physically active.
Even changes made in older age can reduce your risk.
How is your heart health risk different if you have an African Caribbean background?
African Caribbean people have a much higher risk of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and stroke, but a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This is very unusual – normally, high blood pressure and diabetes increase your risk of CHD. This disassociation isn’t yet understood, but we know that on average, cholesterol levels are much better for those of African Caribbean heritage than they are for white Europeans, and this seems to offer some protection against CHD.
If we can understand this mechanism, we could then apply it to other populations. There is evidence that African Caribbean children have some insulin resistance (an early diabetes warning sign) and healthier cholesterol levels, but no difference in blood pressure from the white European population. Higher blood pressure tends to emerge in their teenage years.
There are gender differences, too. African Caribbean men have about a 50 per cent lower risk of CHD than white European men, but for women, the risk is only about 25 per cent lower. This is partly because obesity rates are higher in African Caribbean women than men.
Do some medications affect African Caribbean people differently?
There’s strong evidence that African Caribbean people respond differently to blood pressure medications. This is reflected in the official guidelines from NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). Usually, one of the first drugs considered for high blood pressure would be an ACE inhibitor, but African Caribbean people have been shown to respond less well to this. NICE guidance suggests calcium channel blockers, as these have been shown to be more effective in lowering blood pressure in those of African Caribbean heritage.
Early data from the SABRE study [see box below] suggests that blood pressure control is worse in ethnic minorities, but it’s not clear why that is. It may be that the right medication, or a sufficient dose, isn’t being prescribed, or that medications are not always taken, but we need more research to find this out. When someone doesn’t have symptoms and doesn’t feel unwell, it is difficult for them to accept that they have to take medications, possibly for the rest of their life. It’s a very hard message to get across, especially when medications can cause side effects.
What about attitudes to body shape and exercise?
In African Caribbean communities larger female body shapes are more likely to be seen as something to aspire to. There is therefore less pressure for women to lose weight. Statistics also suggest that women and older people are less likely to exercise. Due to a large number of people in African Caribbean communities being overweight, the issue is normalised.
This is also the case with type 2 diabetes. Because many people are living with the condition and seem fine, it’s seen as inevitable and not taken seriously.
Access to physical activity options is also an issue for those living in deprived areas, where there may be few facilities to exercise safely in a comfortable environment.
Are there other differences in lifestyle risk factors?
There is evidence to suggest African Caribbean people may be more sensitive to the effects of salt on blood pressure. The biology of high blood pressure appears to be different; it’s not that African Caribbean people consume more salt – across the UK, we all eat too much. On the positive side, people of African Caribbean origin tend to smoke less than the overall UK population and drink less alcohol.
CV Nishi Chaturvedi
- Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at University College London
- Worked on some of the largest studies of heart and circulatory disease and diabetes in the UK ethnic minority community
- Member of the BHF Board of Trustees
Much of what we know about ethnic origin and disease risk comes from the Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) study. This covered white European, South Asian and African-Caribbean people aged 40–69 in 1988–91. They’ve been followed for 25 years, funded by the BHF, Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council and Diabetes UK. The focus of investigation, led by Professor Nishi Chaturvedi, is now health in older age.
East African Heart Rhythm Project
EAST AFRICAN HEART RHYTHM PROJECT
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The data subject has objected to processing pursuant to Article 21(1) of the GDPR pending the verification whether the legitimate grounds of the controller override those of the data subject.
If one of the aforementioned conditions is met, and a data subject wishes to request the restriction of the processing of personal data stored by the Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V., he or she may at any time contact any employee of the controller. The employee of the Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V. will arrange the restriction of the processing.
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Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator, to receive the personal data concerning him or her, which was provided to a controller, in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format. He or she shall have the right to transmit those data to another controller without hindrance from the controller to which the personal data have been provided, as long as the processing is based on consent pursuant to point (a) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR or point (a) of Article 9(2) of the GDPR, or on a contract pursuant to point (b) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR, and the processing is carried out by automated means, as long as the processing is not necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in the controller.
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Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to object, on grounds relating to his or her particular situation, at any time, to processing of personal data concerning him or her, which is based on point (e) or (f) of Article 6(1) of the GDPR. This also applies to profiling based on these provisions.
The Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V. shall no longer process the personal data in the event of the objection, unless we can demonstrate compelling legitimate grounds for the processing which override the interests, rights and freedoms of the data subject, or for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.
If the Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V. processes personal data for direct marketing purposes, the data subject shall have the right to object at any time to processing of personal data concerning him or her for such marketing. This applies to profiling to the extent that it is related to such direct marketing. If the data subject objects to the Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V. to the processing for direct marketing purposes, the Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V. will no longer process the personal data for these purposes.
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If the decision (1) is necessary for entering into, or the performance of, a contract between the data subject and a data controller, or (2) it is based on the data subjects explicit consent, the Herzschrittmacher für Ostafrika e.V. shall implement suitable measures to safeguard the data subjects rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, at least the right to obtain human intervention on the part of the controller, to express his or her point of view and contest the decision.
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Each data subject shall have the right granted by the European legislator to withdraw his or her consent to processing of his or her personal data at any time.
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Art. 6(1) lit. a GDPR serves as the legal basis for processing operations for which we obtain consent for a specific processing purpose. If the processing of personal data is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party, as is the case, for example, when processing operations are necessary for the supply of goods or to provide any other service, the processing is based on Article 6(1) lit. b GDPR. The same applies to such processing operations which are necessary for carrying out pre-contractual measures, for example in the case of inquiries concerning our products or services. Is our company subject to a legal obligation by which processing of personal data is required, such as for the fulfillment of tax obligations, the processing is based on Art. 6(1) lit. c GDPR. In rare cases, the processing of personal data may be necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject or of another natural person. This would be the case, for example, if a visitor were injured in our company and his name, age, health insurance data or other vital information would have to be passed on to a doctor, hospital or other third party. Then the processing would be based on Art. 6(1) lit. d GDPR. Finally, processing operations could be based on Article 6(1) lit. f GDPR. This legal basis is used for processing operations which are not covered by any of the abovementioned legal grounds, if processing is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by our company or by a third party, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data. Such processing operations are particularly permissible because they have been specifically mentioned by the European legislator. He considered that a legitimate interest could be assumed if the data subject is a client of the controller (Recital 47 Sentence 2 GDPR).
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The criteria used to determine the period of storage of personal data is the respective statutory retention period. After expiration of that period, the corresponding data is routinely deleted, as long as it is no longer necessary for the fulfillment of the contract or the initiation of a contract.
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We clarify that the provision of personal data is partly required by law (e.g. tax regulations) or can also result from contractual provisions (e.g. information on the contractual partner). Sometimes it may be necessary to conclude a contract that the data subject provides us with personal data, which must subsequently be processed by us. The data subject is, for example, obliged to provide us with personal data when our company signs a contract with him or her. The non-provision of the personal data would have the consequence that the contract with the data subject could not be concluded. Before personal data is provided by the data subject, the data subject must contact any employee. The employee clarifies to the data subject whether the provision of the personal data is required by law or contract or is necessary for the conclusion of the contract, whether there is an obligation to provide the personal data and the consequences of non-provision of the personal data.
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Why do African-Americans face higher risk of heart disease? | Heart
When I see one of my heart patients, I keep in mind that this individual is part of a family, part of a community.
As a community, African-Americans have higher rates of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, and diabetes – the four major risk factors for heart disease. For instance, 57 percent of adult African-American women are obese, compared to 34 percent of non-Hispanic white women, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Teasing out the reasons for these risk factor differences is difficult. If everyone in a family has high blood pressure, does that mean it’s genetic, or does that mean everyone in the family is leading a similar lifestyle?
Certainly, genetics appears to play some role. Some studies suggest that African-Americans are particularly sensitive to salt, which can lead to high blood pressure. But much of the difference is likely lifestyle, which is influenced by a variety of elements, including socioeconomic status, education, environment, stress levels, culture, and history.
As an example of how history can affect health, let’s focus on weight for a second. Research from UT Southwestern has shown that many people in the African-American community, particularly older individuals, believe that a heavier weight is a healthier weight. Historically, there were good reasons to believe this. Having extra weight could feasibly offer protection against things people used to be susceptible to, such as infectious disease and not having enough food.
But we Americans aren’t dying excessively from infectious diseases these days. Now we’re dying of heart disease, and we need to change our perception of what healthy looks like – literally.
Role of economics, stress
Economics and stress levels often play a role in high blood pressure. Fresh fruits and vegetables may not be readily available to those with limited access, and it takes time, money, and resources to lead a healthy lifestyle. Additionally, prepackaged foods and fast foods are filled with excessive salt, which adds to the difficulty of controlling blood pressure. Unfortunately, this usually means it will take multiple medications to achieve adequate control.
Cultural norms can affect even how we exercise. Building up your biceps does not help protect your heart. Although resistance training is important, exercise should be cardiovascular. You’ve got to be able to walk a mile, run a mile.
If you are an African-American and heart disease runs in your family, I urge you to see a general physician or preventive cardiologist in your 20s to discuss a healthy weight for you, to make sure your blood pressure levels are normal, and to make a plan for healthy eating and exercising.
To request an appointment at UT Southwestern, please fill out and submit the Request an Appointment form or call 214-645-8300.
Why Are African-Americans at Greater Risk for Heart Disease?
Heart disease has haunted generations of Robin Drummond’s family. “I have a
family history of
heart disease on both sides,” says the 55-year-old African-American and
resident of Hammond, La. “I’ve had uncles, aunts, and grandparents who’ve died
heart attacks and heart disease, and two of my mother’s brothers died four
months apart. One had a heart attack in church, and four months later, one had
a heart attack in the post office.”
When Drummond’s father succumbed to heart disease at age 50,
she was shaken. “Particularly when my dad died, I wanted to make sure that I
was OK,” she says. In 2002, she went to her doctor for testing and learned that
her heart was mildly enlarged, placing her at risk for
heart failure. Drummond, a registered dietitian, took strenuous measures to
ward off trouble. But not all African-Americans are aware of the danger.
African-Americans and Heart Failure
In a startling 2009 study published in the New England
Journal of Medicine, researchers found that African-Americans have a much
higher incidence of heart failure than other races, and it develops at younger
ages. Heart failure means that the heart isn’t able to pump blood as well as it
Before age 50, African-Americans’ heart failure rate is 20
times higher than that of whites, according to the study. Four risk factors are
the strongest predictors of heart failure:
high blood pressure (also called hypertension), chronic
kidney disease, being
overweight, and having low levels of HDL, the “good”
cholesterol. Three-fourths of African-Americans who develop heart failure
blood pressure by age 40.
African-Americans and Health Care
To prevent heart failure and other heart disease, it’s crucial
to treat risk factors successfully, says Anne L. Taylor, MD, a professor of
medicine at New York Presbyterian Hospital and vice dean of academic affairs at
Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. But, compared with
their white peers, African-Americans often have less access to health care, she
says. Not only are they less likely to visit a doctor and get routine
screenings, but they’re less likely to be referred to specialists.
“African-Americans with heart failure are more likely to be
taken care of in a primary care practice,” Taylor says, “even though the data
would suggest that the best care — the care that decreases hospitalizations
and improves mortality rates — happens in cardiologists’ offices.”
Further, some African-Americans “tend to see illness and disease as the main
reason for health care, so you don’t go to the physician for preventive
medicine — you go when you’re sick,” says Keith C. Ferdinand, MD, FACC, FAHA.
Ferdinand is a clinical professor in the cardiology division at Emory
University and chief science officer of the Association of Black Cardiologists.
“When are you sick? When you have symptoms:
chest pain, shortness of breath, swelling,
dizziness. By the time people manifest the signs and symptoms of
cardiovascular disease, they have already had that disease present for one,
two, or even three decades.”
Treating Heart Disease Risk Factors
Drummond’s father, who had health insurance but not a physician
he would go to on a regular basis, provides a cautionary tale about why
African-Americans must maintain a consistent relationship with a good doctor
who knows their medical history and provides preventive care, screenings, and
referrals to specialists.
“He had a leaking valve, and it didn’t get replaced as soon as
it should have,” Drummond says. “The doctor told us it should have been
replaced six or seven years earlier. When he started having swelling in his
legs and shortness of breath, that’s when he went to the hospital.” Doctors
diagnosed the leaking valve and performed surgery, but “it was too late for
him,” Drummond says. He died a few weeks after his surgery.
Besides a strong family history, Drummond has other risk
factors for heart disease. She was diagnosed with high blood pressure at age 28
type 2 diabetes about five years ago. After years of unsuccessfully trying
to control her blood pressure with diet and
exercise, she now takes medications.
She’s under a doctor’s regular care, and she stays fit and eats
healthy foods. “I work hard. I go to the gym to help control my hypertension
diabetes. I take the meds, I watch my sodium intake, and I work at keeping
weight within normal range.” So far, she says, she’s avoided heart
What to Ask Your Doctor About Heart Disease
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart failure.
Work with your doctor to keep it in check by asking the following
- What is my risk for developing high blood pressure?
- How can I limit my risk and help prevent it?
- What are the symptoms?
- What does my blood pressure reading actually mean?
- Am I taking any medicines that make me more susceptible?
- What medications are available if I have high blood pressure?
- What are the benefits and side effects?
African Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke
Heart disease is the No. 1 killer for all Americans, and stroke is also a leading cause of death. As frightening as those statistics are the risks of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans.
The good news is, African-Americans can improve their odds of preventing and beating these diseases by understanding the risks and taking simple steps to address them.
“Get checked, then work with your medical professional on your specific risk factors and the things that you need to do to take care of your personal health,” said Winston Gandy, M.D., a cardiologist and chief medical marketing officer with the Piedmont Heart Institute in Atlanta and a volunteer with the American Heart Association.
High blood pressure, overweight and obesity and diabetes are common conditions that increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Here’s how they affect African-Americans and some tips to lower your risk.
High Blood Pressure
The prevalence of high blood pressure in African-Americans is the highest in the world. Also known as hypertension, high blood pressure increases your risk of heart disease and stroke, and it can cause permanent damage to the heart before you even notice any symptoms, that’s why it is often referred to as the “silent killer.” Not only is HBP more severe in blacks than whites, but it also develops earlier in life.
Your healthcare provider can help you find the right medication, and lifestyle changes can also have a big impact.
“You can’t do anything about your family history, but you can control your blood pressure,” Dr. Gandy said.
If you know your blood pressure is high, keeping track of changes is important. Check it regularly, and notify your doctor of changes in case treatment needs to be adjusted, Dr. Gandy said. Even if you don’t have high blood pressure, he recommends checking it every two years.
“The No. 1 thing you can do is check your blood pressure regularly,” he said.
African-Americans are disproportionately affected by obesity. Among non-Hispanic blacks age 20 and older, 69 percent of men and 82 percent of women are overweight or obese.
If you’re carrying extra weight, Dr. Gandy suggests focusing on the quality of your diet throughout the day, not just during mealtime.
“You can add hundreds of calories to your diet just on snacking,” he said. Choosing wise snacks can be part of a healthy diet.
Dr. Gandy knows all too well how challenging it can be to lose weight. After years of prescribing diet changes for his patients, he decided it was time to follow his own advice by walking at least 30 minutes a day and eliminating sugary drinks and desserts. The hard work paid off. Dr. Gandy lost 25 pounds in six months and feels much better.
He also suggests limiting red meat in favor of lean meats such as chicken or fish, and watching portions on carbohydrate-heavy foods, such as pasta and rice. Look for whole grain options instead.
“Make vegetables the main part of the meal and fill up with those rather than other foods,” he said.
Dr. Gandy cautioned that even things that are healthy can pack in calories.
“If you’re thirsty, drink water, not juice,” Dr. Gandy said.
Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, and African-Americans are more likely to have diabetes than non-Hispanic whites.
Type 2 diabetes is treatable and preventable, but many people don’t recognize early warning signs. Or, they avoid seeking treatment out of fear of complications.
Dr. Gandy said many people associate the disease with older relatives who were diagnosed too late or had poorly-controlled diabetes and suffered preventable complications such as blindness, amputations, or renal failure.
For diabetes and other heart disease risks, regular exercise also plays a key role – both in strengthening the cardiovascular system and burning extra calories.
Aim for at least 30 minutes of walking a day, Dr. Gandy said.
“That’s enough to get the heart rate up,” he said. “There’s no need to do a marathon.” The American Heart Association recommends that adults get at least 150 minutes of moderately intense or at least 75 minutes of vigorous physical (or a combination of both) each week.
90,000 African deer – 58 photos
Berber deer in Africa
Berber deer in Africa
Pygmy antelope (Neotragus pygmaeus)
Deer and deer difference
Plant and animal world
Plant and animal world
Sika deer couture
South Africa nature animals
Asian sika deer
Crimean Fallow Deer
African Impala Antelope
Fauna of Abkhazia
25 Sika 26 Deer
Sika 26 Deer
Tanzania National Park Antelopes
North American White-Tailed Deer
Impala antelope anatomy
Deer runs beautifully
Berber deer in Africa
Dick-Dick antelope flock
Berber deer in Africa
Sausage tree and antelopes
South American Savannah Deer
Wildlife with Deer
Bongo woodland antelope
Kanchil – an amazing baby deer from the tropics
There are many strange animals in the world, but this has probably surpassed many, if not all.Have you ever heard that in addition to plants, deer can eat insects, fish and even the corpses of other animals? Surprisingly, but true: this deer, which will be discussed later, lives in tropical forests and leads a very strange lifestyle.
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This deer is only 20-25 centimeters tall. And it weighs one and a half kilos. The fattest representatives of the species reach two and a half kilograms.
But despite the family ties with artiodactyls, the mouse deer has no horns – as, indeed, all deer (miniature ungulates). Deer-mice are soft and fluffy, they are covered with grayish-brown hair, often with an orange tint. But on the other hand, these deer have fangs, they are so huge that they even protrude from the mouth. These animals are the smallest representatives of the artiodactyl order.
Kanchili (Asian deer, Tragulus) is a genus of artiodactyl animals of the deer family, includes five species.Outwardly, they resemble an African deer, but smaller.
The best known is the great kanchil (Tragulus napu), which has a mass of 5–8 kg, a body length of 70–75 cm and a height of 30–35 cm. It lives on the Malacca Peninsula, on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. The smallest of the deer – the small kanchil (Tragulus javanicus) – inhabits the islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java. The height of this ungulate barely reaches 20–25 cm, and its weight is 2–2.5 kg. The Indian deer (spotted kanchil, Tragulus meminna) lives in India and Ceylon.Differs in a dark color with small light spots. According to a number of features, this species is close to the African deer.
Kanchili is inhabited by dry forests with rock outcrops and mangroves. They are secretive nocturnal animals leading a solitary lifestyle. Only for a moment can you see kanchilya in a dense bush. When pursued, he hides, and when seized, he bites. The rut of the kanchili occurs in June-July. The duration of pregnancy is 150-155 days. Kanchili females often bring two calves.
Mouse-like deer flourished in the Miocene (23-5 million years ago), and the first paleontological finds date back to the Oligocene (34 million years ago). At present, this is a relict, endangered group of animals – the only living representatives of the tragulin infrared (Tragulina).
Deer and pigs are the closest relatives of the kanchils. With the former, they have a common structure of the dental apparatus and the digestive system, and with the latter, they have a similarity in the structure of the limbs, in particular, in the presence of four fingers.Mouse deer are a prime example of the most ancient artiodactyls, from which all others evolved.
Kanchili inhabit the tropical rain forests of Central Africa and Southeast Asia. Their small size – up to a maximum of 80 cm in the African aquatic kanchili – remarkably help them to move in dense thickets of tropical forests, not to get dirty in swampy soil and forest litter. These animals are very territorial, and each individual occupies, although small – up to 13 hectares, but a permanent piece of forest.During the day, kanchils hide in a wide variety of places, and eat at dusk and at night.
Today there are only five species of these animals on earth. In Africa, only one species is found – African water canchil (Hyemoschus aquaticus), and the rest are Asian species: big canchil (Tragulus napu), small canchil (Tragulus javanicus) and spotted canchil (Moschiola mennina). In 2005, a fifth species was described in Sri Lanka – the Sri Lankan kanchil (Moschiola kathygre).
They eat everything that comes their way: from leaves of tropical plants, mushrooms, fruits and seeds to beetles, frogs, fish and carrion. Moreover, these deer actively hunt fish in small stakes, streams and rivulets. But the African aquatic kanchil spends a lot of time in the water and can rightfully be called an amphibian mammal – here it feeds and here it escapes from predators, while it swims very well.
The presence of fangs does not make the kanchilya become impudent. On the contrary, these are very shy animals, leading a secretive lifestyle.They are active mainly at night. During the day they sleep (in crevices of rocks or hollow logs). And at night they wander in search of food. Big eyes help them to navigate in the dark forest. The reindeer eat vegetable food – leaves, flowers, fruits, etc. (some insect can also casually crumple). Despite the legs with hooves, these mice somehow manage, if necessary, to climb trees. Wonderful are your deeds, Lord. If danger threatens, kanchili sometimes seek salvation in the water. They swim well and can walk along the bottom without sticking out for a long time.
Lead kanchili, of course, a solitary or monogamous lifestyle. Each of them was in absolute possession of their own territory – about 12 hectares (females have a little less – 8 hectares). This is exactly how much these crumbs need to feel comfortable.
See also: A day in the life of a Mongolian family of reindeer breeders
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Distributed in Eastern China, north of the Yangtze Valley, and on the Korean Peninsula.Acclimatized in France and Great Britain. Inhabits grassy thickets along the banks of rivers, lakes and swamps. Most often, you can see how water deer graze in thickets of tall reeds and on the green foothills.
Body length is 75-100 cm, height – 45-55 cm, weight – 9-15 kg. Horns are absent, in males powerful upper saber-shaped canines protrude 5-6 cm from under the upper lip. A small tail (5-8 cm) is barely visible. The general color is brownish brown, the upper lip and rings around the eyes are white.Summer coat is short, winter coat is fluffy, but undercoat is sparse. The ears are high and fluffy. This deer has rather long legs, and the hind legs are longer than the front ones, because of which it moves in jumps. Water deer swim well, which gives them the opportunity to swim a distance of several kilometers in case of need for a change of scenery or in search of new pastures, migrating between the coastal islands.
Despite their impressive canines, these animals feed exclusively on plant foods, but choose it more picky than their other relatives.From time to time they like to make forays into cultivated fields, where they enjoy the harvest with pleasure. Most of all, water deer love juicy green grass, young tender sprouts of sedges, as well as young leaves of shrubs, sometimes they eat snails.
These deer are most active during the daytime. Except for the breeding season, they are solitary. Males stick to a certain territory and mark it with special fluid-secreting glands that are located between their fingers.They guard their territory very zealously. In order to preserve the integrity of their territory, water deer not only produce an odorous liquid. To even more reliably mark the boundaries of their possessions, they pluck the grass around the perimeter of their plot of land. But even this is not enough for them. For even greater reliability, they spread branches of young trees along the edges of the site, which they pre-mark with their saliva.
The rut occurs in November-December, and at this time the males fight with their fangs, trying to cut the opponent’s neck.After the rut, males with large scars on the face and neck are often seen. During fights, males make loud rattling sounds. Pregnancy lasts about 6 months, and in June-July 1-2, rarely 3 spotted fawn will be born. Newborns lie hiding for several days in dense thickets and, not earlier than a week later, begin to accompany their mother.
Red deer combines many subspecies, the representatives of which differ from each other only in size, weight, color and some other characteristics.Distributed practically throughout Europe, in North Africa (in the Atlas Mountains of Northeastern Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Middle East (Turkey, Iran, Iraq).
Deer habitats are extremely diverse: from taiga to broad-leaved and subtropical forests, from shrubs along the banks of desert rivers to the alpine belt of mountains. In the forests, deer choose areas where there are many young undergrowth, bushes and grassy fields. In Europe, oak and light beech forests are preferred.In the Caucasus, in the summertime, deer can most often be found in the upper part of the forest belt, where there are many tall-grass meadows.
Red deer subspecies are of various sizes. The total body length of males is 175-250 cm, height at the shoulders – 95-130 cm, weight – 160-240 kg. Females are noticeably smaller than males and their weight is 120-170 kg. The subspecies and shape of the horns may differ. For example, the European deer has a large number of tines, and the red deer do not have a crown, but the horn itself is very massive and gives 6-7 tines.Reindeer move at a long pace, when frightened they go to a gallop, making jumps up to 5-6 m. They swim well, and there are cases when they swam across wide and stormy rivers. Reindeer have a well-developed sense of smell and hearing, and during feeding they try to keep their muzzle in the wind.
The red deer feeds on a wide variety of foods. The main food of this animal is herbaceous vegetation, cereals, legumes. In the spring, after a difficult season for animals – winter, special importance is attached to eating proteinaceous vegetation, to replenish strength and obtain a full-fledged vitamin feed.In the winter period, if the snow cover is not very large, the red deer takes the opportunity to get the leaves fallen in autumn, various stems and bark of shrubs. They also eat pine and spruce needles. Acorns, which the animal gets from under the snow, are a great help for deer in winter. Chestnuts, all kinds of nuts, seeds of many plant species are also eaten. Mushrooms, lichens, fruits, berries – everything goes as food for the red deer. Nutrition can vary depending on what harvest was in the year prior to winter.Red deer consume salt as food, extracting it from salt licks. They lick salt, gnaw at the earth, which is full of mineral salts, replenish the lack of minerals in the body, using mineral springs. In the heat they do not graze, but lie in the shade, only in the morning and in the evening they go out to the pastures. They escape from the heat in the rivers, where they can spend more time of the day. Bukhara deer goes to the pasture at night. In winter, when the air temperature drops low enough, animals are forced to eat almost all day in order to replenish their energy reserves.
Usually, the individual area of deer habitat occupies 400-600 hectares, but in winter it is reduced to 60-100 hectares. The size of the habitat depends on the feeding capacity of the land and the density of the deer population. Deer, apparently, mark the boundaries of their plots, both individual and herd, leaving scars on the bark of trees and scent marks. Deer that do not belong to this herd are actively driven out by adult animals. The density of the red deer population depends on the quality of the land and for Europe ranges from 4 to 30, more often about 15 deer per 1000 ha.In some cases, it can be 40 or even 60 deer for the same area, but, as a rule, such densities entail the destruction of tree undergrowth and the rapid depletion of reindeer pastures. On the plains, reindeer are settled, in winter they make only small movements to areas with little snow and in summer they change pastures. In the mountains, animals, as a rule, undertake migrations, descending in the fall into less snowy, lower mountain belts or moving to leeward slopes, where there is less snow. Reindeer crossings to and from wintering grounds are gradual.The first to move to the wintering grounds are females with young ones, usually with the first snowfalls and a sharp cold snap. Later, more often already at the beginning of winter, males move. In case of the formation of infusion, the deer move to shaded slopes – to coniferous forests, where the snow remains loose. In the spring, when the snow is rapidly melting, the deer begin to return to their summer pastures. The usual size of a herd of deer is 3-6 heads, rarely more. Such a herd consists of an adult female and her offspring for several years. Males walk alone or in small groups most of the year.In autumn, during the rutting season, males collect harems from 2-3, rarely up to 15 or even 20 females. Sometimes adolescents join such a harem in late autumn, after the end of the rut, and a winter mixed herd of 10-15, very rarely 20 or more heads is formed. In the spring, before calving, the mixed flocks disintegrate.
Red deer rut occurs in autumn in different parts of the range from August to mid-October. At the beginning of the rutting period, males at dawn begin to voice their voices, at first not loudly, but after a week or two, all males roar for a long time, and their powerful voice is heard for several kilometers.The roar of deer lasts about a month or more, but the mass roar usually lasts 5-10 days. In a rainy autumn, the roar stretches out and passes sluggishly, clear and cold weather stimulates the males. The roar of deer begins with abrupt and hoarse sounds, reminiscent of heavy sighs, followed by a low, powerful and drawn-out moo. During the roar, the deer throws its antlers over its back, pulls its muzzle forward and swells its neck strongly. During this period, males strongly knock out the ground with their hooves, and such sites are called points.With their horns they peel off the branches and bark of young trees around the point. During the rutting period, males drink a lot, eat almost nothing and often roll in the mud. At this time, fights break out between males. Females usually deliver their first calf by age three, with an exception in the second year of life. Of the total number of sexually mature females, 20-25% remain barren. Pregnancy lasts 8.5 months, so in most places the fawns appear in the second half of May – early June. Females calve in secluded places, often in dense grass or fern thickets, along the banks of rivers and streams.One will be born, as a rare exception two fawn. During the first days, the fawn lies more hiding and gets up just to suck on its mother. Bright spotted color disguises the baby well. In the first days of life, this is the only defense of a helpless deer from enemies. The female for grazing moves away to 100-200 m, the baby feeds several times a day, and the rest of the time she stays at a distance to make it difficult for predators to find the baby. After about a week, the fawn begins to follow its mother and at this time suckles 4-6 times a day.Grass begins to pinch at the age of one month, but the mother sucks until autumn, and sometimes until December.
Wapiti was previously considered a subspecies of the red deer, but now it is isolated as an independent species. In turn, there are about 14 subspecies of this deer, which differ greatly in size and habitat.
Distributed in North America, as well as from Eastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Altai to the east, through Northern Mongolia and Siberia, to the Far East and Northern China and south to Southwest China and Bhutan.In North America, they are found mainly in mountainous areas, preferring areas where forests alternate with open areas. In Altai and in the Sayan Mountains, it prefers overgrown fires or the upper reaches of forests, from where they go to alpine meadows. In Sikhote-Alin, favorite habitats are oak forests, overgrown burnt places and clearings, as well as mountain meadows.
Reaches a height at the shoulders of about 150 cm, body length – 245 cm, weight – 320-331 kg, and females are 40% less than males and their weight is 225-241 kg.In males, the back and sides are light, grayish-yellow, the neck, belly and legs are very dark, brownish-black. At the base of the tail, there is a wide light yellow field extending over the croup. The horns are large, with 6-7 processes located in one plane; the fourth process reaches the largest size, at the point of origin of which the trunk forms a sharp backward bend. Horns weigh up to 16-20 kg.
Distributed in northeastern China, south to the Yellow River, on the island of Taiwan, in North Vietnam, Korea, Japan and in Russia – in southern Primorye.In the Far East, sika deer prefers broad-leaved, especially oak, forests rich in Lespedetsa underbrush. Currently, sika deer often inhabit forests at various stages of recovery after fires, where there are many undersized oak forests and shrubs of coppice origin. It is also found in cedar-deciduous forests, but much less frequently. In winter, it avoids places where the snow cover is more than 45 cm. Deer usually adhere to areas along the southern and southeastern slopes of the coastal ridges, where snow cover, as a rule, lays no more than a week in a row.Females and juveniles keep lower on the slopes than adult males, but the latter also rarely rise above 500 m above sea level.
Body length is 160-180 cm, height at the withers – 95-112 cm, weight – 75-130 kg. Various subspecies of this deer differ markedly in size, weight and color, but females are always smaller than males. Sika deer have rather long antlers ranging in length from 28 to more than 80 cm, depending on the subspecies. The general color is from reddish-red to black with white spots, and in winter it fades and the spots become invisible, and in males a thick mane grows on the back and neck.
In winter, acorns are the best food for sika deer, which they get from under the snow. He eats dry leaves, buds and shoots of oak, linden, aralia, lespedets, elms, Manchurian walnut, velvet, willow, maple, ash, rarely elder and hazel. Fallen leaves, especially oak, are eaten by deer throughout the winter. On the contrary, rags and bark are eaten reluctantly and little. In summer, the basis of food is made up of cereals, umbelliferae, Asteraceae, lily and legumes. In addition to herbaceous vegetation, leaves of trees and shrubs are eaten in noticeable quantities.On the sea coasts, algae – zoster and kelp, sometimes fish, crabs and other sea waste are willingly picked up.
In summer, the area occupied by a herd of sika deer is about 3 times larger than in winter. The area inhabited by single deer is rarely more than 100-200 hectares. Males with harems live on an area of about 400 hectares, and a large herd of 12-15 heads occupies 800-900 hectares. The daily movement of a deer in winter is 300-2500 m, and in the case of abundant feeding no more than 500 m. Sika deer feed more often in the morning and in the evening; in winter – often in the middle of the day.They swim well, overcoming even sea straits more than 10 km wide. For the winter, animals congregate on steep southern and southeastern slopes or descend closer to the sea, keeping along valleys protected from cold westerly winds. In April, deer move to summer habitats. In case of heavy snowfalls, they migrate to less snowy areas.
Female sika deer become sexually mature from one and a half years. Most of them take part in the rut at the 3rd, less often at the 2nd year of life.Males participate in the rut from 3-4th autumn. Spotted deer rut from late September to early November, the most intense roar occurs in mid-October and lasts from 4 to 7 days. The rut passes calmly, usually without fierce fights between males. Male harems consist of 3-4 females. At dawn, adult males make strong whistling sounds that turn into a hoarse roar. Deer roar in the same areas, where males knock out platforms with their hooves. During the rutting period, males eat poorly and lose up to 20-25% in weight.The duration of pregnancy is 7.5 months. Mass calving in Primorye occurs in mid-May (from late April to mid-June). With rare exceptions, the female brings one fawn. Fawns suckle their mother for 4-5 months, but start grazing at 10-20 days of age. They stay with the female until the spring of next year, sometimes longer.
The area covers eastern Tibet and the adjacent Chinese provinces of Gansu and Sichuan.Its habitat is both coniferous forests and areas located above the forest border at an altitude of 3400 to 5100 m above sea level.
The coat of white-beaked deer is short and brown in summer; winter coat is rather gray and much longer. The deer owes its name to the white coloration of the front of the head and neck. This species is very large, its length is 190-230 cm, the height at the withers is 130 cm, and its weight ranges from 125-200 kg. High and wide hooves are remarkable, differing from those of all other reindeer hooves.The large horns, which only males wear, are also white and usually have five ends.
White-faced deer are very skillful climbers. They live in groups that often include either only males or only adult females with juveniles. During the mating season, the behavior of males towards each other becomes more aggressive and they meet one by one, fighting with each other when meeting for the right to mate with females. White-faced deer feed mainly on grasses.
Mating season and mating takes place in October.After 220 days of gestation, the female gives birth to one cub in May or June. Cubs wean themselves from dairy food at the age of 10 months, and at the age of 1.5 to 2.5 years they reach sexual maturity. The average life expectancy is about 20 years.
Distributed in Central and North-Eastern India (Assam), Nepal.
The body length is about 180 cm, the height at the shoulders is 110-120 cm, the weight of the males is 170-280 kg, the weight of the female is 130-145 kg.The horns are 75 cm long, but the longest reached 104 cm in length. Barasing horns can have from 10 to 14, and sometimes up to 20 branches. This deer has a thin, light brown coat. The male barasinga is usually somewhat darker than the female. In summer, these deer are usually lighter in color than in winter. Some individuals have barely distinguishable spots on their skin.
Barasinga lives in swampy savannas and can often be seen standing in the water or grazing on green lawns. These deer have hard, non-wet hair and widely spreading hooves, which indicates their long-standing adaptation to swampy areas.In spring and summer, males and females of Barasing live separately, forming small groups of 3-5 animals. In winter, they unite in herds of several dozen heads. Deer graze throughout the day, feeding on lush meadow grass and marsh plants. In the evening they lie down in a rather dense group on open marshy lawns.
Barasings reproduce all year round, but more often young ones appear immediately after the rainy season, in October-November, when there is a lot of fresh, juicy greenery. There are no tournament fights between males, since during the rut they often have soft growing horns – antlers.But during the rutting season, the males roar, and their voice, very melodic and pleasant, with alternating low and high tones, is noticeably different from the roar of red deer. Often males thrust their horns into the grass and its long tufts hang from the horns as an additional decoration. The more grass hangs from the male’s horns, the more attractive he is to females. Gestation lasts about 250 days, and the female brings 1, rarely 2 fawns. Shortly before the birth of a fawn, the female leaves the herd and leaves to give birth in tall grasses until the fawn gets stronger.Grown-up calves of the same age gather in groups called “schools”. Each such group contains from 40 to 50 deer. One-year-old deer and adult deer graze together – males and females.
Distributed in Northeast India, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia and southern China. Avoids forests and mountains, preferring swampy plains with shrubs and small groups of trees.
Body length is 150-180 cm, height at the shoulders – 110-125 cm, weight – 125-175 kg, females are noticeably smaller and without horns. They are very graceful deer, with slender legs, a large head and a thin neck. The coat is rough, in summer it has a reddish brown color, in winter it becomes dark brown. Males are somewhat darker than females, they have a mane of long hair on their necks, and their horns resemble a lyre.
The lyre deer is active most of the day, but during the day it hides from the midday sun.Makes minor migrations in search of water or food. It feeds mainly on grassy or wetland vegetation. Sometimes it eats cultivated plants: rice, corn, peas and lentils.
Leads a solitary lifestyle, except for the breeding season, when herds of up to 50 heads gather. Males actively compete with each other for the right to own the harem of females. Pregnancy lasts 220-240 days, after which 1, rarely 2 fawn is born. The cub is covered with white spots that disappear as it grows.He stops feeding on milk at 7 months. Sexual maturity occurs at 18 months.
Schomburgk’s Deer †
The Shomburgka deer inhabited marshy plains with tall grass, reeds and bushes in central Thailand, in particular in the Chao Phraya Valley near Bangkok. This deer avoided dense vegetation. They lived in herds, which consisted of one adult male, several females and their young.
It was a graceful deer that looked like a barasing deer. Its hide was dark brown in color with a lighter belly. The underside of the tail was white. The males had basket-like horns, on which all the main teeth were branched. Females had no horns.
It is believed that the Schomburgk deer became extinct by 1938, but there is speculation that the species may still exist. Commercial rice production for export began in Thailand at the end of the 19th century, which led to the conversion of almost all meadows and marshlands inhabited by the Schomburgk deer into rice plantations.Intensive hunting at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries continued the decline in the species until it became extinct. These deer were hunted for the meat and antlers used in traditional Chinese medicine.
Filipino Spotted Deer
Phillipine Spotted Deer
Endemic to the Western Visayas of the Philippines, an endangered species, actually preserved only on the islands of Negros and Panay, the total population is no more than 2,500 adults.Inhabits primary and secondary forests, along the coastline. It keeps up to 2000 m above sea level.
This is a small and short-legged deer, the body length of which is 125-130 cm, the height at the shoulders is 70-80 cm and the weight is 25-80 kg. Males are noticeably larger than females and have short, thick horns. The general color of the body is dark brown, with the head and neck being lighter, with beige spots on the sides.
It feeds on shoots, grass, young leaves and buds.
Breeding season lasts from November to December, although mating may start earlier.Males attract females with a piercing roar. Pregnancy lasts about 240 days. One calf is born. Cubs feed on mother’s milk for about 6 months. Sexual maturity occurs at about 12 months.
Philippine Brown Deer
Distributed in the Philippine Islands Luzon, Mindoro, Mindanao and Basilan. Inhabits various biotopes from open bush and tropical humid jungles to mountain forests up to an altitude of 2900 m above sea level.
Filipino sambar reaches a length of 100 to 151 cm, height at the shoulders – from 55 to 70 cm, weight – 40-60 kg. The coat is predominantly dark brown in color, with the lower body and legs slightly lighter. The underside of the short (about 8 to 12 cm long) tail is white. Several animals, including a group that lives in Mindanao, have, on the contrary, a yellow-gray coat. Male horns are relatively small, 20-40 cm long.
Little is known about lifestyle. They are shy, nocturnal animals that lead a solitary lifestyle or live in small groups.They spend the day in dense forest thickets, at night they go out in search of food. Filipino sambar feeds on grass, leaves, fallen fruits and berries.
Breeding season lasts from September to January. At this time, females gather in small groups, up to 8 individuals. Males behave aggressively and keep apart. Gestation lasts about 6 months, after which one spotted cub is born. The spots disappear after a few weeks.
Found on most of the islands of Southeast Asia.Endemic to Indonesia (Bali, Java) was introduced to Borneo, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Papua, Sulawesi. Also imported to countries such as Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Reunion, Thailand, Timor Leste. Inhabits mainly open deciduous forests, savannas, parks, plantations and pastures.
Body length is 142-185 cm, tail length is about 20 cm. Males usually weigh 152-160 kg, while females – about 74 kg.The male has lyre-shaped horns with three processes, the weight of which is about 2.5 kg. The color of the coarse-looking coat is grayish-brown. The ears are round and wide. The limbs are relatively short.
Mainly nocturnal, but can graze during the day. Males and females live separately most of the year, except for the mating season. It feeds primarily on grass and leaves. Probably does not drink water because she gets enough moisture from food. The main natural enemies are real crocodiles, pythons and the Komodo dragon.
Like other deer species, the maned sambar has a polygamous mating system, with males competing for access to females. During the mating season, males decorate their horns with grass and branches to attract the attention of females and intimidate competitors. Males are extremely noisy and aggressive towards each other. The gestation period is 8 months. 1 calf is born, rarely 2. Breeding takes place throughout the year with a peak in July and September. Young calves stay with their mothers until they reach puberty.Weaning from mother’s milk occurs between 6 and 8 months of age. These deer reach sexual maturity between 18 and 24 months of age. They live from 15 to 20 years in the wild and in captivity.
Distributed in the tropical latitudes of South and Southeast Asia in the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, southern China (including Taiwan), the Malay Peninsula, the Malay Archipelago up to the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan inclusive.On the southern slopes of the Himalayas, it occurs up to 3500 m above sea level. Inhabits various types of forests: xerophytic and seasonal tropical, mixed subtropical, broad-leaved. From time to time, at a watering place, it can be found far outside the forest.
This is a fairly large representative of the family. The total length of the body is 170-270 cm, the height at the withers is 120-140 cm, the length of the tail is 22-35 cm, and the body weight is 150-315 kg. It has thick and heavy six-pointed horns. The coat is thick and coarse, forming a small mane on the neck.The general color is dark brown, almost black.
Despite its large size, it is difficult to see the sambar, and it silently goes into the thicket, hearing the slightest rustle. Caught by surprise, makes a loud whistle and, in a run, raises the tail, so that the white underside of the tail flashes as an alarm. Willingly goes into the water and swims well. Outside the rutting period, males live alone. Females with young ones keep in small groups. They feed on grass, leaves and wild fruits. The rut in most populations occurs more often in October, but it can be in other months of the year, especially in the south of the range.During the rut, adult males protect their harem of 3-5 females and engage in tournament battles with rivals. Pregnancy lasts 249-284 days. Usually 1, rarely 2 fawn is born. In Central India, calves appear more often at the end of the rainy season, in May – early June, but often they are born in November, December and other times.
Distributed in India, Ceylon, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.Acclimatized in New Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, Brazil and Argentina.
Axis is a graceful deer with a reddish-golden coat color, on which small white spots are scattered. The length of the body is 110-140 cm, the height at the withers is 75-97 cm, the length of the tail is 20-30 cm, and the weight is 75-100 kg. The horns reach 75 cm in length.
These deer live in tropical and subtropical forests, usually near rivers. Fleeing from the enemy they flee or abruptly hide in the dense undergrowth, often rush into the water.Axis can jump over obstacles up to 1.5 m high. They lead a diurnal lifestyle, in the midday heat they rest in the shade of trees. They feed on grass, leaves of trees and bushes. They keep in small groups, but sometimes they form herds of 20-30 or more heads. Like all tropical deer, they do not have a specific period of shedding their antlers and breeding. Females bring cubs more often in the cool season. They are very fertile, usually giving birth to 2, sometimes 1 or 3 calves. Pregnancy lasts 7-7.5 months, and often soon after giving birth, the female is fertilized again, so that in a little more than a year she can bring offspring twice.Females reach sexual maturity at the age of 1 year, males at the age of 4.
The main enemy of Axis is the Bengal tiger. This deer is also attacked by red wolves, leopards, hyenas, jackals, crocodiles and very large pythons.
Indian Hog Deer
Distributed in Pakistan, North India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Southwest China and Thailand. Introduced to Australia and Sri Lanka.They live in swampy savannas, overgrown with shrubs and elephant grass, or in grassy meadows and forest edges.
This is a stocky animal with an elongated body and relatively short legs. Body length up to 110 cm, height up to 70 cm, weight up to 50 kg. In males, the color is darker than in females. The lower part of the body is generally lighter than the upper part, as is the lower part of the tail. The tail is fluffy. The ears are rounded.
Pig deer graze at night and spend the day lying in dense thickets. Sensing the danger, they run with small steps, unusually resembling pigs during the run, for which they got their name.They live singly or in small groups. Females with calves sometimes gather in small herds. Apparently, they breed in all seasons of the year, just as males shed their horns at different times. During the rut, males are very pugnacious and rush at everyone who meets them on the way, even at humans, trying to strike with their horns. Pregnancy lasts 220-235 days. Usually 1, rarely 2 fawn will be born. In North India, calves appear more frequently in January.
Calamian Hog Deer
Calamian Hog Deer
Endemic to the Calamian Islands (Philippines).
The body length is from 105 to 115 cm, the height at the withers is from 60 to 75 cm, and the weight is from 36 to 50 kg. The fur of the deer is brown, and the males become darker with age. The cubs of these deer are not spotted, in contrast to the related pig deer. The short, bushy tail is white underneath, the relatively long limbs are darker than the rest of the body. The horns of males are small with three tops.
Kalamian deer are active at night. During the day, they sleep, hiding in dense undergrowth, at night they go in search of food, and move forward with their heads down, trying to remain hidden in dense vegetation for as long as possible.The food consists mainly of leaves.
After an approximately 180-day gestation period, the female gives birth to more often than one calf, less often two. Cubs unlearn at 6 months of age and reach sexual maturity between 8 and 12 months of age.
Bawean Hog Deer
Endemic to the Indonesian island of Bavean, located between the islands of Java and Borneo.
Kulya’s deer outwardly looks like a related species – a pork deer, but unlike it has a light brown coat color, the tail is a little fluffy.The body length of these deer is approximately 140 cm, the height is approximately 65 to 70 cm, and the weight is from 50 to 60 kg. As with many forest animals, the body at the shoulders is slightly lower than at the hips, which makes it easier to move around in dense undergrowth. The horns of males are relatively short, with three tines.
Kuhl’s deer live in the forests. During the day they hide in dense undergrowth, and at night they go out in search of food. They often use the same sleeping spots and fast-moving trails. As a rule, they live alone, sometimes you can also observe couples.The food consists of leaves and herbs.
Mating can take place all year round. However, females are more likely to give birth between February and June. The gestation period lasts approximately 225 to 230 days. As a rule, one cub is born, twins are rarely born. The young have a faint spotted coloration that quickly disappears.
Pere David’s Deer
A rare species, currently known only in captivity, where it slowly reproduces in various zoos of the world and was introduced in a nature reserve in China.Zoologists suggest that this species originally lived in the swampy areas of northeastern China.
Quite large deer, body length 150-215 cm, height 115-140 cm, body weight 150-200 kg, tail length about 50 cm. The upper part in summer is painted in ocher or reddish-brown color, belly is light -brown. In winter, the back becomes more woolly and changes color to gray-red, the belly becomes bright cream in color. One of the unique features of the species is the presence of long, wavy, year-round guard hairs (long, coarse, thickest hairs of the fur coat).There is a dark longitudinal stripe on the back along the spine. The head is unusually long and narrow, the eyes are small and expressive, the ears are pointed at the end. Around the eyes and lips, the skin is light gray; males have a small mane on the front of the neck. The legs are long; The hooves are wide, with a long heel, can be widely spread, the lateral hooves are well developed and touch the soil when walking on soft ground. In general, the hooves are well adapted for walking in swampy areas. The tail resembles that of a donkey, with a tassel at the end.The antlers of the males are large, rounded in cross-section, unique among deer – in the middle part, the main trunk branches out, the processes are always directed backward. Another unusual feature of the antlers is that they can change twice a year – the first pair appears in the summer, and is shed in November; the second pair appears in January (or may not appear) and is reset after a few weeks. Females have no horns.
Unlike most other members of the family, David’s deer loves to be in the water for a long time and swims well.During the mating season, males arrange fights for the female, during the fight they use not only horns and teeth, but also hind limbs. The rut occurs from June to July. Pregnancy lasts 250-270 days. 1 or 2 fawn will be born from April to May. They reach sexual maturity in the third year of life. When kept in open-air cages, many females carry no more than 2-3 calves in their lives.
Found in all countries of Central, Western and Southern Europe, as well as in Asia Minor.Acclimatized in New Zealand, South and North America. Fallow deer prefer deciduous forests with grassy glades and bushes in hilly areas, but they are able to adapt well to different habitats.
Fallow deer is much larger than roe deer, but smaller and lighter than red deer. The European subspecies reaches a length of 130 to 175 cm, has a tail 20 cm long and a height at the withers of 80 to 105 cm. Its weight varies from 65-110 kg in males and up to 45-70 kg in females. The males of the slightly larger Iranian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) reach lengths of over 2 m.The fallow deer has a more muscular body and shorter neck and limbs than the red deer. The horns of the European subspecies can take a spade-like shape. The color of the fallow deer changes with the seasons. In summer, it is reddish-brown with white spots on the upper side and tip of the tail. The underside and legs are lighter. In winter, the head, neck and ears are dark brown, the back and sides are almost black, the underside is ash gray. Very black or white phenotypes are also not uncommon.
In summer, females with calves walk separately or in small groups; males keep singly or in herds of several heads.In August, females with juveniles unite in larger herds. Fallow deer feed on grassy vegetation and leaves of shrubs in summer. They also eat acorns, chestnuts, berries, mushrooms; in winter they gnaw on the bark and bite off the branches of willow, aspen, ash, euonymus and other trees and shrubs. They graze more often in the morning and evening. Watering places are regularly visited in summer. They are not at all adapted to moving on high snow and when snow falls, they usually do not leave the feeders.
Deer rut occurs in September-October.At this time, males join herds of females and drive away young males. Taking part in the rut are males who have reached 4-5 years of age, and females – 2-3 years of age. During the rutting period, males make abrupt hoarse guttural sounds, which fill the forest in the predawn and evening hours. Males engage in fierce tournament battles, and the dull blows of the horns of the fighting rivals alternate with roars. Often the strongest breaks the partner’s cervical vertebrae; sometimes both perish by clutching their horns. Pregnancy lasts 7.5-8 months, and 1, rarely 2 calves appear in May-June.Before giving birth, the female separates from the herd and for a week grazes near the calf, which during the first days lies in dense grass or among bushes most of the time. At a week of age or a little later, the female with the young joins the herd. At the age of one month, the calf begins to eat grass, but the mother suckles for 4-5 months, and sometimes longer. Adult males shed their antlers in April; by August, the new horns reach full development, and in the middle of the month, the males rub against the tree trunks, peeling them off the skin.The horns are most developed in males at the age of 5-7 years. The life span of a fallow deer is 25-30 years.
Distributed in Southeast Asia from the Indian subcontinent, the island of Sri Lanka in the west and southern China and the island of Taiwan in the north to the Malacca Peninsula, the islands of Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan in the south. Inhabits tropical and subtropical forests, preferring dense shrub and herbaceous thickets along forest edges, meadows, river banks and streams, where it makes numerous paths.It keeps at an altitude from sea level up to 3000 m above sea level.
It has a body length of 89-135 cm, a rather long tail – 13-23 cm, a height at the withers – 40-65 cm and a weight of 15-35 kg. The coat is short, shiny, brownish-red in various shades, with a white underside, dark brown limbs and muzzle. Males have short horns, each horn has only one, maximum two branches. The stumps of the horns (non-falling part of the horn), covered with hair, are very long and protrude far beyond the posterior edge of the skull.Like musk deer and water deer, male muntjaks have fangs in the upper jaw for biting and protruding from the mouth.
Muntjacs are very secretive animals, it is more often possible to hear loud, short, barking voices of frightened animals than to see them running away in tall grass or dense bushes. They live alone or in pairs, without forming herds. They are very attached to their habitats, where a complex system of trails helps them avoid danger. Muntjacs feed on herbaceous plants and shrub leaves.With its long tongue (sticking out its tongue, the animal reaches them up to their eyes), like giraffes, they pluck leaves from bushes. During the rut, there are fierce fights between males; they fight with their long upper fangs, sometimes inflicting deep wounds to each other. In the tropical zone rut occurs in all seasons of the year. In muntjaks living in the northern parts of the range, usually in January – February. Pregnancy lasts about 180 days. Females bring one, rarely two, spotted cubs weighing only 550-700 g. The mother hides the baby for a long time in dense thickets, and only when the cub is completely strong does he begin to accompany the mother, but in case of danger it does not run after the mother, but hides in place, spread out on the ground.The muntjacs have many enemies, from the tiger and clouded leopard to birds of prey and pythons that hunt young muntjacs.
Inhabits Eastern China, India, Malaysia, other countries of Southeast Asia and the island of Taiwan.
Body length – 90-110 cm, height at the withers – 40-55 cm, tail length – 15 cm, weight from 10 to 20 kg. The top color is dark brown, the coat is thicker and longer in winter and shorter and less dense in summer.The bottom is light, cream or white. The males have short, peaked antlers reaching 20 cm. A distinctive feature of this deer is the dark facial stripes extending from the eyes in the shape of the letter “V”. In females, the muzzle is flatter. The facial stripes mark the secret glands that are located near the eyes. Makes barking sounds similar to a dog barking. Its barking can last for a long time during the breeding season, but it is short barking at normal times.
In nature, the muntjac lives in dense forests, its small size helps it to successfully wade through the densest thickets.He feeds on grass, other plant material, berries. Muntjac Reeves lives in a small area, the boundaries of which he marks with secretion from the eye glands, urine and feces. The area of the male is overlapped by the areas of the females. There are fierce fights between males – because of the plot and females, during which they inflict wounds on each other with horns and fangs. As a rule, muntjacs lead a solitary lifestyle, except for the time when the female leads the deer. The muntjacs announce the alarm with a short bark.The greatest activity is in the morning and evening twilight, in the daytime the animals rest.
Reproduction is not seasonal, year-round. Males mate with females that live on their territory or nearby, sometimes two or three males fight for the right to cover the female. After a 210-day gestation, one, two or three fawns are born, twins are common. Juveniles are dark brown in color, with white spots on the sides. The female who gives birth, leaves the newborns in dense thickets and goes to feed.She returns to feed them with milk, and when the cubs are strong enough, they accompany the mother while she grazes. The female can become pregnant again immediately after giving birth. By the age of two months, the spots in young people disappear. Up to 4 months, calves are milk-fed. On the eve of childbirth, the female drives out the young from her site. Sexual maturity in females occurs at 10 months, in males – a little later. Life expectancy in nature is no more than 10 years, in conditions of keeping the muntjacs reached 16 years of age.
Occurs in mixed forests of South-East China. This is an extremely rare and poorly studied animal, the population of the black muntjac is declining and numbers about 5,000 individuals.
Distributed in southern Myanmar and Tiland. It lives in alpine evergreen forests, often found in open places outside the forest, which is not typical for other species of muntjacs.It prefers to swim close to rivers and water bodies at an altitude of up to 2500 m above sea level.
Body length – 88 cm, tail – 23 cm, weight – 18-21 kg. The color of the top is dark brown, the bottom is lighter, the lower part of the legs is black. The face is dark brown, with dark, almost black stripes running from the horns to the muzzle. The posterior process of the horns is longer than the anterior one.
Bornean Yellow Muntjac
Bornean Yellow Muntjac
Is endemic to the island of Borneo.It lives in dense tropical forests, where it leads a secretive lifestyle.
Body length – 90-100 cm, height at the withers up to 50 cm, tail length – 14-20 cm, weight – 13-18 kg. Outwardly, it is similar to other muntjacs: a rounded body, short legs, characteristic short, pointed horns. The color of the top is yellowish-brown, the bottom is lighter, dark gray. Males rarely shed their horns, which are only 5 cm long.
Live in small areas singly or in monogamous pairs. They make barking sounds typical of a kind.They feed on grass, leaves, fruits, shoots. Pregnancy lasts about 7 months. 1 cub is born, the mother feeds him with milk for 2 months, and at 12 months he reaches maturity.
Distributed in the northwest of Yunnan province, in Southeast Tibet, Northeastern India and Northern Myanmar.
Distributed in Laos and Vietnam.
This is the largest representative of the genus, the height at the withers reaches 70 cm, weighs about 30-50 kg, the general color of the body is dark brown.
Occurs in a limited area of northern Myanmar and the adjoining part of India. It lives in dense forests at an altitude of 450 to 600 m above sea level.
This is one of the smallest species of muntjacs, an adult reaches only 50 cm at the shoulders and weighs up to 11 kg.Males have small horns about 2.5 cm long, otherwise both sexes are similar to each other. A distinctive feature of this species is the presence of protruding canines.
Distributed in the mountain forests of Sumatra. Occurs at an altitude of more than 1000 m above sea level.
Roosevelt’s Muntiacus (Muntiacus rooseveltorum) also belongs to the genus (Muntiacus).This muntjac has long been considered an extinct species, but has recently been rediscovered in the north of Laos and northwest Vietnam, where it lives in evergreen forests. In 1997, the Truongsong muntjak (Muntiacus truongsonensis) was discovered in the mountain forests of Central Vietnam, and another species of muntjaks (Muntiacus puhoatensis) was also discovered in the mountain forests of North Vietnam (Pu Hoat nature reserve).
Distributed in southern China – from Tibet to Fujian and Zhengjian provinces in the north, and to northern Myanmar in the south.The usual habitat is woodlands at altitudes from 500 to 4500 m above sea level. It is found both in evergreen and deciduous forests with dense undergrowth and the presence of fresh water bodies. Salt licks are also a positive factor for the presence of this animal.
The length of the body with the head is from 110 to 160 cm, to this should be added the length of the tail (from 7 to 15 cm). The height at the shoulders is from 50 to 70 cm. The weight of an adult animal varies from 17 to 50 kg. The coat ranges from dark brown to dark gray.The lips, tips of the ears, the underside, the back of the tail and sometimes the area around the eyes are white. On the head of animals there is a black-brown crest up to 17 cm high. The horns of males are short, without branching, often imperceptible from under the crest. In addition, males have long canines protruding from the mouth.
Like the muntjacs, crested deer are active mainly at dusk, in the evening and in the morning. By their way of life, they are loners. When communicating with other deer, a barking “dialect” is used; in case of danger, the animals run away, lifting their white tail – as a kind of warning sign for others.Deer feed on vegetation, from leaves and grass to fruits. Pregnancy lasts about 7 months. The baby is usually born in late spring or summer. As a rule, the female gives birth to 1 cub, twins are rarely born. In young animals, a strip of white spots stretches along the spine, otherwise they look like adult animals. Sexual maturity occurs at the age of 18 months.
90,000 It became known how many Saratov hunters can kill deer, roe deer and badgers
By the Decree of the Governor of the Saratov Region dated August 26, 2021, on the territory of the hunting grounds of the region, the volumes of withdrawal of quota types of hunting resources were established.
These species in the region include elk, red deer, spotted deer, Siberian roe deer and badger. When determining the number of quotas, the data of winter route accounting and monitoring data were used, which were carried out on the territory of the hunting grounds. Compared to the past, the hunting limits for sika deer, roe deer and badger have been increased. This suggests that the region is experiencing an increase in the populations of these animals. The committee of hunting economy and fishing of the region informs about it.
“In total, the following hunting limits have been set for the forthcoming hunting season: elk – 289 individuals, red deer – 103 individuals, spotted deer – 234, Siberian roe deer – 1673 individuals, badger – 163 individuals,” the department told a journalist from Saratov 24 TV channel.
In addition, an order was signed on the number of wild boars that can be killed. The decree was signed by the minister of the region – the chairman of the committee for hunting and fishing. Hunters are allowed to hunt 2,441 individuals until September 26th.
“The reasons for the need to regulate the number of hunting resources: prevention of the emergence and spread of diseases of hunting resources (African swine fever) on the basis of the decision of an extraordinary meeting of the antiepizootic commission under the government of the Saratov region,” the document says.
Let us remind you that two cases of African swine fever (ASF) have been registered in the Saratov region. Quarantine has been introduced in settlements.A previously infected animal was found in the Engels district near the village of Pervomayskoye.
Author Dinara Dusalieva
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90,000 Best Jumpers on Earth? No, not fleas
- Ella Davis
- BBC Earth
Photo by Dave Watts / naturepl.com
There are many contenders for the title of the best jumper in the animal kingdom. In trying to figure out who he really is, correspondent BBC Earth made some amazing discoveries.
At the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio, the gold medal in the high jump went to Derek Drouin with a result of 2.38 m.
It was an impressive jump, but before the world record of 2.45 m, set by Cuban athlete Javier Sotomayor in 1993, Derek was seven centimeters short.
But all sports achievements of people pale before the records of representatives of the animal world, who jump much higher than us, with just one push rising to incredible heights.
There are two ways to measure the highest jump. The first is to calculate the absolute height that the animal has managed to reach.
However, this method cannot be called objective in relation to smaller creatures. Therefore, there is a second option – to calculate how high the animal jumps, taking into account its size.
Depending on the method chosen, the title of the best high jumper can be obtained in several different types.
Photo by Lou Coetzer / naturepl.com
Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) – African Jumping Antelope
Let’s start with those who reach the highest heights in absolute terms.
Not surprisingly, the names of the best jumping species include the word “jumper” or “bouncing”.
One of these species is the springbok antelope (translated from Afrikaans – “jumping goat” – Approx.translator), living in southern Africa.
These animals jump high to escape predators – large felines, eagles and wild dogs.
In addition, springboks perform a series of unusual springy jumps (called “piercing”) on straight legs. The height of these jumps reaches 2 m.
According to scientists, this helps males to demonstrate their strength, as well as watch the approach of predators.
The Impala is considered the best high jumper among antelopes and will easily defeat any human athlete.
Jumping over obstacles, including other impalas, as well as trees and shrubs of the savannah, she is able to soar up to a height of 3 m.
This skill can save her life more than once, because these herbivores are the desired prey of predators.
Another species of antelope, which got its name because of its outstanding jumping ability, is the klipspringer (translated from Afrikaans – “rock jumper” – Translator’s note), also known as the jumper antelope.
It is a relatively small species that lives in the mountainous regions of southern and eastern Africa.
Klipspringers are distinguished by strong hind legs that help them to climb rocks, as well as a characteristic habit of leaning only on the hard front edge of the hooves, which makes the animal seem to walk on tiptoe.
Articles about klipspringers often say that they can jump to an incredible height of 7.6 m. However, this is most likely nothing more than fiction.
According to Craig Roberts from the University of Stirling (UK), who studied these animals, Klipspringer hooves are designed so that they can easily climb vertical slopes – they self-sharpen and acquire a conical shape, which allows the antelope to maintain balance even in the most difficult and steep areas.
Photo by Tom Mangelsen / naturepl.com
White-tailed hares (Lepus townsendii)
When it comes to mammals, there is another group of animals known for their ability to move in long leaps – rabbits and hares.
According to environmentalist John Flax, hares jump farther than rabbits because of their larger size.
He refers to data collected in the early 1990s by the famous naturalist Gerald Edwin Hamilton Barrett-Hamilton, according to whose observations, the brown hare can jump to a height of 4.5 m, while the white-tailed hare jumps as much as 6.4 m.
Flux says hares are “well adapted to travel long distances at high speeds.”
The presence of a lung of the skull, a large heart and red muscle tissue containing a significant supply of oxygen is characteristic of hares. “All this makes them great athletes and therefore excellent jumpers.”
The long hind limbs with tendons that stretch like a bowstring and store the elastic energy necessary to make the jump help the hare to jump so high.
Photo by Mary McDonald / naturepl.com
Flag-tailed kangaroo jumper (Dipodomys spectabilis)
The same is true of kangaroo jumpers, whose elongated hind legs reportedly allow them to jump up to 2.75 m. Not bad for a rodent weighing no more than 128 g.
Kangaroo jumpers living in the deserts of North America have no kinship with the famous Australian marsupials.
The only thing that unites them is the way of movement: these rodents are able to jump like a kangaroo and use their long tail to maintain balance.
However, the kangaroos themselves also have something to brag about. For example, the large red kangaroo is one of the largest animals that can jump.
Elastic tendons play an important role in kangaroo jumping, not muscles that require oxygen. This allows animals to travel long distances across the Australian bush in search of food and water.
The usual jump of a kangaroo is one and a half meters, and the highest, according to some sources, reaches three meters.This is comparable to the result of impalas, but does not reach the level of the most jumping hares.
Animals showing miracles of jumping can be found not only on land.
Photo by Todd Pusser / naturepl.com
Swinging dolphin (Stenella longirostris)
Swinging dolphins reach the same maximum heights as kangaroos, but in very different conditions.
They got their name due to the fact that during the jump they manage to turn around their axis several times.The highest recorded jump of a spinning prodolphin was three meters above sea level.
Since the mechanics of jumping out of water are very different from jumping on land, it is very difficult to compare them.
To understand how the dolphins spin, in 2006, scientists conducted a study by examining several videos.
They found that dolphins spin under water, creating a torque.
When the dolphin emerges from the water, the resistance force acting on its body decreases, as a result of which the rotation speed increases, and the dolphin soars into the air.
It is still unknown why dolphins jump so much. Scientists speculate that jumping is essential for their communication, as well as helping to get rid of parasitic adherent fish.
While some species use jumping to escape predators, others use jumping to catch their prey.
Photo by Fabrice Cahez / naturepl.com
Brown hare (Lepus europaeus)
garden and even behind a luminous point from a laser pointer.Their wild relatives do it just as well.
For example, a serval in southern Africa can jump 1.5 m in height to catch a bird in flight.
We know that larger animals jump higher, so it would be reasonable to assume that the biggest cats are the best jumpers.
The largest living felines are the Amur tigers. It is believed that they can fly up to 4 m in height with one dash.
In 2007, one of them undoubtedly succeeded.An Amur tiger attacked visitors at the San Francisco Zoo, fatally wounding one of them.
However, it is not known whether the tiger was able to overcome the 3.8 m high fence in one jump, or whether it accelerated and climbed onto it.
Photo by Anup Shah / naturepl.com
Female serval (Leptailurus serval)
Nevertheless, the best feline jumper is a slightly smaller animal.
Scientifically, the cougar, also known as the cougar and mountain lion, does not belong to the subfamily of big cats, as it cannot growl, unlike lions, tigers, leopards and jaguars.
Nevertheless, in terms of size, cougars can undoubtedly be classified as large cats: adult males reach 90 cm at the withers and weigh 62 kg.
They have very strong hind legs, and, according to a 1960 report by researcher Claude Barnes, they can take off in a jump to a height of 5.5 m.
If this is true, then cougars are the record holders among cats. But white-tailed hares, with their 6.4-meter jumps, still cannot be avoided.
So far, we have only considered jump heights in absolute terms.Who will show the best result when considering body size?
To find out, we need to look at much smaller creatures.
Photo by Ingo Arndt / naturepl.com
Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria)
Among insects, there are many species that demonstrate outstanding jumping ability.
For example, grasshoppers can make incredible jumps thanks to the special structure of the muscles in the knee joints. The Desert Locust bounces up to 25 cm.
Pennitsa cicadas also cannot boast of a large size: their body length is only 6 mm. They are known to leave a frothy exudation on garden plants, often called “cuckoo saliva”, from their larvae.
Due to the special structure of the hind limbs, the adult pennitsa cicada is able to jump to a height of 70 cm.
But to reach great heights, it is not necessary to work with legs, and springtails prove this. On the underside of the abdomen, these miniature arthropods have a special fork that helps them jump over fallen leaves to a height of 15 cm.
Perhaps you are already waiting when it comes to the record jumping fleas. It’s time to tell you about them.
Photo by Kim Taylor / naturepl.com
Canine flea (Ctenocephalides canis)
Fleas can jump up to 200 times their body length.
In this case, the hind legs of the insect work like several connected levers. First, the flea rests its paws on the surface, and then squats, storing energy in the muscles thanks to a special protein.
When this energy is released, a kind of spring is triggered in the body of the flea, throwing the insect upward.
Previously, it was believed that a cat flea can jump 34 cm.Nevertheless, after direct observation, this figure was reduced to 20 cm.
The real champion among these tiny creatures is the dog flea, which can jump 25 cm. a wingless insect that can hardly be seen with the naked eye.
However, fleas also have competitors that can break their record.
Photo by Solvin Zankl / naturepl.com
The copepod crustacean copepod is found in all oceans. Like a flea, it is very small in size – less than 3 mm in length.
Copepods jump to escape predators and get their own food. To do this, they alternately push off the water with four to five pairs of swimming limbs.
In 2011, researchers found that the muscles located on the limbs of copepods generate 10 times more energy than the muscles of any other animal ever studied.
This is necessary for them to overcome the incredibly high water resistance for their size. In just a few milliseconds, the copepod gains a speed equal to about a thousand body lengths per second.
This is not something you will see in an athletics stadium – at least not in the near future.
Reindeer | Barnaul Zoo “Forest Fairy Tale”
The story of the reindeer in our zoo has a sad episode. In 2013, we purchased a pair of Sibby and Sibila reindeer.This couple lived very amicably and peacefully. In the summer of 2015, they had a lovely baby who went to another zoo. Nothing boded trouble, but at the end of summer, an event occurred that shocked the entire zoo: Sibby choked on a large carrot that visitors gave her and died. Sybil was very sad about the loss. In this regard, we have acquired a new female reindeer.
Dear visitors, we kindly ask you not to feed the animals! They receive good nutrition, their diet includes all the macro- and microelements important for them.
About the type of animal
Reindeer is a mammal of the deer family and the only representative of the Reindeer genus.
Reindeer distinguishing features:
- Thick, soft fur with undercoat.
- In contrast to other members of the family, deer of both sexes have antlers.
- The hooves are massive and wide, which allows the deer to easily walk in deep snow and look for food in it.
- Reindeer tolerates winter well, since its body is fully adapted to it: with the arrival of cold weather, the animal accumulates fat reserves, the hairline thickens, and the wool even covers the nose and lips.
- Good sense of smell and keen hearing, but poor vision.
The body of the reindeer is about 2 meters in length, the growth is relatively low – up to 140 centimeters, and the body weight ranges from 100 to 200 kilograms. The fur covering the body of the deer is usually gray or brown in color, possibly a white spot on the chest or belly.Traditionally, 14 subspecies of reindeer are distinguished, two of which, unfortunately, have already become extinct.
Reindeer living in the tundra are active regardless of the time of day with obligatory rest breaks. In the Siberian highlands, reindeer feed in groups on char, where insects do not fly in summer. When the sun goes down, deer descend into the forest to forage there. Reindeer demonstrate amazing food pickiness: in summer, mushrooms and plants are included in their diet, and sometimes lemmings come across.The main delicacy of winter is lichen lichen. Many deer lack salt in their bodies, so they will never give up sea water and algae.
The mating season for reindeer is in the fall. The males fight for the attention of the female, but not as fiercely as, for example, their fellow sika deer. Reindeer is a polygamous animal, it prefers a harem lifestyle – an adult strong male, 10-15 females and several cubs. Sometimes physically weak males adjoin the group.Pregnancy of the female lasts 220-230 days, one spotted cub is born. By the age of two weeks, horns are growing, and upon reaching 2 months, the skin acquires a monochromatic color. At 2-3 years old, the fawn leaves its mother and begins to live independently. Reindeer reach puberty by the age of 5. In captivity, reindeer live for about 25 years; in the wild, this figure is much lower.
Fun Facts About Reindeer:
- Reindeer swim well: the average speed that an adult deer develops is 9 kilometers per hour.
- Deer milk is the fattest and most nutritious of all mammals.
- Antlers shed by adult deer become food for rodents.
- A deer can travel long distances per day – up to 35 kilometers.
- Males shed their antlers immediately after rutting, females later.
90,000 small, focus photography, deer, daytime, reindeer, herd, grazing, horn, hoof, animal
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