13U World Rankings – WSYL
2018 Preseason Nissan World Series of Youth Lacrosse/IL 13 World Rankings
Story published on InsideLacrosse.com on October 27, 2017
The latest World Series of Youth Lacrosse/Inside Lacrosse 13U World Rankings were assembled based on input from a broad selection of regional youth lacrosse experts throughout the United States. All teams included in this ranking meet the WSYL’s age and roster requirements and will be participating in the U.S. Regional Qualifiers in the Spring of 2018. All players that participate in the World Series of Youth Lacrosse must be born after 8/31/2004 and live within 100 miles of their team’s home or practice field.
Top teams from each U.S. Regional Qualifier will advance to the Championship Series in Denver, Colorado on July 1-4, 2018, where they will compete against the best U.S. and international teams for the world title. The WSYL Championship Game will be played at Sports Authority Field at Mile High and broadcast live on ESPN2 on July 4th, 2018.
The WSYL/IL 13U World Rankings will be updated following completion of the U.S. Regional Qualifiers and again after the WSYL Championship Game next July. To find out if your team is eligible to be considered for the WSYL/IL World Ranking and to participate in the upcoming Regional Qualifiers, please click here.
WSYL/IL 13U Pre-Season World Rankings
1 Team 91 (NY)
2 LI Express (NY)
3 Tri-State (NJ)
4 Mad Dog West (CA)
5 Igloo (NY)
6 True Illinois (IL)
7 Next Level (MD)
8 Thunder Lacrosse (GA)
9 Prime Time (NY)
10 ADVNC (CA)
11 Sweet Lax Upstate (NY)
12 Brotherly Love (PA)
13 So Cal Express (CA)
14 Legacy (NY)
15 Colorado Outlaws (CO)
16 Cavalier (VA)
17 Northwest Rippers (OR)
18 Team 91 Florida (FL)
19 Eclipse (CT)
20 Carolina Miners (NC)
21 Frogs Lacrosse (MN)
22 Cannons Select (MD)
23 Express North (NY)
24 Mad Dog East (NJ)
25 Utah Hoppers (UT)
101 Lacrosse (CA), 2WAY (NY), 3d Georgia (GA), Avalanche (NV), Baltimore Breakers (MD), Capital City Javelinas (TX), Dane County Coyotes (WI), Fredericksburg Patriots (VA), KC Blue Lion (KS/MO), Predators (NY), Trident Select (CA), Washington Park Warriors (CO), Long Island Outlaws (NY)
Boys’ Lacrosse – Portland Press Herald
The Stags pull away with their outburst in the fifth inning.
Brooke Gerry gets the win with dominant pitching in both games and also leads the offense as the Eagles post 4-1 and 10-2 victories.
Baseball: Scarborough squanders a two-run lead in the seventh inning but scores in the eighth to improve to 11-1.
For the second time in five days, the Capers blow out one of their expected challengers for the Class A title.
Sam Whipple scores the winner on a long shot as the Flyers overcome a four-goal deficit.
Baseball: The Stags open the doubleheader with a 1-0 victory, then win Game 2 in 11 innings, 6-5.
Unbeaten Berwick Academy, which typically plays in a private school league, also will be a factor in the Class A title hunt.
Undefeated Thornton Academy hands Scarborough its first baseball loss of the season, 3-2.
Dragons knock off previously unbeaten Messalonskee in a battle of league heavyweights.
Satchel Kaplan scores the winning goal 3:35 into overtime and Falmouth wins, 9-8.
The Hawks score two unearned runs to pull out the win at home.
Softball: The Dragons improve to 6-1 as Blake Austin scores the winning run in the eighth inning for a 6-5 win.
During the pandemic shutdown, Anderson enhanced his athletic skills and broadened his range in the visual arts.
The Spartans sweep a baseball doubleheader from Massabesic, winning 4-3 in each game.
The Red Storm are strong defensively and Finn Pedersen scores fives goals in a victory over the Rams.
Baseball: The Falcons improve to 8-0 with a 12-6 victory over Morse.
The Rams score six runs in the bottom of the sixth to beat South Portland.
Girls’ lacrosse: Thornton Academy gets four goals from Izzy White and earns a victory over Cheverus.
Baseball: The Falcons improve to 6-0 with a pair of 2-1 victories over the Capers.
Dragons eager to prove they’re still a team to beat, while Tigers seek to grow as season progresses.
The Falcons improve to 4-0 by scoring four times in the seventh inning.
Wyatt Kerr scores four times and the Yachtsmen avenge a loss in the 2019 Class A state final with a 9-8 win.
Softball: Brooke Gerry strikes out nine and leads Windham to the victory.
The Wildcats score five runs in the last three innings and improve to 2-0 with a 7-6 baseball victory.
The Tigers score three runs in the seventh to earn an 8-6 baseball win, spoiling the Eagles’ season opener.
The Capers have been the kings of Maine high school boys’ lacrosse for more than three decades, but their current players have yet to reach a title game.
Cape Elizabeth (Class A) and Yarmouth (Class B) are top contenders for a state title.
Seniors dominate this group of talented players to keep your eyes on this spring.
Messalonskee takes control from the start then never looks back.
Baseball: Brady Nolin strikes out eight as the Rangers beat Fryeburg Academy, 1-0.
Girls’ lacrosse: Windham gets four goals each from Riley Beem and Julia McKenna and the Eagles hold on to beat the Yachtsmen, 11-9.
Elizabeth Littell leads the attack for the Bulldogs in a 16-1 victory over Westbrook.
From softball and baseball to lacrosse, organizers are concerned about whether they’ll have enough umpires and referees to handle especially busy days on the schedule.
The high school lacrosse season in the Midcoast will have a bevy of new players eager to roll.
The Rangers will field varsity teams in boys’ and girls’ lacrosse for the first time this spring.
With transportation issues looming, schools are going to be playing regional opponents, and the weekends might be really busy.
Knowing that schools may lose games during the regular season because of COVID-19 disruptions, the Maine Principals’ Association will allow all teams to participate in the postseason.
Since 2006, Ben Raymond has been a successful varsity head coach of three teams – boys’ soccer, swimming and boys’ lacrosse – and been making an impact on students past and present.
For many, the college recruiting process relied heavily on virtual visits and was done without traditional on-campus visits because of pandemic restrictions.
School districts in Maine have been wrestling with the dilemma, balancing financial concerns with the desire to reward coaches for work they do with student-athletes throughout the year.
Zach Maturo scores 20 points, and the Scots improve to 3-0 with a 55-46 win over Gorham.
Tom Fiorini had been the varsity coach since 2008 and led the Red Riots to the 2014 Class A title.
The senior midfielder scored 42 goals – including an overtime goal to win the Class A state championship game.
Thornton Academy questioned the legality of a Falmouth player’s stick and was rewarded with an overtime possession that led to a state championship.
The No. 2 Panthers earn their first state championship since 2007 with a victory over No. 8 Maranacook/Winthrop/Spruce Mountain.
The Clippers beat Greely 11-10 to win their first state title since 2009.
The Yarmouth boys and girls and the Greely boys are looking to make up for overtime losses in the 2018 playoffs.
The Trojans beat top-ranked Cape Elizabeth, 8-5, to set up a championship-game rematch against Falmouth.
The Panthers reverse last year’s result to knock off the defending state champions.
Men’s Lacrosse Ranked 16th in Nike/US Lacrosse Division III Top-20
US Lacrosse Magazine Release
BALTIMORE, Md. – The Illinois Wesleyan University men’s lacrosse team is ranked No. 16 in the Nike/US Lacrosse Division III Men’s Top 20, marking the program’s highest national ranking all-time. IWU is one of four new teams to crack the list announced May 10, including No. 10 SUNY Cortland, No. 18 John Carroll, and No. 20 Babson.
The Titans, who posted a 13-1 record and won their fourth straight College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin Tournament Saturday, May 8, will host the first two rounds of the NCAA Tournament this weekend, May 14-15. IWU will take on Northwestern (Minn.), while Hope and Benedictine will battle in the other opening round matchup at Tucci Stadium.
|1||Tufts||5-0||1||5/15 vs. No. 20 Babson|
|2||RIT||10-0||2||5/16 vs. No. 10 SUNY Cortland/UMass Boston winner|
|3||Salisbury||13-1||3||5/15 vs. SUNY Poly|
|4||York||14-1||4||5/15 vs. Lasell|
|5||Lynchburg||16-2||5||5/15 vs. Pfieffer|
|6||Cabrini||10-2||6||5/15 vs. Grove City|
|7||Franklin & Marshall||7-0||8||5/15 vs. No. 18 John Carroll|
|8||St. John Fisher||10-3||9||5/15 vs. SUNY Maritime|
|9||Denison||8-1||17||5/15 vs. Centre|
|10||SUNY Cortland||10-3||NR||5/15 vs. UMass Boston|
|11||Colorado College||13-3||14||5/15 vs. Transylvania|
|12||Stevenson||7-1||8||5/15 vs. Kean|
|13||Christopher Newport||11-5||19||5/15 vs. Endicott|
|14||Stevens||13-2||20||5/15 vs. Catholic|
|15||Saint Lawrence||7-2||16||Season complete|
|16||Illinois Wesleyan||13-1||NR||5/15 vs. Northwestern St. Paul|
|18||John Carroll||14-1||NR||5/15 vs. No. 7 Franklin & Marshall|
|19||Washington and Lee||10-4||15||Season complete|
|20||Babson||5-0||NR||5/15 vs. No. 1 Tufts|
ALSO CONSIDERED (ALPHABETICAL ORDER): HAMPDEN-SYDNEY, ITHACA, WESLEYAN
NLF Class of 2022 Top 60 Rankings – National Lacrosse Federation
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Joey Spallina is keenly aware of the massive target on his back that he’ll wear at least until his club lacrosse days with Team 91 2022 Smash are over.
Things are a little different for Spallina now after being the youngest guy on the Team 91 2020 Crush for more than a decade. Playing up two years helped refine his game, particularly as he worked primarily off the ball while playing alongside the NLF’s No. 1 and No. 2 2020s in Brennan O’Neill (St. Anthony’s, N.Y. / Duke) and Xavier Arline (Shoreham-Wading River, N.Y. / Navy football).
For the bulk of his club career, Spallina has been a valuable cog in the Crush machine, but now that he’s playing exclusively against players in the ’22 class, he’s the unquestioned leader of the offense, and it’s helped him continue to cement his status as the country’s top ’22.
“When teams were going against Crush, they couldn’t just game plan for Brennan or (NLF No. 1 ’21 Andrew) McAdorey, but now, teams game plan for me,” Spallina said. “I’m getting a 2 slide, a 3 slide, guys showing from everywhere. The biggest adjustment I’ve had is that I’m getting the best defender’s best effort every time. I think I do have a target on my back, and I freaking love it. I just love to compete. I love that the guy going against me hates me and wants to beat me so bad.”
As it turns out, it’s nearly impossible to keep Spallina in check. You’re not going to hold him off the scoresheet, so you’d better hope he only hits you for three or four points instead of seven or eight. As a freshman, he put up a ridiculous 65-goal, 66-assist season after bagging 84 points as an eighth grader, becoming the first freshman to be named a U.S. Lacrosse All-American and win Suffolk County Attackman of the Year honors. He’s deadly around the crease and he can pick corners when he stretches out, and Spallina also does a great job of drawing a double team and finding the open guy on the backside for an easy goal.
“The guys on my team are pretty damn good, so that helps a lot,” Spallina said. “Now, I’m just trying to evolve my game and be able to pick any spot to score. I’ve probably worked on my shooting more lately than I have in years because I have nothing else to do (with the COVID-19 pandemic), so I’m outside for two or three hours at a time, working on my game. I’m definitely looking to go on a revenge tour with this team and for us to get a crack at winning the NLF national championships would be amazing.”
Women’s Lax Locked at No. 5 in D3 Rankings
GETTYSBURG, Pa. – The Gettysburg College women’s lacrosse team earned the No. 5 position in the Intercollegiate Women’s Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Division III Coaches’ Poll for the eighth time in the last nine weeks.
Gettysburg (5-0) has been ranked fifth in six consecutive national ballots and totaled 526 points this week. Each of the four teams ahead of the Bullets received first-place votes with Franklin & Marshall College (5-0) remaining atop the poll with 18 first-place votes and 613 total points. Washington and Lee University (11-0), Tufts University (5-0), and Salisbury University (13-0) maintained their spots in the rankings.
Gettysburg battles F&M in Lancaster, Pa., this Saturday, May 1, at noon.
Franklin & Marshall
Washington and Lee
St. John Fisher
St. Mary’s (MD)
Super 25 State Boys Lacrosse Rankings – Week 7
West Linn holds down the the top spot in Oregon. (Photo: Casey Vock)
Each week USA TODAY High School Sports will release Super 25 State Lacrosse Rankings provided by 3dRising. Rankings are based on results from the 2015 season, quality of players and strength of schedule. Records are through Wednesday’s games.
MORE: Super 25 National Rankings – Week 6
- Desert Vista, Phoenix (8-1)
- Brophy College Preparatory, Phoenix (11-0)
- Chaparral, Scottsdale (7-2)
- Salpointe Catholic, Tucson (6-3)
- Mountain Pointe, Phoenix (7-3)
- Gilbert (4-4)
- Sabino, Tucson (7-2)
- Notre Dame Preparatory, Scottsdale (4-6)
- Pinnacle, Phoenix (4-5)
- Corona del Sol, Tempe (4-5)
- Cherry Creek, Greenwood Village (5-1)
- Arapahoe, Centennial (6-1)
- Regis Jesuit, Aurora (6-1)
- Kent Denver School, Englewood (6-1)
- Mountain Vista, Highlands Ranch (7-1)
- Chatfield, Littleton (6-2)
- Columbine, Littleton (4-3)
- Monarch, Louisville (6-2)
- Wheat Ridge, Wheat Ridge (5-4)
- East, Denver (6-1)
- Salesianum School, Wilmington (3-2)
- Archmere Academy, Claymont (4-0)
- Caesar Rodney, Dover (4-0)
- Tower Hill School, Wilmington (3-1)
- Cape Henlopen, Lewes (3-2)
- Appoquinimink, Middletown (3-0)
- Delaware Military Academy, Wilmington (4-0)
- Wilmington Friends School, Wilmington (2-1)
- Saint Mark’s, Wilmington (0-2)
- Milford (5-0)
Downstate New York
- Massapequa (6-0)
- Smithtown East, St. James (4-0)
- Chaminade, Mineola (4-1)
- Syosset (7-0)
- Ward Melville, East Setauket (3-0)
- St. Anthony’s, Huntington Station (1-2)
- Paul. D. Schrieber, Port Washington (4-2)
- Yorktown (5-0)
- Bronxville (3-0)
- Lynbrook (5-0)
* Downstate New York includes the NYSPHSAA’s Section 1, 8, 9 and 11 and New York City.
- St. Thomas Aquinas, Fort Lauderdale (16-0)
- Saint Andrew’s School, Boca Raton (12-3)
- Lake Highland Preparatory School, Orlando (15-3)
- Jupiter Community, Jupiter (16-3)
- Ponte Vedra, Ponte Vedra Beach (16-3)
- Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Parkland (15-1)
- Lake Mary (14-4)
- Baron G. Collier, Naples (13-4)
- Seminole, Seminole (14-2)
- Vero Beach, Vero Beach (14-2)
- The Westminster Schools, Atlanta (12-1)
- Roswell (10-2)
- Johns Creek (9-2)
- Centennial, Roswell (11-1)
- Lambert, Suwanee (10-2)
- The Lovett School, Atlanta (9-3)
- Allatoona, Acworth (10-0)
- Alan C. Pope, Marietta (9-2)
- Mill Creek, Hoschton (11-1)
- Northview, Duluth (10-3)
Maryland – MIAA
- McDonogh School, Owings Mills, Md. (7-2)
- Calvert Hall College, Baltimore (8-1)
- The Boys’ Latin School of Maryland, Baltimore (8-2)
- Loyola Blakefield, Baltimore (4-1)
- St. Paul’s School, Brooklandville, Md. (6-4)
- St. Mary’s, Annapolis, Md. (4-3)
- Gilman School, Baltimore (2-4)
- Mount Saint Joseph, Baltimore (7-3)
- Severn School, Severna Park (6-1)
- Archbishop Spalding, Severn (3-8)
- Coronado, Henderson (7-1)
- Bishop Manogue, Reno (10-0)
- Faith Lutheran, Las Vegas (6-6)
- Palo Verde, Las Vegas (10-4)
- Bishop Gorman, Las Vegas (4-2)
- Green Valley, Henderson (6-2)
- North Tahoe, Tahoe City (6-1)
- Galena, Reno (10-4)
- Spanish Springs, Sparks (4-7)
- Reno (3-6)
- Delbarton School, Morristown (5-0)
- Summit (5-1)
- The Hun School of Princeton (5-0)
- Ridgewood (5-0)
- St. Augustine Preparatory School, Richland (4-1)
- Bridgewater-Raritan, Bridgewater Township (6-0)
- Mountain Lakes (5-1)
- Morristown-Beard School, Morristown (6-0)
- Westfield (4-1)
- Bergen Catholic, Oradell (1-2)
- Charlotte Catholic, Charlotte (10-2)
- Marvin Ridge, Waxhaw (9-0)
- Cardinal Gibbons, Raleigh (7-4)
- Charlotte Latin School, Charlotte (8-2)
- Middle Creek, Apex (8-0)
- Lake Norman, Mooresville (9-1)
- Apex (7-2)
- R.J. Reynolds, Winston-Salem (9-0)
- NorthWest Guilford, Greensboro (7-2)
- Charlotte Country Day School, Charlotte (10-3)
- St. Ignatius College Preparatory, San Francisco (9-0)
- San Ramon Valley, Danville (7-1)
- Bellarmine College Preparatory, San Jose (6-5)
- Monte Vista, Danville (8-2)
- Acalanes, Lafayette (8-1)
- Granite Bay (5-1)
- Amador Valley, Pleasanton (10-2)
- Piedmont (9-2)
- Marin Catholic, Kentfield (7-5)
- De LaSalle, Concord (6-4)
- Upper Arlington (2-1)
- Solon (5-0)
- St. Xavier, Cincinnati (3-0)
- Worthington Kilbourne, Columbus (2-0)
- Hudson (4-0)
- Dublin Jerome, Dublin (2-2)
- Olentangy Liberty, Powell (4-2)
- Archbishop Moeller, Cincinnati (2-1)
- St. Ignatius, Cleveland (2-1)
- Olentangy, Lewis Center (4-1)
- West Linn (3-3)
- Jesuit, Portland (4-3)
- Sunset, Portland (5-3)
- Lakeridge, Lake Oswego (5-3)
- Central Catholic, Portland (4-3)
- Lincoln, Portland (1-5)
- Oregon Episcopal School, Portland (3-0)
- Beaverton (4-0)
- Tualtin (3-2)
- Lake Oswego (3-3)
Pennsylvania – Inter-Ac/Private
- Haverford School, Haverford (8-0)
- Episcopal Academy, Philadelphia (5-2)
- Malvern Preparatory School, Malvern (3-5)
- Germantown Academy, Fort Washington (6-2)
- Academy of the New Church Secondary Schools, Bryn Athyn (5-1)
- William Penn Charter School, Philadelphia (4-3)
- Springside Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia (5-2)
- The Shipley School, Bryn Mawr (6-0)
- Hill School, Pottstown (2-4)
- Wyoming Seminary, Kingston (3-3)
Pennsylvania – PIAA
- Garnet Valley, Glen Mills (4-0)
- Bishop Shanahan, Downingtown (3-0)
- Upper Dublin, Fort Washington (6-0)
- Ridley, Folsom (6-1)
- Central Bucks South, Warrington Township (5-0)
- Central Bucks East, Doylestown (5-1)
- Radnor (4-3)
- Spring-Ford, Royersford (6-1)
- Avon Grove, West Grove (3-3)
- Conestoga (3-3)
- Foothill, Santa Ana (12-1)
- Corona Del Mar, Newport Beach (9-0)
- Scripps Ranch, San Diego (3-2)
- Coronado (3-5)
- Torrey Pines, San Diego (6-4)
- St. Margaret’s Episcopal School, San Juan Capistrano (11-1)
- JSerra Catholic, San Juan Capistrano (7-0)
- Palos Verdes, Palos Verdes Estates (7-2)
- Cathedral Catholic, San Diego (4-3)
- Poway (6-2)
- Wando, Mt. Pleasant (13-0)
- Paul M. Dorman, Roebuck (11-0)
- Fort Mill (8-3)
- A.C. Flora, Columbia (10-2)
- Greenville (6-6)
- Riverside, Greer (10-2)
- Clover (7-4)
- J.L. Mann Academy, Greenville (9-3)
- Nation Ford, South Mill (7-6)
- Porter-Gaud School, Charleston (9-2)
- McCallie School, Chattanooga (5-1)
- Memphis University School (8-3)
- Montgomery Bell Academy, Nashville (4-4)
- Christian Brothers, Memphis (12-0)
- Ravenwood, Brentwood (4-3)
- Baylor School, Chattanooga (7-1)
- Father Ryan, Nashville (8-2)
- Pope John Paul II, Hendersonville (6-3)
- Houston, Germantown (5-4)
- Evangelical Christian School, Cordova (7-2)
- Highland Park, Dallas (8-2)
- Episcopal School of Dallas (12-2)
- Southlake Carroll, Southlake (9-3)
- The Woodlands (9-2)
- St. Mark’s School of Texas, Dallas (7-3)
- Dallas Jesuit Preparatory School of Dallas (4-4)
- Allen (9-3)
- Coppell (6-5)
- Westlake, Austin (8-4)
- Plano West, Plano (6-6)
Upstate New York
- Pittsford Mendon, Pittsford (3-0)
- Niskayuna (3-0)
- Victor (2-0)
- West Genesee, Camillus (4-0)
- Cazenovia (2-0)
- Jamesville-DeWitt, DeWitt (3-0)
- Orchard Park (1-0)
- Webster Thomas, Webster (1-1)
- Shenendehowa, Clifton Park (3-0)
- Westhill, Syracuse (4-0)
*Upstate New York includes the NYSPHSAA’s Section 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10.
- Park City (11-0)
- Corner Canyon, Draper (12-1)
- Brighton, Cottonwood Heights (9-0)
- Skyline, Salt Lake City (8-1)
- Olympus, Holladay (9-3)
- Judge Memorial Catholic School, Salt Lake City (9-2)
- Juan Diego Catholic, Draper (5-5)
- Bingham, South Jordan (8-5)
- Pleasant Grove (6-3)
- Highland, Salt Lake City (7-1)
Virginia – Private
- Collegiate School (10-0)
- Saint Anne’s-Belfield School, Charlottesville (8-4)
- St. Christopher’s School, Richmond (5-3)
- Norfolk Academy, Norfolk (6-2)
- Woodberry Forest School, Woodbury Forest (5-2)
- The Covenant School, Charlottesville (6-1)
- Virginia Episcopal School, Lynchburg (1-1)
- Cape Henry Collegiate School, Virginia Beach (2-4)
- Nansemond-Suffolk Academy, Suffolk (7-0)
- Blue Ridge School, St. George (2-4)
Washington D.C. Region*
- Landon School, Bethesda, Md. (11-1)
- Gonzaga College, Washington, D.C. (9-2)
- Georgetown Preparatory School, North Bethesda, Md. (6-1)
- St. Stephen’s & St. Agnes School, Alexandria, Va. (9-0)
- Bullis School, Potomac, Md. (7-2)
- Paul VI Catholic, Fairfax, Va. (8-3)
- St. Mary’s Riken, Leonardtown, Md. (9-2)
- Episcopal, Alexandria, Va. (4-3)
- Our Lady of Good Counsel, Olney, Md. (2-5)
- DeMatha Catholic, Hyattsville, Md. (4-8)
*The Washington D. C. region includes teams in the Washington Catholic Athletic Conference (WCAC), Interstate Athletic Conference (IAC) and Mid-Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAC) leagues and Washington D.C. independent schools.
90,000 Trump announced that he will return to Washington on the day of the confirmation of the election results in Congress – International Panorama
WASHINGTON, December 28. / TASS /. The current US President Donald Trump has announced that he will return to Washington on January 6, the day the results of the presidential elections held in November were approved in Congress. The American leader urged “not to miss” his return and promised to provide additional information on this matter later, but did not specify what exactly he had in mind.
“See you in Washington DC on January 6th. Check it out. [More] more information to follow!” – he wrote on Sunday on his Twitter page. In addition, he said that on January 4, he will also travel to Georgia, where he will speak at a rally in support of Republican Senators David Purdue and Kelly Loeffler, who are participating in the state’s January 5 second round of elections to the US Senate.
For Christmas and New Years, Trump went to his Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida.As noted by the USA Today newspaper, there were earlier rumors that the president might not come back, having missed the inauguration of his rival Democrat Joseph Biden.
Confirmation of election results
On January 6, at a joint meeting of both houses of the US Congress, the results of the electoral vote are to be approved. Trump has previously repeatedly called on his fellow party members to fight to challenge these outcomes.
According to existing rules, legislators can oppose the approval of voting results in a particular state.An objection must be filed in writing by at least one member of the House of Representatives and one member of the Senate. In the event of such a protest, the meeting of Congress will be suspended so that both chambers separately consider and vote on this issue. If even one of the chambers of the legislature speaks out against, the protest will not be accepted.
The New York Times reported on December 13 that a group of Republican lawmakers led by Congressman Morris Brooks (of Alabama) are going to make a final attempt in Congress on January 6 to challenge the election results.Brooks intends to oppose the approval of electoral votes from the states of Arizona, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Georgia and Wisconsin. In order for the congressman’s protest to be accepted for consideration, he needs to enlist the support of at least one of the members of the Senate. Brooks, in particular, can support the elected Republican Senator (from Alabama) Tommy Taberville, who previously admitted such an opportunity. However, The Hill newspaper on Friday, quoting Senator John Thune (Republican from South Dakota), reported that Republican leaders in the upper house opposed Taberville’s challenge of the vote, considering such a move useless and “politically destructive.”In turn, experts note that the House of Representatives, where the majority belongs to the Democrats, will vote against any initiative that casts doubt on Biden’s victory.
Elections were held on November 3. On December 14, the electoral college approved the results of the vote, according to which Democrat Joseph Biden will become the new head of state. Trump did not admit defeat and went to courts to demand a recount of votes in a number of states. However, the claims were rejected by the authorities, including the US Supreme Court.
90,000 Americans in Washington State passed a law banning internal combustion engines. For the first time
The bill, which will introduce the earliest ban on internal combustion engines in the United States, awaits the signature of the Governor of the state D. Inslee.
Olympia, 17 Apr – IA Neftegaz.RU. Washington State passed Clean Cars Act 2030, which will prohibit the sale of new gasoline and diesel cars from 2030
This was reported by local authorities.
The bill, which will introduce the earliest ban on internal combustion engines in the United States, awaits the signature of the Governor of the state D. Inslee.
From 2030, Washington state will impose a moratorium on the sale, purchase, or registration of any passenger car with non-electrified propulsion.
It will also be impossible to import such cars from other states.
The Law provides for permission to purchase machines powered by electric motors:
- from batteries;
- on hydrogen fuel cells.
It is noted that such a ban is introduced for the sake of improving air quality in the state, and at the same time, the quality of life of the population should improve.
Earlier, they wanted to introduce a similar ban in California (the birthplace of Tesla and the leader in sales of electric cars), but as a result, Washington became the first state to make such a decision.
California Senators have already asked President D.Biden to ban ICEs at the federal level.
They are going to introduce a moratorium in this state only in 2035 by decree of the governor, and not by law.
The authorities of Massachusetts want to do the same.
So far, the law is a list of goals, not clear guidelines.
The authorities will need to significantly improve it, while finding an alternative source of funds for road repairs: now it is paid with the help of excise taxes on gasoline and diesel.
The solution could be the VMT (Vehicle miles traveled) tax, the amount of which depends on the number of miles traveled by the vehicle.
While the measure itself is not an automatic prohibition, as it might seem:
90,043 90,044 this depends on the purpose – 75% of state-registered passenger and light vehicles that must in the future pay for the use of the road:
- this measure will be an alternative to the gasoline tax, effectively charging drivers for every mile traveled, rather than for a gas station,
- must be enacted by separate legislative acts;
limiting factor – only applicable to passenger cars.
The passage of the law was supported by the American Coltura community, which is pedaling the transition to a zero-emission automotive environment.
Russia is the leader in car consumption, but far from being the leader in the automotive industry.
Tectonic changes in the global automotive industry will force the Russian authorities to adapt car consumption for them.
This means that the age of cars on gas and, moreover, gasoline cars is slowly coming to an end.
Unless, because of the Cold War, the Russian authorities do not lower the Iron Curtain.
90,000 Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis), Actress: photo, biography, filmography, news
First Lady of America from 1961 to 1963, wife of the 35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy , assassinated on November 22, 1963 during his election trip to Dallas.
Being one of the most popular women of her time in America and Europe, a trendsetter of fashion and beauty and a permanent heroine of the gossip column, Jacqueline Kennedy made a huge contribution to art, fought for the preservation of historical architecture, made a brilliant career as an editor, working in a number of publishing houses.
The iconic pink Chanel suit worn by Lady Jacqueline became a vibrant visual of the 1960s.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Biography
Jacqueline Bouvier (Jacqueline Bouvier), better known as Jackie (Jackie), was born on July 28, 1929 in the suburb of New York Southampton (USA) in the family of a Frenchman John Bouvier , who worked as a stock broker, and Janet Norton Lee , of Irish descent.In 1933, Jacqueline had a sister, Caroline. In the second marriage, Jackie’s mother, who divorced John Bouvier in 1940 and a couple of years later married a wealthy tycoon, heir to Standard Oil Hugh Auchincloss , had two more children – Janet and James Ochinkloss .
The full name of the former first lady of the United States is Jacqueline Lee “Jackie” Bouvier Kennedy Onassis . Kennedy (Kennedy) – surname for the first marriage, Onassis (Onassis) – for the second.
Jacqueline’s mother was fond of horse riding.An experienced rider was her daughter, who, at the age of 11, won a victory in a junior riding competition and retained a passion for equestrian sport for life. In addition, Jacqueline loved to draw and read, loved the team game of lacrosse.
Since her mother’s second marriage was very successful, Jacqueline from childhood got used to luxury and prosperity, and received an appropriate education. First, in a private school for girls in Connecticut, then for two courses she attended the prestigious New York College Vassar, and in 1949, in order to familiarize herself with European culture and further study the French language, she left for the Paris Sorbonne.
Returning from France to her homeland, she transferred to George Washington University in Columbia, from which she graduated in 1951 with a bachelor’s degree in French literature, and immediately got a job as a correspondent in the daily newspaper The Washington Times-Herald . Among her most intriguing reports were interviews with Richard Nixon , who was then Vice President of the United States, the inauguration of the American leader Dwight D. Eisenhower (led the country from 1953 to 1961), report on the coronation of Elizabeth II , etc.
Jacqueline Bouvier subsequently studied US history at Georgetown University in Washington.
During this period, Bouvier was engaged for about three months to a young stockbroker John Husted , but this relationship did not lead to the creation of a family.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Family and career of the first lady of the United States
In 1952, at a dinner party in Washington, Jackie met the then Senator from Massachusetts John F. Kennedy , whom she married a year later.Their lavish wedding took place on September 12, 1953 at St Mary’s Church in Newport, Rhode Island.
The first years of Jacqueline’s family life were darkened not only by the loss of a child, but also by the betrayal of her husband, who, according to rumors, had affairs with famous models, actresses, and secretaries. But the most striking and lasting was the connection between Jacqueline’s husband and the legendary Marilyn Monroe (“There are only girls in jazz”, “How to marry a millionaire”, “Gentlemen prefer blondes”). Knowing about John’s intrigues, his wife resignedly endured it, forgiving and never ceasing to love him.
On November 27, 1957, the couple had a daughter Caroline Bouvier Kennedy , and on November 25, 1960 – John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. . In addition to these children, Jacqueline and John F. Kennedy had two more: Arabella Kennedy , born dead on August 23, 1956, and Patrick Bouvier Kennedy , who died of respiratory distress syndrome on August 9, 1963, on the second day after birth.
Shortly before the birth of his son , John F. Kennedy , who launched his candidacy for the post of head of the United States in January 1960, was elected the 35th President of America.It happened on November 9, 1960.
While expecting a baby, Jacqueline was unable to travel with her husband everywhere, but she took an active part in her husband’s election campaign right at home: she recorded commercials and gave interviews to print media and television, answered letters and ran a column in the newspaper Campaign Wife …
The most ambitious project Jacqueline Kennedy in the post of first lady was the restoration of the White House, the alteration of which she personally supervised.It was she who insisted that a bill was introduced to Congress, according to which the “presidential office” received the status of a museum. With Jackie’s participation, many of the residence’s historic premises not only changed color (the Red room became dark cherry, the Green took on a chartreuse shade, and the Blue Oval Room became white), but also got the best examples of furniture from the 18-19th centuries. The first lady also held talks with American museums, which eventually presented the White House with one and a half hundred old paintings.Mrs. Kennedy herself chose the fabrics for curtains and draperies, lamps and so on. In a word, everything that could be modernized was restored in the presidential building.
In February 1962, Jacqueline Kennedy conducted a television tour of the renovated White House from the CBS news channel, which was watched by over 56 million American viewers. The first lady herself won an Emmy award.
In the White House, the Kennedy couple received not only world leaders, but also famous writers, musicians, dancers, etc.In addition, Jacqueline Kennedy , as the first lady, has made more international travel than her predecessors. In 1961, Jackie traveled to France, England, Austria, Greece, Colombia and Venezuela. In 1962 she visited India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Italy, Mexico, and in 1963 – Morocco, Turkey, Greece, France, Italy.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. The assassination of John F. Kennedy
November 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy , during his election trip to Dallas, was shot in the head while driving with his wife in a motorcade surrounded by guards and a large crowd.Wounded, the president fell on Jacqueline, who was sitting next to him, dressed that fateful day in her favorite pink suit, which later became legendary.
The Kennedys were taken to hospital where John died. Jacqueline, as if in a dream, went with her husband’s body to an autopsy, then brought him to the White House. Over the next few days, she showed incredible fortitude by planning a lavish funeral ceremony for her husband, the president. Jacqueline continued to demonstrate incredible composure, taking care of children and moving from the White House, welcoming the new head of the United States and fulfilling the duty of the first lady to the very end.She fascinated the whole world with her strength of spirit.
Some time after John’s funeral, Jacqueline left the White House and settled with her children in New York. Having put on mourning, she stopped going out. Grieving, coping with the pain of loss and finding meaning in what was happening, she spent a year, while rarely speaking in public, paying more attention to her husband’s legacy, participating in the creation of the John F. Kennedy Library and the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, working for the public initiatives and relationships.
On November 29, 1963, Jacqueline Kennedy invited the journalist Theodore White, who always sympathized with her husband, to her family estate in Heinnis Port to talk about the day of the tragedy and her experiences, as she had to speak out. An article with Jackie’s revelations was published in Life magazine on December 6, 1963.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Life after the death of John F. Kennedy
Five years after the death of John F. Kennedy , in October 1968, Jackie remarried.Her choice was the richest Greek ship owner Aristotle Onassis , who managed to ensure the safety of his wife and her children and protect their privacy. In the new marriage, Jacqueline continued to actively engage in social activities, tirelessly advocated the preservation of Greek historical monuments.
Her second husband died in 1975, and Jacqueline became a widow for the second time. She was 46 years old.
Jacqueline: Aristotle Onassis saved me at a time when my life was full of ghosts.He meant a lot to me. Together with him, I found love and happiness. We have experienced many wonderful moments that I will never forget and for which I will be forever grateful to him.
At the end of her mourning, Jacqueline resumed her editorial career in New York. Having always devoted her free time to her children and loved ones, she worked in this position for publishing houses such as Viking Press, Doubleday and did not forget to defend American cultural heritage. So, she managed to save the Grand Central Station in New York, which they intended to destroy in the 1970s.
It is known that after Onassis left for another world, Jacqueline had several hobbies, but her second half, her life partner, became the financier Maurice Templeman , whom she met back in the 1950s, when he worked as a freelance consultant for one of the politicians.
Rosa Schreiber, Maurice’s cousin, said in one of her interviews: Jacqueline married for the first time in order to acquire a high social status. The second time she got married for guaranteed security.Her third bond is based on great friendship and mutual respect. In terms of their depth and essence, these relationships are the cleanest and saneest of all …
In January 1994, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis was diagnosed with lymphoma on . At the insistence of her daughter, she, being an inveterate smoker, gave up the addiction. In April, Jacqueline’s condition worsened.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis died May 19, 1994 in her sleep. She was buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia, USA.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Secret Interviews
After losing John F. Kennedy Jacqueline only spoke to the press three times about her first marriage. The audio recording of her interview with the historian Arthur Schlesinger she asked to be classified and made public only half a century after her death. However, the world heard these revelations much earlier, in 2011.
Then one of the TV channels decided to make a film about the deceased president and his wife, revealing in it some secrets of the Kennedy family.In order to prevent the spread of unwanted rumors and speculation, Jacqueline’s daughter, Caroline Kennedy , published a series of interviews that her mother gave to the famous historian four months after the death of her husband John.
Conversations, in which Jacqueline revealed her innermost secrets and made ambiguous statements about some political figures, later served as the basis for the film by the eminent French director Patrick Jedi. Details of the assassination of John F. Kennedy were not disclosed in the interview.Jackie spoke warmly and with great love of her late husband, talking about his family qualities, attitude towards children, the support she received from him in difficult times.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Interesting Facts
* After graduating from university in 1951, Jackie and her sister Caroline Lee went on a trip to Europe. Then the future first lady, in co-authorship with Carey, wrote the only autobiographical book called “One Special Summer”, which contains her drawings.
* Jacqueline enjoyed huge press coverage. Photographer Ron Galella was especially obsessed with her. He followed on the heels of Jackie, filming her every day in an attempt to get candid photos with a celebrity. But she ended up suing him and winning the case, which attracted negative public attention to the paparazzi.
* Son Jacqueline, John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. , who became a lawyer and editor of the magazine, died with his wife in a plane crash off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard on July 16, 1999, in an airplane he himself piloted.
* Daughter Jacqueline, Caroline Bouvier Kennedy , is a writer and lawyer.
* About the life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis A number of documentaries and feature films have been shot. So, in September 2016, a biopic about the first lady of the United States was released, where Natalie Portman appeared in her role (“My Blueberry Nights”, “Love and Other Circumstances,” “Black Swan”). The tape, released under the slogan “I want them to see what they have done to Jack” (“I want them to see what they did to Jackie”), was shown at the Venice Film Festival and other prestigious film shows and received good reviews from critics. many awards and prizes.In addition, she was nominated for three awards “Oscars” in the categories “Best Actress”, “Best Costume Design” and “Best Original Music”, grossed about $ 25 million worldwide with a budget of $ 9 million.
* Jacqueline Kennedy is still one of the most beloved and iconic first ladies of the United States. Jackie is considered a symbol of style and beauty by many women around the world.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Style
Jacqueline Kennedy is a recognized style icon.Her elegant image of the First Lady has become a reference point for many influential women around the world. The main components of Jacqueline’s corporate identity are round collar, elongated sleeves, gloves, midi skirts, pearl jewelry, silk scarves. Undoubtedly, these are the original jackets that Jackie loved to wear throughout her life. Her business card is the invariable magnificent bob. Jacqueline always carried herself with dignity and majesty, was refined and graceful.
Some features of her image were also guessed by other First Ladies of the United States, including, for example, Michelle Obama and Melania Trump, whose image is very often stylized as Jacqueline.In addition, the commonality between women was repeatedly emphasized by the husband of the latter, Donald Trump, who was elected head of the United States in 2016.
Jacqueline left a noticeable mark in the history of fashion, influencing its development, because the cult images of Lady Jackie are played up at the shows every now and then, various accessories are created in her honor, be it jewelry, bags, and also perfume.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Films about the first lady
1981 Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy
1991 A woman named Jackie
2009 Gray Gardens (Jeanne Tripplehorn as Kennedy)
2011 Kennedy Clan (miniseries Kennedy; as Kennedy; as Kennedy )
2013 Butler (as Kennedy – Minka Kelly)
2016 Jackie (as Kennedy – Natalie Portman)
Washington Air Quality Index (AQI) and US Air Pollution
* Translated using machine translation
Why is Washington DC’s Air Quality So Poor?
In general, air quality in Washington state is normal.Episodes of poor air quality are usually the result of short-term PM2.5 and / or ozone pollution.
PM2.5 describes airborne particles from a wide variety of sources (even natural ones) that are 2.5 micrometers or less. Windborne dust, soot and ash from forest fires, industrial complex chemicals and fossil fuel combustion are all common sources of PM2.5.
PM2.5 are combined from many chemical compounds into a single category based on size, as they are able to overcome the defenses of the respiratory system and cause a wide range of short and long term health effects, including cough, shortness of breath, etc.and chest pain, chronic diseases that contribute to early death.
Dramatic PM2.5 surges in Washington DC are often associated with incomplete combustion, such as winter wood burning and forest fires. The latter is the cause of interannual fluctuations.
Only 54 percent of Washington DC met the WHO annual exposure targets for PM2.5 in 2017. That number rose to 78.5 percent in 2018 and 98 percent in 2019. These annual improvements in Washington air quality are in line with the declines in fires and acres burned over those years.Nationwide, 71,500 fires burned 10 million acres in 2017, while 58,100 fires burned 8.8 million acres in 2018, and only 50,500 fires burned 4.7 million acres in 2019. 1
2020 was a record year for both national and national fires, causing more than a week of “unhealthy” or worse air quality in many Washington DC cities such as Seattle, Tacoma, Everett, Bellevue and Kent.
As the global climate warms, forest fires are expected to become more frequent and severe, as will the smokiness of Washington DC. 2 Steep mountains, strong winds, longer summers and drier conditions are contributing to the wildfire problem in Washington and shedding light on a clear trend of what is likely to come. Such heightened seasonal conditions have already led to historic wildfire seasons in recent years, especially in 2020 and 2017 before.
In addition to the effects of forest fires, seasonal wood burning in winter causes significant increases in PM2.5 levels between November and February.An estimated 63 percent of particulate matter pollution in the Puget Sound area in winter is associated with wood stoves and fireplaces (compared with 16 percent of emissions from cars). 3 In winter, urban Washington DC levels typically experience PM2.5 levels 3 to 5 times higher than in summer.
Although winter emissions are usually higher than summer emissions, adverse weather conditions such as temperature inversions can inhibit the dispersal of polluted air, further increasing air pollution levels.Temperature inversions are common in Washington during the winter, especially when snow covers the ground. Temperature inversions describe the conditions under which cold air at surface level is trapped and stagnant beneath the warmer, denser air above. Without a means to spread beyond the warm air layer, emissions accumulate in the lower atmosphere. Only weather changes such as direct sunlight, strong gusts of wind or seasons can change these conditions.
Ground-level ozone, commonly referred to as smog, is another air pollutant of concern in Washington state.Ozone is a highly corrosive gas formed in the atmosphere from surrounding “primary” pollutants that react with sunlight. Because it requires abundant sunlight and heat (85 degrees and above) to form, ozone rises in summer, worsens in the afternoon, and usually dissipates in the evening and early morning.
Climate change is also exacerbating forest fires and ozone. As temperatures rise, the ozone season lengthens. Higher temperatures also speed up the formation of ozone, making it even more prevalent on the hottest days.
While most neighborhoods in Washington meet federal ozone levels, the Seattle-Tacoma area does not, and has not, since 2016. 4 Ozone has risen sharply there, probably as a result of rising temperatures and increased traffic (the number one source of ozone’s precursor, nitrogen dioxide).
Moving to a larger share of fuel efficient, low emission vehicles offers the opportunity to combat this ozone trend and further reduce PM2.5 levels.Moving to cleaner energy and reducing reliance on fossil fuels offers another important opportunity to further reduce air pollution in Washington.
Which cities in Washington state are the most polluted?
According to the American Lung Association’s 2020 Air Condition report comparing regional air quality in the United States, Yakima County and Okanogan County ranked 9th and 14th respectively for the worst 24-hour PM2.5 pollution.Brief spikes in PM2.5 are common in regions of the Pacific Northwest as a result of frequent seasonal wildfires.
In 2019, which was a relatively mild year of wildfires, the most polluted cities in Washington for annual PM2.5 pollution were Sunnyside (11 μg / m 3 ), Yakima (10.4 μg / m 3 ), Toppenish (10 μg / m 3 ), Mineral (9.8 μg / m 3 ). ) and Yelm (9.8 μg / m 3 ).
This rating usually differs from year to year depending on various factors (eg location of forest fires).However, from 2018 to 2019, Colville, Twisp and Yakima were among the ten most polluted cities in Washington.
Air pollution levels are often correlated with the prevalence of asthma in urban populations as a key factor. The west coast of Washington, especially the south west coast, has some of the highest rates of asthma in the state. Counties with the highest rates of asthma include: 5
- Asthma in adults: Asotin, Cowlitz, Ferry, Kitsap, Pacific, Thurston, and Wahkiakum.
- Youth asthma: Spokane, Columbia, Garfield, Asotin, Lewis, Vaciacum and Grace Harbor.
Breathing in contaminated air can increase emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and sometimes premature death. However, you can breathe clean air even in a polluted environment. To do this, check real-time air quality measurements in your city, follow the recommended precautions, and make your home a clean air haven.
What Causes Air Pollution in Washington State?
Most unhealthy air levels in Washington DC are associated with fine particulate matter or PM2.5. External sources of PM2.5 include dust from construction sites and agricultural activities, smoke from forest fires and winter wood burning, and chemicals such as black carbon from ships, trains, vehicles, and factory emissions.
The highest monthly PM2.5 levels in Washington are mainly associated with wood stoves and fireplaces, which make up 63 percent of winter solids.On the other hand, the highest daily PM2.5 levels in Washington DC are associated with seasonal wildfires.
Cold air inversion, which is more common between November and February, can increase measured air quality levels in Washington by stagnating air and preventing the normal spread of air pollution. While these weather conditions do not “cause” air pollution directly, they contribute to the accumulation of emissions, resulting in higher levels of air pollution.
Like most cities in the United States, ozone pollution in Washington is primarily associated with vehicle emissions, including heavy diesel trucks and private cars. Other sources include power plants and other industries, as well as sources of ignition such as forest fires and wood burning.
Use the Washington DC Air Quality Map to discover local sources of emissions and understand how wind interacts with pollutants to cause far-reaching air pollution.
When Will Washington Air Quality Improve?
From a decades-long perspective, Washington DC’s air quality has improved significantly with annual PM2.5 and short-term ozone levels. Despite the improvement in short-term PM2.5 pollution over nearly 15 years, the measure continues to rise, with levels from 2017 to 2018 roughly the same as those from 2000 to 2001.
Further improvements in air quality amid worsening climate change will require additional action, such as further reducing the prevalence of ozone precursor pollutants by switching to cleaner and more fuel efficient vehicles and managing the frequency and severity of forest fires with prescribed fires.
How to Prevent Air Pollution in Washington State?
There are a number of actions that can be taken at the state and personal level to reduce air pollution in Washington DC. Ultimately, the collective efforts of these two people are the greatest mobilizers for change.
Governments are a powerful force in statewide emissions management. Legislative and publicly funded strategies include:
- Promote accessibility and attractiveness of public transport.
- Encourage or legislate the transition from older wood-burning stoves to cleaner appliances.
- Implement burning bans to reduce the risk of forest fires and seasonal wood burning.
- Reduce dependence on diesel fuel through more fuel efficient vehicles and cleaner fuels.
- Conversion of the public fleet of vehicles to electric or hybrid alternatives.
- Use prescribed fires to clear forest debris and reduce the risk of serious forest fires.
Reducing personal emissions is a way to take matters into our own hands to improve our local environment and the planet as a whole. The most important actions to take on a personal level include:
- Reduce wood burning at home and instead look for home heating alternatives such as natural gas and propane.
- Drive less, use more public transportation, and choose cleaner cars and fuel.
- Avoid lighting outdoor fires and barbecues and observe any burning prohibitions. Follow safety protocol when starting fires outdoors (over 90 percent of forest fires are caused by human activity).
+ Article Resources
 Hoover K, et al. (2020, September 1). Wildfire statistics. Congressional Research Service (CRS).
 Hill A. (2020, September 16). Why U.S. wildfires will only get worse. Council on Foreign Relations.
 Puget Sound Clean Air Agency. (2020). Criteria air pollutants.
 American Lung Association. (2020). State of the air – 2020.
 Washington State Department of Health. (2013). Outdoor air pollution and asthma in Washington state.