The Evolution of Lacrosse and Where it All Began
Originally known as stickball, many may be surprised at how long the game of lacrosse has been around. Created by the Algonquin tribe of Native Americans, it was originally played in the eastern part of the U.S. and eventually migrated into the Great Lakes region.
The Jesuit missionary, Jean de Brebeuf, was the first European to see the sport being played in the 1630s and dubbed it lacrosse. Annual games were held and they were major events that could involve up to 100,000 Native American players at the same time.
Word of the game spread to Canadian dentist, Dr. William George Beers. In 1856 he founded the first lacrosse club, created more specific rules, reduced the number of players, redesigned the stick, and introduced a rubber ball. It became Canada’s national game.
Exhibitions were played in England in 1876 that drew big crowds, including Queen Victoria. By 1883, lacrosse was touted as a reason to immigrate to Canada and it was played during the Summer Olympics in 1904 and 1908.
St. Leonard’s School in St. Andrews, Scotland, lays claim to being the first girl’s school to play the game in 1890. In 1895, the number of players was increased to 10, and then to 12 in 1913. Lacrosse was played primarily in schools at first and then lacrosse clubs began cropping up throughout England, with the first international match held in 1913 between Wales and Scotland.
Lacrosse came back home to the U.S. for women through the efforts of Rosabelle Sinclair, a Scotswoman who had attended St. Leonard’s and played the sport there. During the 1930s, Canadians introduced box lacrosse that was played indoors, enabling fans to engage during the harsh winters. In 1936, the sport was also being played in Australia, but an official organization wasn’t created there until 1962.
Today, lacrosse leagues abound worldwide and more are being formed each year in the U.S. It’s a game that’s being played by pee wee teams and children in grade school to the collegiate level. For a time it gained a reputation as a sport for the elite, but it’s shedding that image as more middle class youngsters discover lacrosse and claim it as their own.
Due to the popularity of lacrosse, the need for high-quality equipment is absolutely necessary for practice and gameplay.
We want YOU to have the best product at the best price. We want the game of Lacrosse to be promoted anywhere and everywhere around the globe and hope to be part of its growth.
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History of Lacrosse – Origins and Evolution of Lacrosse
Lacrosse was a game played by the Native American Indians
that was originally known as stickball. It was discovered
by French settlers who named it after the crosier, as some suggest. Since a
netted racquet is used to hit the ball. it is easily differentiated from
other team sports. (Etc. team hokey and shinny).
The origin of lacrosse is rooted in religious customs of Native tribes who saw it as a
tool to resolve wars, heal sick people, develop endurance and strength
of male population
. Big events like lacrosse were played in large areas, and it is believed
that anywhere between 100 and 1,000 players could
participate in one game.
The events were played in huge areas between villages, and the goals would
range from 500 yards (460m) to 6 miles apart. The main rule was that the ball must not be touched with the hands. Other than that,
the rules were simple, and there were no boundaries. Trees and rock were
mostly used to mark the goals, but in later years these
were wooden posts. The beginning of the game was indicated
by the ball tossed in the air and players would rush to catch it first. The
ball used for lacrosse was not of standardized size. It would range between
a tennis ball and a softball. According to sources, balls were made of deer
hides filled with animal hair, however, some Indian tribes used wooden
balls. The game used to be very violent, often causing broken limbs and,
not uncommonly, deaths due to head blows.
Some French colonists were amongst the first to witness lacrosse being
played by Native American Indians almost 400 years ago. In 1636 the
Frenchman Jean de Brébeuf was one of the first white to write about
lacrosse. The contest that he observed was called Huron which is now
located in Ontario, Canada. Not so long after, colonists began to show
great interest in the game. Being impressed by the level of engagement,
speed and rough play, soldiers started to wager between each other and pick
their favorite players.
Players were traditionally involved in rituals prior to the game. Their faces and bodies would be decorated with paints and, as
would the stick racks. The shaman (medicine man) had a
crucial role in preparing the rituals and holding a dance on the night before the game. He used the comb-like
object made of turkey leg bone to scratch the players’ bodies and he would
repeatedly inflict wounds with the comb until the certain amount of blood
drops fell down an opponent’s elbow.
was one the primary purposes of playing lacrosse. It was a tool of diplomacy in early days. That is how tribes used
to resolve territorial disputes and cultivate political fellowships. Since
a persistent warfare was not the best answer, tribes would set a date for
lacrosse at convenient times.
Lacrosse appealed to tradition and set strong foundations for stability
within community. Tribes were creating myths of first ball game that was
played by the gods themselves. According to those stories the ball
symbolized the sun and the moon moving across the sky.
It was the summer of 1763 when Sauk and Ojibway people started forging out
a plan to recapture Fort Michilimackinac from British, who were at that
time at war with France. Since the two Indian tribes preferred French
trading practices to English ones, they thought of
organizing a lacrosse game in order to distract British soldiers
. The Natives set the date which was on the same day of king’s birthday
because the soldiers were not to be on duty but to be entertained by public
wagering. When the game began the players from both teams took the weapons
from the women spectating the game, attacked the British soldiers and
recaptured the fort. This event is considered the day when lacrosse defeated the empire.
Lacrosse has greatly chanced since the Natives played it in 15th and 16th
century. Many rules has been introduced to the game and the idea is to have
fun and enjoy recreational competition with friends. The size of the filed
today is only about 100 yards instead of many miles long. The goals are no
longer made of rocks and wood. The standard is 6 by 6 feet goal. Also, the
number of players is set to 10 at a time instead of hundreds
, but sometimes there can be 6, depending of the style of lacrosse. Over
the last 10 years the sport has seen a significant increase of players in
the USA, especially participants who are 15 and under.
The equipment used in lacrosse has undergone some major modifications.
While Native tribes didn’t use any pads at all, presently players wear them
on shoulders and arms. The helmets and mouth guards are also worn. In the
past, the sticks were made of wood, but today they are being made of
various metal. such as aluminum and scandium. The heads of lacrosse sticks
have also greatly evolved. They used to be part of the entire stick – also
made of wood – but now they are created out of plastic molded into various
shapes for better handling. Long time ago lacrosse was played in the plains
of the New World in the 16th century, while today people watch or play
lacrosse in stadiums.
Apart from the eastern United States and Canada, the game is now becoming
popular from coast to coast nationally and in other countries worldwide:
England, Australia, Ireland, Germany, Japan, Czech, Wales, France, South
Korea, Sweden, etc.
The father of modern lacrosse is considered to be, at the time, a young
dentist named William George Beers. In September 1860, he
made efforts to set new instructions and rules for Lacrosse, which had had
no written regulations. Additionally, he decided to replace the deerskin ball with one made of hard rubber.
The first modern appearance of lacrosse was in England in 1867, when 16
players along with Captain W.B. Johnson traveled for an exhibition game in
the town of Fulham, near London. Majority of the players were Native
Americans from the Iroquois nation, however, some other nationalities were
represented on the team as well.
The myth that lacrosse is the Canadian national sport still is still
echoing. Most likely due to the fact that Beer was so fascinated with the
sport that he campaigned for it to become the national game, although
during Confederation period, cricket was the most popular sport in the on
the continent. In 1867 Beers claimed that the Parliament had made Lacrosse
the national sport, and though many people in Canada believed him there
were no evidence that Lacrosse had been proclaimed as the national sport of
The first women’s lacrosse game was organized in the last
decade of 19th century in Scotland. Prior to that, there was an attempt to
start the women’s lacrosse in Virginia in 1914, but it eventually failed.
Miss Rosabelle Sinclair formed the first women’s lacrosse team in the
United States at the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore, Maryland.
Women played Lacrosse in Victoria, Australia, in 1936. However, due to the
unsuitable circumstances, the Australian Women’s Lacrosse Council was not
founded until 1962.
The same rules were applied for both men’s and women’s lacrosse offering no
protective equipment, until the mid-1930s. From that period, men’s lacrosse
started to evolve rapidly, while women had to obey the game’s original
The box lacrosse is an indoor version of
the game that originates from Canada. Not much after it was introduced it
became a prominent sport in the country. mostly due to harsh winters which
prevented the outdoor play.
Lacrosse Sports History: Where Did It All Begin?
The lacrosse game has a fascinating history with its origins stretching back over 3000 years. It forms one of the oldest team sports in North America. A better understanding of the origins of lacrosse helps us to connect more closely with it and offers a rich insight into the game we’ve been playing till today.
What Is Lacrosse?
- Lacrosse is a team sport.
- It is played using a lacrosse ball and a stick.
- The number of players consists of 2 teams – 12 players on each.
- Each player uses the stick to catch, carry, shoot and pass the ball, with the aim to score a goal in the net.
How Old Is The Game?
The lacrosse game is thought to be around 3000 years old and was originally enjoyed by the Native American people.
However, when we ask – who invented lacrosse? – we are actually exploring vast, diverse nations, each with its own rules, motivations, and preferences.
The Early Days
Lacrosse owes its origins to the Native American people of the area now described as Canada and the United States and was originally enjoyed by the Plains Indians tribes, and eastern Woodlands Native Americans.
Depending on the region, lacrosse game used to have various names:
- ‘dehintsigwaehs’ (they bump hips),
- ‘tewaaraton’ (little brother of war),
- ‘baaga adowe’ (bump hips),
It’s important to note, that lacrosse game rules were also varying among different regions – in some, it would consist even of hundreds of players, divided into two sides from opposing tribes, or villages, who would rush to catch a single ball after it was thrown into the air.
However, the focus of all the variations of lacrosse remained quite the same – chasing and obtaining the ball.
Rules and place of the game
- As a symbol of the competition, games were typically enjoyed on green space, located between the two villages, and the playing space was vast, with goals ranging from between 500 yards and 6 miles apart;
- These spaces were typically constructed from trees or large, clear rocks in the early days.
- Rules were sparing: out of bounds was not an issue, but it was important that the ball was never touched with the hands.
- The play would occur from sunup to sundown, with the victor determined at this point.
The Purpose of Lacrosse
As well as offering a recreational activity, lacrosse had other interesting purposes:
- It was used as a means to settle disputes between tribes: Iroquois lacrosse is a key example of this.
- It could also be used to prepare players for combat, ensuring that their physical fitness and strength were maintained.
- It was also forming part of a festival or ritual.
- In some cases, native American games even had a spiritual component, and would be played as a form of collective prayer, “for the pleasure of the Creator.”
Before The Match
The early days of lacrosse came with specific rituals and practices akin to those associated with war.
- Appearance. Players on either side would decorate themselves and their stocks with paint and charcoal, as well as attributes to represent the qualities they wished to demonstrate in the game, such as strength or bravery.
- Food. There were rules on what could and could not be eaten prior to a match.
- Pre-game nights. The night before a game there were huge events, with ceremonial regalia, dances, sacrifices, and the expression of sacred expressions: medicine men helped with rituals before and on the day of each match, including the tradition of ‘going to water’ – as the name suggests, this involved dipping sticks in water, while a medicine man delivered a spiritual talk.
- Betting. Wagers were also an important pre-game ritual, and this was required of every player. These involved key items including knives, handkerchiefs, trinkets, and even horses, and bets were clearly displayed. Winners would receive a share of these after the game if successful.
In the Southeastern version of the game, players had three areas to score, demonstrated by marks on the stickball pole, with each area offering a different number of points:
- Anything below the first mark – around chest height – would not be scored while hitting the first mark earned one point.
- At the top of the pole – you received two points per hit.
- The very top of the pole – three points – this would typically be embellished with a figure, such as sacred animals.
Though most games wrapped up at around twenty points for one team, scoring was not tightly monitored; the thrill was in the game, rather than a strict outcome. Immediately after the game, there would usually be another huge ceremony, with dances, feasts, and celebrations.
It is worth noting that women’s lacrosse was also a popular pastime in many areas in addition to the male lacrosse game. This female version of lacrosse was known as ‘amtahcha’. Sticks tended to be shorter, and sometimes a double ball was used.
Evolution Of Lacrosse
Lacrosse has developed from the style of the native American athletes, and the introduction of Europe is an important consideration in the history of lacrosse timeline.
- According to history, there was a version of the lacrosse sport present in the 17th century, in the area now known as Canada.
- French Jesuit missionaries are said to have witnessed the game being played by American Indians, and condemned the violent nature, as well as the inclusion of gambling and betting, and vowed to eradicate the sport from the area.
- Despite their disapproval (or perhaps because of it!) European colonists visiting the area became fascinated by the game, and it was popular amongst French colonists by around 1740 – though it was noted that their skill level was not equal to that of the American Indians.
- Texts from James Smith in 1757 suggest that by this time, a wooden ball was being used, manipulated by a strong staff with a hooped net at one end – the forerunner of our modern day lacrosse sticks.
- From here, the popularity of lacrosse spread across the European colonists, resulting in the game being taken back to Europe and enjoyed across the continent.
Meanwhile, interest in lacrosse was growing across Canada, after a team of Caughnawaga Indians demonstrated the game in Montreal in 1834, lighting the spark of intrigue, and resulting in the creation of the Montreal Lacrosse Club in 1856 by William George Beers.
He then went on to modify the game creating uniformity:
- The length of the game was shortened.
- The number of players was reduced.
- Rubber ball and stick were introduced.
The first game in this style occurred in 1867, and lacrosse became the national game of Canada.
The Royal Seal Of Approval
Lacrosse enjoyed the royal nod – thanks to a visit by Queen Victoria in 1876. Upon observing an exhibition game, she said that “the game is very pretty to watch.” This resulted in an explosion in popularity amongst English schoolgirls, with most schools adopting lacrosse from the late 1890s.
This moment brought women’s lacrosse to the forefront, helping it to be recognized, established, and appreciated on the same level as men’s lacrosse.
At around the same time, the first organized lacrosse club appeared in the United States – again, both sexes were recognized. Lacrosse was well on its way to serious world domination.
By the 20th century, the majority of schools, colleges, and universities had adopted lacrosse as a league sport – in 1904 it gained official Olympic status. In 1908 it formed a sport in the World Games.
Later on, various adaptations and variations started to appear:
- An indoor version of the sport appeared in Canada as a response to the cooler climate.
- Both minor and professional leagues began to spring up, including the National Lacrosse League, Major League Lacrosse, and, most recently, the Premier Lacrosse League.
The lacrosse game continues to be a popular sport around the globe, and the development of the Premier Lacrosse League is only enhancing this.
Players are considering going pro, college students are making the most of their skill set, and the reputation and status of lacrosse are only increasing.
As the popularity increases, more and more players discover and enjoy this fast-paced, exciting game – and one which has one of the most fascinating histories of team sports across North America. The history of lacrosse is ongoing; fans can only watch and wait, to see where the next development takes us.
What Is Lacrosse? The Origins and History of the Sport
What is lacrosse? While it might just seem like any other sport to somebody who isn’t really into sports or the history behind them, it’s not. Lacrosse is a sport rooted in tradition, which we seem to have forgotten over the years.
Lacrosse is a game where the players divide into teams. Though it is popular worldwide, lacrosse is most common in the United States. Over the past few decades, lacrosse has made gains in popularity.
Today, people play lacrosse in most schools around the U.S, whether as an extracurricular activity or a gym class requirement. Even if you’re not positive what lacrosse is, you probably have some rough idea.
How lacrosse is played
Though original lacrosse and lacrosse in the modern-day do have their fair share of differences, the basics are the same. Lacrosse involves teaming up, a ball, some kind of carrying stick, and a goal.
The objective of the game is to get the ball, which is smaller than a soccer ball, into the other team’s goal. You can’t use your hands, though: That’s what the lacrosse sticks are for. You stick the ball in the netted end and throw it to your teammates and, eventually, into the goal.
One of the earliest accounts of lacrosse comes from a document written in 1612. You can describe the game as similar to field hockey, a popular game in Europe at the time. Interestingly enough, adults originally played the game, but today kids represent the largest demographic among players.
As life evolves, we tend to forget the origins of common things in our lives. For example, do you know where ketchup originated? Do you know why?
The answer is most likely no. It’s not your fault; as things become more widely used and accepted, we naturally stop putting emphasis on their roots. That habit we have is nothing to be proud of, and it’s definitely something to work on, but that’s for another day.
The Native American origins of lacrosse
If you know the bare bones of the sport, you probably know that it has a Native American origin story. More specifically, lacrosse was first played by the Algonquians and the Powhatans. The two founding tribes were prevalent in and around eastern Virginia, where European settlers first arrived in their efforts for colonization.
Given that fact, it makes sense that they were the first seen playing lacrosse. It’s also why we associate them with the game even though there could definitely have been other tribes who played first. However, original lacrosse and the lacrosse we know today are not as similar as they might seem.
What was the original lacrosse like?
First of all, the game wasn’t originally called “lacrosse.” A French missionary named Jean de Brébeuf provided its current name. The game was actually called “stickball.”
The game involved a stick and a ball if you couldn’t guess. The sticks evolved as the game grew in popularity, going from simple tree branch mechanisms to more complex instruments made from bones, deer sinew, and fishing nets.
The balls had their share of evolution, too. Originally, they were just wooden balls. However, they became balls of sticks and fur, wrapped in deer hide to keep them together.
The original rules
The original rules of lacrosse and the rules today actually aren’t terribly different. Players may not touch the ball with their hands. However, lacrosse players today have boundaries they need to stay inside, unlike the original version.
The ball couldn’t touch another player’s hand, but a player could touch another player. While there are still some allowances of contact in lacrosse, it’s nowhere near what it was. There were very few boundaries as far as gameplay and contact.
Though not technically a rule, the warm-ups for lacrosse were also different Today, players jog around and do exercises before a game. However, that was not always the case.
The players had a celebration the night before the game, complete with dancing and food that was thought to help them win. All in all, the sport was more focused on the community aspect rather than the logistics and best ways of winning.
What is lacrosse about today for the most part? Winning and following the rules, like a lot of sports have become.
What is lacrosse today that it used to be? It’s a great way to build leadership skills; it takes a good leader to win.
The cultural role of lacrosse in Native American traditions
Lacrosse brought people together. People used it as an act of communion, allowing them to play and have fun while exercising. In fact, the crowded games allowed a wide range of players to participate.
Though the game is recreational, it is also great to tone its participants, making them more apt for the hardships of hunting and gathering. Gaining the ability to chuck a ball was training for things like throwing spears or knives.
Players painted their faces and bodies with charcoal. That would help to differentiate between the teams, which would otherwise be too large and confusing to keep track of. Overall, lacrosse was a symbol of union, a symbol of joy, and it has remained that way.
Lacrosse in the Modern World
Lacrosse in the modern world differs from lacrosse in the old world. The sticks are more advanced, the balls are made of a different material. In today’s lacrosse, especially for women, referees won’t let you play without proper gear, and they are enforcing safety rules with an iron fist.
Lacrosse underwent name changes, rule changes, and societal changes. However, something that still hasn’t changed is the fact that lacrosse still brings people together. People connect over their love for the sport and form lifetime bonds while they play together.
The modern benefits of lacrosse
Besides being an extremely physical sport that will help to keep you healthy, lacrosse has several different benefits. When you’re trying to choose a sport to play, lacrosse should not be overlooked.
Colleges give out tons of sports scholarships. When you think of them, you may not necessarily think “lacrosse.” You probably think about football, because everybody thinks about football.
In reality, it’s sports like lacrosse or rowing that are in demand with colleges. The sports that students overlook because they’re not as common are the sports with fewer team members. Fewer team members mean more open spots, which could translate to lower tuition.
Another benefit is the extreme amount of self-control lacrosse takes to play. What is lacrosse? A sport that looks like it should be extremely violent, but it just…isn’t.
What gameplay is like today
Lacrosse still uses a stick and a ball. However, now, there are specific guidelines the players have to follow, such as safety and boundaries as far as gameplay. Lacrosse today is done in teams of no more than nine, while there was no limit in the game’s original version.
Today’s version of the sport is also able to be played indoors. Often times, you’ll see lacrosse players joining teams year-round, even though the game is technically a spring sport. That helps them stay in shape and capable of performing well in the spring season.
Lacrosse in pop culture
Lacrosse has had its fair share of influences on pop culture. Everyone knows “Mean Girls.” At the end of the movie, when Regina George decides to start disposing of her anger in a healthy way, what does she play? Lacrosse.
Granted, the game Regina plays is absolutely not what real lacrosse is like; that level of violence in a girls’ lacrosse league is unheard of. If she tried that in real life, she’d be dismissed from the team.
Lacrosse is also compared to Quidditch — the fictional game played by Harry Potter. The resemblance is definitely there; there are sticks, and some type of ball, and goals. However, if you call a Quidditch player a lacrosse player, do not be surprised when you get throat-punched by a superfan.
Lacrosse is a timeless game. It’s an amazing way to release aggression and form friendships, and it has some practical benefits, too. Colleges don’t take sports lightly.
Remembering the game’s origins is important, and yet, it is so often forgotten. The times of old-school stickball seem so far gone, and they definitely are, but what is lacrosse without stickball? It’s nonexistent.
What is lacrosse? It’s yet another sport that has become so widely loved by the American public, especially. It is a sport that has ended up slowly losing touch with its heritage.
It’s time to remember.
What is lacrosse to you? Have you ever played? Let us know in the comments!
Evolution of the Equipment
The evolution of the Lacrosse stick itself – could alone, be a separate website. There have been countless attempts at improvement and differentiation over the years, so much that single small start-up companies have become relevant in today’s market place due to the unique nature of their product. That being said – lets take a brief step back. For the first 200 or more years since the creation of the sport by the Native American, the only piece of equipment, in addition to the ball, was the lacrosse stick. The type of stick that was used 200+ years ago varied greatly depending on the region of North America you lived in. In south eastern and southern regions the stick took the form of bent wood and looked somewhat like a large spoon.
When you look at the stick that the Iroquois used 300 years ago it is essentially the same version that was used just 50 years ago – there was virtually no need for improvements. Even as recently as the 1880’s, the vast majority of sticks were more often hand crafted by individuals and not corporations. Many were made by local Indians and sold to eager players who desired a hand hewn “crosse”. As the 1800’s came to a close and the early 1900’s began to develop, the demand for equipment grew. Numerous companies were founded that produced and sold all types of equipment for Lacrosse, however, three specific companies began to emerge as the favorite amongst players in North America and United Kingdom. A. G. Spalding & Brothers in the United States, Lally’s Lacrosse Manufacturing Company in Canada and T.S. Hattersley & Son’s in the United Kingdom. Following shortly thereafter during the mid 20th Century, a handful of new companies entered this growing market with equipment of their own. The general time frame that this website tries to cover is from 1860 to 1960, however, I felt compelled to touch upon the dramatic shift in technology that the 1970’s and 1980’s brought to us as a result of the number of companies entering the market during this time frame. The most notable change was the introduction of synthetic or composite lacrosse heads – dying out was the demand for a wooden stick, that was strung with rawhide and catgut – at least in the men’s game – and taking its place were mass produced synthetic heads that were all had an identical feel and balance and could be played equally by a left handed or right handed player.
Between the 1940’s and the 1960’s there were numerous attempts at improving the manufacturing process. This fast evolving and extremely creative period included movement away from a one piece solid wooden stick that was steam bent and then strung by hand – to sticks that were made of laminated wood – essentially gluing thin layers of wood together and then steam bending – the theory being that the point of the bend on the head would no longer be exposed to a high degree of stress. The evolution also included sticks that were made entirely of fiberglass, double-walled heads, synthetic heads within wooden shafts, and then to synthetic heads with aluminum shafts. There have been further technological breakthroughs in the development of the shaft to include a more durable construction – however, this site will not yet make an attempt to document the numerous types of sticks beyond aluminum.
There are numerous pages within this site that will display and communicate the various technological breakthroughs that have been introduced over the past 35+ years from both STX LACROSSE, BRINE LACROSSE, WARRIOR LACROSSE, and a few smaller companies that no longer exist.
A collector looking to find a stick that is made entirely out of wood can do so on any of the major online auction sites, classified advertisement sites, or through local antique stores, thrift stores, and flea markets. Prices are still relatively reasonable and range anywhere from $30 for a generic unlabeled stick to $250 or more for a Goalie stick that still retains is maker’s mark or paper label.
Copyright 2009 Old School LAX Freak
The Perfect Holiday GIFT !!!
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Five Sports Invented in Canada Webisode The Evolution of Lacrosse and the Lacrosse Stick
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[Narrator – Rylan Strachan]
[Painting of early lacrosse players]
The game of lacrosse has evolved from a First Nations ritual activity to the official summer sport of Canada. This crosse represents the lasting importance of lacrosse to the development of the Canadian identity.
[Painting of lacrosse players and early lacrosse team]
Across Canada, lacrosse has been played by Aboriginal peoples under many names and with great variation. Lacrosse was culturally and spiritually integral to the Aboriginal cultures of Ontario and Quebec. Games were played to acknowledge gratitude to the Creator, as a way to settle disputes and train for war.
[Images of lacrosse stick and original lacrosse sticks]
The Aboriginal equipment was simple, a ball and a stick. The Iroquois-style crosse served as the basis for pre-modern designs. It was a single piece of wood with an enclosed droplet shaped head, which replaced the spoon shaped pocket. After lacrosse was embraced by wider society, the white social elite formed clubs in major cities.
[Image of George Beers and of Aboriginal teams]
After Confederation, proud Canadian George Beers saw a need to unite the new country and used lacrosse, a uniquely Canadian sport, as that vehicle. He created the first National Lacrosse Association in 1867. This was the first national body dedicated to the governance of the sport, rule standardization, and management of national championships to promote fellowship throughout the nation.
[Images of lacrosse and Lionel Conacher]
Over time, lacrosse’s popularity waned. To reinvigorate the game, box lacrosse brought the game indoors and players such as Lionel Conacher made the game exciting in the 1930’s.
Significant design changes occurred from the 1970’s to the 1990’s. Most significant was the creation of the two piece crosse, which allowed head and shaft design to evolve separately based on team position.
[Image of modern lacrosse team]
Lacrosse is deeply entrenched in Canada’s history, tradition, and culture. It was and remains a symbol of Canada’s unique national identity and heritage.
The Evolution of Replacing Lacrosse Equipment » Powell Lacrosse Sticks
The Evolution of Replacing Lacrosse Equipment
What is every lacrosse player’s biggest fear?
This fear does not deal with the final score of a game, receiving an award, or letting their team down. This fear is much more personal because it is apart of every lacrosse player’s identity.
Every lacrosse player’s greatest fear is when the day finally comes that their stick, their gloves, or any piece of their equipment breaks.
At least it used to be.
In 2019, it is much easier to replace equipment than past decades thanks to the advanced technology and materials used in the mesh, shafts, cleats, heads, gloves, pads, and helmets that lacrosse players use today. The price of a high quality stick or pair of gloves has also gone down making lacrosse more accessible to everyone. Watching college and professional games recently at least one or two players are breaking sticks or having equipment issues every game. In the past this would be a huge problem, but players are now able to pick up their back up, that they may have never used before, and throw passes and take shots well enough to get the job done right away.
The death of a stick or a pair of gloves is not as devastating for players as it used to be.
When I go home and look at my old sticks and equipment from my first years playing and from high school, I get nostalgia for everything that had to be done to break in your pocket, gloves, and arm pads, but then I realize I definitely do not miss it. There was hard work and long hours of practice that had to put in to get comfortable with your stick or equipment to be able to play with them in a game. Practicing in the rain would mean having to work in the mesh all over again. Finally being able to hit the same brick during wallball, making a great play in a game, or even scoring a goal was worth all the hours of reading tutorials of how to break in mesh or trying to boil a lacrosse head in your kitchen to make it flexible for faceoffs.
I never played with a wooden stick, leather gloves, or used a traditional pocket so I personally do not know the struggles that came with breaking in, but I cannot even imagine the frustration of how long it took to get used to them and the devastation of a stick breaking back then.
When they played with those sticks and wore those gloves they earned every pass and goal they scored in the weeks before they ever took them. The stiff leather gloves needing to be softened up to be able to control the stick. The hard leather gutting in the heavy wooden stick had to be stretched and played with for days and weeks to form a pocket able to hold on to the ball and pas with precision. Adjustments to the leathers and strings had to made constantly especially in bad weather. If the stick broke the process would have to start all over again, but they could not be afraid of breaking them because they had to play as hard as they could to win the game. Every wooden stick having to be handmade was a huge reason that lacrosse remained a smaller sport for decades.
It is huge for the growth of lacrosse that equipment has become so easily accessible and ready to use especially at the youth level. Kids playing lacrosse for the first time can buy a stick at a sporting goods store or order one online like the Powell’s prestrung sticks that have a pocket ready to use right away. Ten years ago kids would have likely gotten a stick with bad factory stringing and mesh as hard as a rock from those same stores making playing lacrosse twice as difficult. The lacrosse equipment and mesh designers of the past suffered many sleepless nights to make it so easy for lacrosse players today to not have to stress about replacing their equipment.
So if you ever get annoyed at having to buy a new shaft, head, or mesh and having to take a couple of hours to get it ready to play with, think of all of the players before you who toiled away day after day that would be burning with envy if they could see you now..
From TRP to HLS – Strelka Mag
To the launch of the new course of the Vector online school “How to create a sports project” Strelka Magazine researched the history of physical culture movement in Russia over the past hundred years.
1930s. Participants of the all-Union sports complex “Ready for Labor and Defense” (GTO complex) / photo: Profusion Stock / Vostock Photo
Every year hundreds of races are held in Russia, dozens of sections open in large cities on various sports – from yoga in the park or on hammocks to strange sports like lacrosse or squash; even the TRP complex was renewed.Even seven or eight years ago, such a situation was difficult to imagine. At the same time, if you study the history of the physical culture movement in the USSR and Russia, you can see that each stage of development was accompanied by a new ideology.
In different periods of the history of the USSR, sport performed many functions: at first it was considered a hobby of the elites, then it was used to train workers, and later to train the military. Physical education was part of government policy and often became an important tool for shaping the image of the ideal worker abroad.In modern Russia, a unique situation has developed when the passion for physical education comes, first of all, from enthusiasts, and not from the state. Are there any common features in the history of mass sports in the USSR and in Russia?
Beginning of the 20th century: the emergence of mass sports
British philosopher Mike O’Mahoney connects the emergence of interest in sports in Russia with the image of a “new man”, which is most clearly illustrated by the example of revolutionary Rakhmetov from Chernyshevsky’s novel “What is to be done?” 1864.He was driven by the desire to go beyond the limits of the bourgeoisie, to break the current system, and therefore he tempered his body and spirit through numerous physical activities (it even came to sleeping on nails). At the same time, when it comes to physical activity at that time, it means ordinary everyday activities: for example, dragging weights and long walks. This is due to the lack of techniques that could help a person to exercise.
Playing croquet at P.N. Konovalov.The beginning of the 20th century / photo: Profusion Stock / Vostock Photo
Nevertheless, by the beginning of the 20th century, an ideal foundation had been created for the education of a person’s physical nature. Returning from a European business trip, Peter Lesgaft (the founder of the scientific system of physical education. – Ed.) Was firmly convinced of the need for daily gymnastics among the young population and in 1896 he became the founder of the first special educational institution in Russia for the training of sports teachers, which is still active today. day.
And yet, before the 1917 revolution, mass sports were not so popular in the country. Separate sports clubs and societies were created, but they were of an elitist nature, the common man was not allowed to go there. Like Alexander Bestuzhev’s fencing and horse riding courses – they were attended only by senior officers who could find time for such entertainment. There is a paradox in this – the image of Rakhmetov runs counter to the hobbies of the bourgeoisie.
Allen Guttman’s From Ritual to Sport says that at the beginning of the 20th century, the communists viewed sport as a manifestation of bourgeois mores – an exclusive privilege of this class that must be destroyed.However, the socialist idea was transformed thanks to Vladimir Lenin, an inveterate athlete (he owns the remark that a real revolutionary “should have muscles, not a rag”), and after the October Revolution at the 1920 congress, sport was proclaimed an important part of the communist system.
1920-1930s: sports as a supplier of labor reserves
Lenin’s initiative was that physical education was to become a mechanism for preparing for labor activity, as well as for armed protection (this idea was embodied later).The communists were obsessed with the idea of creating an ideal working person. (It is worth remembering the history of the Doktorskaya sausage in 1936: there is a legend that Anastas Mikoyan specially developed such a semi-finished product that would replace all meals for a person in general.) And sport was suitable for this.
First images of the Russian football club “Spartak”. 1922 year. Moscow Sports Club of Krasnopresnensky District (ISS) / photo: Profusion Stock / Vostock Photo
At this time, sports clubs began to be created in the USSR at factories, societies, as well as ordinary enthusiasts – in 1922 the Moscow Sports Club was created ”, Which later grew into“ Spartak ”.In 1928, the first All-Union Spartakiad was held, which included a series of competitions in honor of the celebration of the first five-year plan. It is interesting that the Spartakiad emphasized the originality of Soviet sports: if the world hosted the Olympics, created around the ancient traditions and gods of Olympus, then the ideological core of the Spartakiad was the story of Spartacus, a slave who rebelled against the elite. Now we can judge that at this time mass sports were flourishing, because the events of the Second World War and the Stalinist regime significantly changed the course and image of athletes.
1930-1950s: physical education as a preparation for war
To understand the ideology in the field of physical culture and sports at this time, it is necessary to turn again to the legacy of the founder of the Physical Culture University, Peter Lesgaft. The techniques he found at the Central Military Gymnastics School in Aldershot and the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich were expressed in a combination of the drill of European soldiers and the gymnastic exercises they performed.
Leningrad, 1930s.In physical training classes at the Higher Naval School. Frunze / photo: Profusion Stock / Vostock Photo
In addition, at the Third All-Russian Congress of the Russian Communist Youth Union in 1920, a resolution was adopted, which said: “At the moment, physical education also pursues directly practical goals: training youth <...> to the armed defense of the socialist fatherland ”. In the midst of the civil war, the system of military training, Vsevobuch (general military training), created by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee in 1918, was of great importance.The young Red Army needed cadres, and Vsevobuch began to attract more and more young people into its ranks. The militarization of sports was also expressed in the holding of a sports parade in 1919. However, after the victory in the civil war, the general education was terminated in 1923, but during the Second World War it was resumed.
By this time, the popularity of physical education and its military direction were expressed in the creation of the TRP complex (“Ready for Labor and Defense”) – the first to receive an award for meeting the requirements of the complex were representatives of the military department – graduates of the Military Academy.Frunze. And with the beginning of the war, the training system began to play a decisive role for the state – an honest resident of the USSR could stand out with a TRP badge and confirm his status and loyalty to the communist course, and his main motivation for going in for sports was precisely in this.
1950-1980s: the ideal athlete as a confirmation of the status of the USSR abroad
Physical culture programs of the early Soviet years proclaimed the massive participation of the Soviet people in sports.Why such goals were set is another question, but one cannot deny the fact that the authorities did everything to popularize sports: they held parades, sports events, football matches were held even in besieged Leningrad.
Presentation of awards, shot put among women. from left to right: Klavdia Tochenova (USSR, bronze), Galina Zybina (USSR, gold), Marianne Werner (GDR, silver) / photo: Profusion Stock / Vostock Photo
Olympics in Helsinki, 1952 / photo: Ullstein bild / Vostock -photo
In 1952, Soviet athletes went to the Olympics in Helsinki for the first time and succeeded.According to Mike O’Mahoney, the authorities, led by Stalin, specially sabotaged the trip to the 1948 Games in order to better prepare and establish themselves as a superpower at the Olympics. With the victory in Finland and the resonance that it generated, it became clear that sport was becoming a serious argument on the world stage, and therefore the party allocated more funds to the development of talented athletes and less encouraged mass sports.
Since the 1960s, when the standard of living in the USSR increased, and there were more ways to spend leisure time (including the opportunity to watch competitions on TV), physical education began to lose its importance for ordinary people and go into the shadows.However, this could not be said about the success of the Soviet national team: the sports elite achieved success in the next three Olympics, and the Soviet leadership began to work on obtaining the right to hold competitions in the capital. There were not enough votes to support the application for 1976, but by 1980 they still managed to get the right to host the Games. The Olympics contributed to the construction of numerous sports facilities and provoked a short-term increase in public interest in mass sports. However, many facilities were inaccessible to ordinary citizens.The news of the boycott of the Olympics in Moscow by the United States and 55 other states only confirmed that professional sports are an instrument of big politics, where there is no place for mass sports.
Soviet gymnast Maria Gorokhovskaya at the Olympics in Helsinki, 1952 / photo: Ullstein bild / Vostock-photo
Final race of 100 meters among women / photo: Ullstein bild / Vostock Photo
1980-2000s: physical education into oblivion
Restructuring and the transition to a market economy allowed many teams, mainly football, to start earning at least some money on a private basis.They began to conclude contracts with outfitters, place advertisements on uniforms and travel to foreign tournaments and competitions. Many athletes began to move abroad in search of more money and a better training system. But the increase in turnover at sports clubs did not help mass sports in any way: in 1988 the USSR won the Olympics in Seoul, and since then the new state has not reached such heights, although it remained in the elite.
At a physical education lesson in an industrial technical school. Zaporozhye / photo: Profusion Stock / Vostock photo
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, sports clubs, schools and sections began to disappear.The reform to reduce their number in the USSR played a cruel joke with Russia, since along with the closure of schools, training methods began to be destroyed, and those that remained did not meet world standards. Until the 2000s, the lack of sections and the difficult economic situation led to the disappearance of mass sports with rare exceptions. The marginal groups of radical fans who periodically joined the organized criminal group and acted as a fighting force for the bandits also stood apart.
2000-2010s: the revival of mass sports
With the rise in the standard of living, mass sports began to develop.The successes of sports clubs and local victories at the Olympics still popularized sports in Russia. The archaic nature of the Soviet system began to survive, not least thanks to enthusiasts who formed sports communities without municipal and state participation. Although, even without that, many private sports clubs began to receive significant budgetary subsidies and benefits, and the capital of some began to be replenished by state-owned companies. During this period, various sports communities and the personal motivation of each person were of great importance.
Aleksandra Boyarskaya, Founder of the Nike running club in Gorky Park, Nike creative consultant
What happened in the country is a sufficient explanation of what is happening with sports now. In the 1990s, no one even thought about running, except for those who were always in the subject and for whom it was already a habit or part of a family lifestyle. Then the culture of education in sports disappeared. After the arrival of Sergei Kapkov (from 2011 to 2013 – head of the Moscow Department of Culture.- Approx. ed.) and park reforms, public spaces have become more friendly. The marketing activity of Nike, and after other big brands, provoked a growth in interest in running and mass sports as a business, and over the past six years the number of mass competitions, schools of correct running for adults and other sports activities has grown dozens of times.
If we talk about Moscow, then this was facilitated by a short period of revival, Europeanization of society, when we began to adapt Western values (health, sports) to ourselves.Now there is a crisis: those who used to travel a lot, bought expensive subscriptions to sports clubs, tried extreme sports, begin to play sports on their own, because this is a more budgetary way of spending leisure time.
Vladimir Nishukov, researcher of philosophy and sociology of sports and editor of the Russian edition of Allen Guttman’s book “From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sport” bodies, but social bodies.At the end of the 19th – first third of the 20th century, when the main sports institutions were taking shape, only representatives of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy, the idle class, could afford to engage in amateur sports. The worker had neither the time nor the means for this. The sport of the proletarian is professional sport, where he can get money not for working at the machine, but for running on the field. And initially, snobbery and patronizing attitude did not go from pros to amateurs, but in the opposite direction. So, for a long time only amateurs could take part in the Olympic Games, and many sports leagues, albeit nominally, remained just amateur.In the minds of the forefathers of modern sports, first of all Pierre de Coubertin (the initiator of the creation of the modern Olympic Games. – Ed.), An athlete is precisely an aristocrat, not a worker. Hence, as Pierre Bourdieu wrote, any definition of sport (and in it, as a rule, amateur status is fixed) is its political definition.
The difference fades over time. On the one hand, sport, due to ideologization and international significance, is becoming a “sport of the highest achievements.” The sporting superpowers of the 20th century, in principle, cannot oppose insufficiently trained athletes against each other, and over time, all Olympic amateurs become de facto professionals.In the USSR, professionals were formally amateurs, advocating for their organizations: the army (CSKA), the police (Dynamo), and so on.
On the other hand, school sports are becoming very popular in the United States. Especially in team sports competitions at various universities and colleges, where the players – nominal students – are often paid higher fees than in professional leagues. It also blurs the distinction between professionals and amateurs.
In recent years, the professional has been associated with the sport of the highest achievements, while the amateur has become a minor figure – that is, their roles have radically changed in culture.And here we come to a new problem. This strange cultural inversion can also be interpreted as a kind of dialectical twist, because today we are in a situation where amateurs again gain an advantage, but of a completely new plan. As you know, professionals are monitored by a lot of supervisory bodies. And soon the amateur will be able to surpass the professional through the use of doping.
It is obvious that the number of athletes in Russia has grown. And here the question arises: why? The simplest explanation is the rise in living standards.Is there an ideological component in today’s boom in sports and sports hobbies? Of course, politicians have been using sports for almost a hundred years to mobilize the masses and attract supporters – here is the mini-football club of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and the ultra-right mixed martial arts tournaments White Rex, and dozens of other examples. But it is necessary, rather, to talk not about ideology in the Marxist sense, but about ideology in the understanding of Slavoj ižek. You can hear people go to the gym to relieve stress, calm down, stop thinking.Sports, therefore, can be interpreted as an instrument of ideology, which does everything so that a person does not leave his comfort zone.
Evolution of a top manager in a crisis: from trainer to Jedi
After the world was caught in the grip of the deepening economic recession, there was a lot of advice on how businesses can survive in its conditions. Keeping track of how management professionals have changed their outlook on business in times of crisis is quite interesting.
Arms, legs and tails
Donald Sull, professor of practical management at the London Business School, compares business in a crisis to boxing. Specifically, we are talking about the agility and ability to withstand the blows that Muhammad Ali demonstrated during the fight for the world title with George Foreman in Zaire in 1974. This comparison has puzzled Lucy Kellaway, management columnist for The Financial Times, who has followed the metaphors used by management professionals since the early 1990s.Kellaway recalled that boxing matches can end in knockout or brain damage, which is unlikely to please businessmen, and was surprised that business analogies have become so harsh. Recalling the history of business analogies, Kellaway writes that musical metaphors first appeared. Companies have been compared to orchestras, and their heads to conductors who unite employees to a state of harmony. With the rise of the internet, management professionals decided to ditch the classics and take up jazz. Now, in their opinion, a sensible leader should not tell his subordinates how they should “play”, but should let them “have a good time”.But later even this metaphor became outdated, and in 2002 there was a comparison of directors with DJs who “mix” melodies in accordance with the mood of the audience.
Business versus sports has become even more popular. In most cases, it was about the business being a team affair, which, according to Kellaway, is actually not true. Management experts used analogies to football, rugby, rowing, cricket, baseball, and other sports, excluding synchronized swimming and lacrosse.Once upon a time, former England and Manchester City coach Sven-Goran Ericsson was even named a management guru. Non-team sports have also attracted the attention of experts. Of particular interest was the comparison with golf and dog racing. The most original metaphors come from science.
Particularly strange, according to Kellaway, was the comparison of a business with a DNA strand, since a person’s DNA does not change, unlike a company. It would be more logical to compare business with evolution and talk about its adaptation, the observer notes.There were also comparisons that do not belong to the above groups. In addition to comparing executives to chefs, managers have often been likened to animals – monkeys, geese, frogs, and even mice with cheese. According to Kellaway, all these metaphors were useless from a practical point of view, because they did not help to understand how a business works or how to best manage it. The reason is that metaphors are useful when it comes to something complex. For example, Einstein used a train and a clock to explain the theory of relativity.Business is simple. Everyone knows that you have to go through difficulties. To do this, you should reduce costs, take less risks, have reserve funds, and also not work in those markets where it is impossible. In other words, you need to save, not box, Kellaway concludes.
How to Become Superman?
Kellaway’s article was written before a new metaphor was published in the March Harvard Business Review, in which beasts, athletes and musicians were replaced by superheroes.The idea came from business experts Jack Covert and Todd Satterstan.
Hercules, Jedi Luke Skywalker and former General Motors chief Jack Welch, who according to the authors have gone the same way as the heroes of myth and pop culture, are selected as such. According to experts, businessmen face the same problems as these characters. These problems include not knowing the end point of the “journey”, fear, uncertainty about change, and an inability to listen more than speak.To overcome these problems, you need to set a clear goal, be open to change, strive for proactive action, and remember that experience and a large amount of information will interfere with making intelligent decisions.
The situation in the global economy is really serious. The International Monetary Fund estimates that global losses from the economic recession will amount to $ 2.2 trillion in 2009. According to the calculations of the International Labor Organization, 51 million people will become unemployed this year.Most likely, the passages of the business guru reflect fears about the state of the global economy that have been growing in the world since the beginning of the crisis. Hysterical sentiments are fueled by supporters of the idea of ”twenty-twelve”, predicting that the approaching 2012 will be a turning point (rather, for the worse) for humanity. However, the main conclusion that can be drawn from all of the above is simple: of course, in a crisis, engaging in gloomy analogies and succumbing to fear, which, as you know, has “large eyes,” is a rewarding task.But, if we exclude those who make money on this, such an occupation in itself is unproductive. What the crisis really requires is the solution of current, operational issues. At a minimum, it should be about the fact that “global” thoughts do not interfere with “local” actions.
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Evolution of ice hockey | Sports and Health
Hockey appeared a long time ago.You can even say that a game with a similar principle of rules is the same age as the formation of human culture, because the first mentions of a similar game are found in Ancient Egypt, the Aztec Empire, Ancient Greece and Rome, except that they played the ball there, and not on the ice. but at special sites. Basically, it can be compared to modern field hockey. Then, with the development of European civilization, early hockey appeared in Europe. Competitions were already held on the ice and were more similar to the current sport.It was the first European competitions that became the basis for the subsequent transformation of hockey into a game on a global scale. Pictures in the Netherlands in the 1500s show the Dutch playing in the winter a kind of modern golf, only on ice. In addition, the Edinburgh Ice Skating Club, founded in 1642 and considered the oldest in Scotland, maintains a record of a winter game reminiscent of ice hockey.
When the Europeans made their way across the Atlantic to North America, they discovered that the Indians had their own club and ball game, the forerunner of modern lacrosse.Although early hockey was quite popular among the population, until the 1800s it was still considered a common game in small towns, with no fixed rules and no organized environment.
In 1872, a young man from Halifax, Nova Scotia, named James Creighton, moved to Montreal. Creighton was a hockey enthusiast and it was he who became one of the founders of hockey in Canada, where hockey gained truly national fame and developed over the years into one of the most popular sports.Creighton brought a stick and skates to Montreal, which became a real know-how for many. The skate was patented by the Nova Scotia Company in 1866 and consisted of rounded blades with metal boot clips.
In 1875, Creighton organized a team for ice hockey games in the indoor ice rink “Victoria”, which was another innovation, because before that it was believed that such ice competitions, and even more so hockey, should be held in an open space on frozen ponds or ice rinks for the safety of spectators.However, the players often lost the ball. Creighton solved this problem by creating a flat wooden puck that glided perfectly on the ice and did not bounce like a ball. After training for a month, Creighton and his friends staged the first demonstration competition, they were held on March 3, 1875. While most viewers liked the game, some still condemned the excessive harshness and danger in it.
In 1879, the washer was improved to be made of dense rubber, which greatly improved the strength of the washer.As for other modifications of the game, they still had to appear. For example, the question of a goal scored or not scored. Since it is much more difficult to spot a goal in hockey than in football, due to the small size of the goal and the puck itself, often after the next blow, fierce disputes arose about whether a goal was scored. This problem was solved by installing a net on the gate in 1900. According to legend, the Canadian Francis Nielsen adapted a fishing net for this innovation. After installing the net on the goal, a trial match was held, in which the convenience of counting goals was immediately noticed, because now, when it hit the goal, the puck remained there, and did not fly through the racks, as before.Speaking of the gate. When did goalkeepers start wearing hockey masks? In general, this mass phenomenon appeared only after the second half of the twentieth century, due to the increasing frequency of injuries. In order to secure the game and give it a more sporty look, new rules were drawn up, according to which all goalkeepers were obliged to wear special protective masks (modern “combi”, combining the dignity of deaf voluminous masks with a “cat’s eye” – lattice). By the way, the legendary Boston Bruins goalkeeper Jerry Chivers introduced the fashion for drawing attention to the mask.In the 1966 season, he began to mark the hit of the puck and sticks of opponents in the form of scars on his mask, as a result, Chivers’s “second face” began to look more and more intimidating. The effectiveness of mental influence on some players was obvious and other goalkeepers have resorted to similar psychological attacks over time.
At the end of the nineteenth century, the popularity of the new sport increased in Montreal so much that it was decided to draw up official rules of the game with a certain number of players and ice rink markings.The boom in ice competition led to the emergence of ice hockey leagues in the 1880s and the formation of the Amateur Association of Canada, which became the first national ice hockey association.
The Winter Carnival was held in Montreal in 1889 and was attended by the Governor General of Canada, Frederick Arthur Stanley. Hockey games were held as part of the carnival. Arthur Stanley really liked hockey and contributed to the holding in Ontario, in 1890, of the championship for four teams, and two years later he created the concept of regional tournaments with the award of the title of the winner.The symbolic main prize was a cup named after Arthur Stanley. This is how the legendary trophy appeared – the Stanley Cup. At first, amateur teams fought for it, and from 1910 – and professionals. Since 1927, the Stanley Cup has been awarded to the winner of the annual National Hockey League (NHL) championship.
In Russia (and in the USSR as a whole), hockey became an official sport on December 22, 1946, when matches of the first USSR ice hockey championship were held in Moscow, Leningrad, Riga, Kaunas and Arkhangelsk.
In 1954, Soviet hockey players made their debut at the world championships and immediately took a leading position in world hockey. Already the first meeting with the Canadians ended with the victory of the Soviet athletes – 7: 2. This victory brought the USSR national team the first world title. From 1954 to 1991, the USSR national team won the gold medal of the World Championships 22 times and won the Winter Olympics 7 times. The Soviet hockey school has trained many outstanding hockey players, whose skill reached the highest level.For example, the legendary three Mikhailov-Petrov-Kharlamov was considered the best not only in the USSR, but also in the world.
In recent history, the Russian national team is also one of the leaders in world hockey, but it was not easy to regain leadership. This time, unlike the games of the USSR, the Russian national team has come a long way to the top, because after the first victory (as a new country) in 1993, we were left without awards for many years. The long-awaited victory took place in 2008 and it is this that is decisive for us and the most significant, since that championship was held in Canada, Quebec, timed to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the IIHF (International Ice Hockey Federation).In other words, we won the jubilee year of hockey in the very places where it was once born as a sport.
By the way, in 2008, the Continental Hockey League (KHL) was founded, uniting hockey clubs from Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Slovakia, Croatia and Finland, which annually fight for the main league trophy – the Gagarin Cup.
Today, hockey has evolved from a competition on frozen ponds or ice rinks to a game on a planetary scale, spanning entire continents.This sport, which develops strength, agility, speed and endurance, is perfectly combined with the human desire for excellence, because with each match or puck, the level of a hockey player grows, whether in professional tournaments or amateur games.
2008 World Cup Final (overtime – extra time)
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90,000 Difference between boy and girl Lacrosse sticks 2021
Although the sport of lacrosse has the same name for boys and girls, the sticks used by each gender, as well as the game, are different.The difference in physical contact between boys and girls directly affects the type, length and depth of the pocket used in the game.
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Evolution of a lacrosse stick
According to Lacrosse USA, “the oldest surviving sticks are from the first quarter of the 19th century,” and sticks from Northeastern Indian tribes are considered to be the forerunners of modern lacrosse sticks. The 3-foot Native American stick “was characterized by its shaft terminated by a rogue, and a large, flat, triangular mesh surface extending two-thirds of the stick’s length.“Around the mid-1930s, men’s lacrosse began to develop into a game of great physical contact, requiring protective equipment and sticks designed to maintain ball possession during such physical contact. At the same time, women’s lacrosse remained similar to its origins, with the addition of minimal protective gear and new stick technologies to the modern game.
Each lacrosse stick consists of the same basic components: shaft, head and pocket.The shafts are usually made of lightweight composite metal and are where the players grab their sticks. A plastic head with sidewalls is attached to the end of the shaft and stretched to create a pocket. The head and pocket are where the ball is caught and carried away. Lacrosse sticks can be purchased as a full stick or customized.
Various types of sticks are allowed in lacrosse, depending on age and gender. Boys have lacrosse, there are two types of sticks, a short cross and a long cross.Girls lacrosse players exclusively use a regular stick, similar to a boy’s short cross. Boys and girls lacrosse goalkeepers use much wider-headed goalie sticks to help block shots at goal. As boys and girls become more advanced players, more specialized sticks are available with different string technologies, different head shapes, offset heads, and different side wall heights.
Player stick length may vary depending on specific rules, age and gender.In lacrosse, the boy is attacked and the midfielders use the short cross, and the defenders use the long cross. In general, the short cross can range from 37 to 42 inches in length, while the long cross ranges from 37 to 72 inches in length, depending on age division, according to U. S. Lacrosse. Girls’ lacrosse sticks can be 35 to 43 inches long. Goalkeeper sticks are adjustable from 35 to ½ to 48 inches in total length.
Pocket materials and
Boys’ stick pockets are made from sturdy, interwoven synthetic mesh and hockey lace and are legal if the top of the lacrosse ball is above the bottom edge of the sidewall when placed in according to American lacrosse.Girls’ pockets are made up of leather or synthetic straps, cross-lacing and shooting, and the lowest age levels are also allowed to use mesh. The pocket depth adjustment for girls, according to US Lacrosse, is that “the top of the ball stays above the top of the sidewall after pressure has been applied to a ball that has fallen into the pocket of a horizontally driven cross. “Younger age levels of girls can also use a modified pocket where“ only half of the ball can go below the bottom of the sidewall.”
90,000 Warrior – Clothes and Shoes. Warrior
American-based Warrior Sports is recognized as one of the leading manufacturers of innovative, high performance and cutting edge equipment, footwear and apparel for lacrosse, hockey and soccer players of all ages and levels. Founded in 1992 by lacrosse champion David Morrow, the company was acquired by New Balance Athletic Shoe in February 2004.
In 2007, Warrior Sports acquired the Boston-based Brine Sporting Goods and established its leading position in the lacrosse and ice hockey market.Warrior remained true to its philosophy: technical excellence, mass marketing, original and creative youth design, and strong partnerships with retailers and suppliers.
Since the creation of the first titanium sticks in 1992, Warrior has continuously contributed to the evolution of the hockey game. Taking a fresh, energetic approach to the Game, recruiting young professionals – Game enthusiasts such as Jess Hubbard and Mark Millon , Warrior is determined to change the Game – the world’s best passes are made by the world’s best players.
On 1 June 2012, an agreement between Liverpool Football Club and Warrior Sports entered into force. As a subsidiary of the renowned Boston-based sports shoes and apparel company New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc., Warrior Sports becomes a partner and supplier of sports merchandise for one of the largest football clubs in the world for the first time in its history.
The deal enables Warrior Sports to be the technical sponsor of the club and manufacture home, away and third kits for the next six years, starting in 2012/13. Warrior Sports recognizes the legacy of Football Club Liverpool and brings together the very best experts in the design, marketing, development and distribution of sportswear to help them continue to succeed.
Buy all Warrior products!
In November 2013, Warrior expanded its football lineup with ultra-light boots, calling them the Superhea t, joining the race for lightness and speed, Warrior engineers and designers were well aware that they would have to fight the giants that have been on the market for a very long time and released more than one generation of their lightweight models.
It should be admitted that the new product managed to wedge itself in the ranks of the well-known “lightweights” and get immediately to the 3rd place.
- Adidas adizero f50 – 165 g.
- Mizuno Morelia Neo – 170 g.
- Warrior Superheat – 180
- Nike Mercurial Vapor IX – 185
- Puma EvoSPEED 1.2 – 188
The outsole and base of the boot are made of a durable composite material, and the upper consists of a mesh, but durable and moisture resistant synthetic fabric, which, moreover, also conforms to the shape of a foot.The Warrior Superheat received this weight in exchange for fully synthetic content.
Richard Wright – Head of Football at Warrior – says the boot has a mind-boggling amount of innovative materials and a host of new technologies tested!
http://sports.warrior.com – official website