LAWA Official Site | Airport Police
07/02/2020 04:48 PM
The Airport Police Division officially welcomes Officers Juan Carmona, Lars Little, Jordan Mullen, and Justin Torres to the force during a swearing-in ceremony that was held at the Airport Police Station. Led by Airport Police Drill Instructor Gonzalez, the officers successfully completed the Los Angeles Police Department’s rigorous, six-month police academy. The formal academy graduation ceremony was cancelled due to COVID-19.
More info >
05/11/2020 04:27 PM
The Airport Police Division officially welcomes Officers Jerry Anderson and Nicholas Hernandez to the force during a swearing-in ceremony that was held at the LAPD Academy in Elysian Park last week.
More info >
04/15/2020 06:42 PM
The Airport Police Division officially welcomed Officers Oscar Fernandez, Renald Galstian, and Karlo Hegedes to the force during a swearing in ceremony that was held at the Airport Police Station last week. The academy graduation ceremony was cancelled due to COVID-19.
More info >
02/14/2020 06:42 PM
(Los Angeles, California – February 14, 2020) The Airport Police Division officially welcomes Officers Francisco Gaytan, Brandon Dyer (Class Leader), and Merlin Gonzalez (Class Vice President) to the force during a swearing-in ceremony that was held at the LAPD Academy in Elysian Park.
More info >
01/17/2020 08:47 PM
(Los Angeles, California – January 17, 2020) The Airport Police Division officially welcomes Officers Paula Costa, Juan Genizzotti, Rashawn Moore, and Jose Rodriguez to the force during a swearing-in ceremony that was held at the LAPD Academy in Elysian Park.
More info >
11/09/2019 05:02 PM
(Los Angeles, California – November 22, 2019) In a graduation ceremony held at the LAPD Academy, on the hills overlooking Elysian Park, Chief of Airport Police Cecil W. Rhambo, Jr. swore-in his first officer, since taking over the helm of the largest aviation law enforcement agency in the nation four weeks ago.
More info >
09/03/2019 08:54 PM
(Los Angeles, California – August 30, 2019) The largest aviation law enforcement agency in the nation just got a little bigger. Pride and excitement is all that shadowed the crowd from the golden sun in the rolling hills of the LAPD Academy in Elysian Park.
More info >
08/02/2019 01:50 PM
(Los Angeles, California – August 2, 2019) Los Angeles Airport Police Chief David L. Maggard Jr. swears-in three new officers following a graduation ceremony held at the historic Los Angeles Police Academy in the hills of Elysian Park.
More info >
07/03/2019 10:30 AM
(Los Angeles, California – July 3, 2019) Today, following a graduation ceremony held at the Los Angeles Police Academy on the historic grounds of the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Elysian Park, Airport Police Assistant Chief, Dan Llorens swore-in three new Airport Police Officers.
More info >
01/21/2019 08:30 AM
(Los Angeles, California – January 18, 2019) In a graduations ceremony held at the Los Angeles Police Academy near Dodger Stadium, two new Airport Police Officers were sworn into service by Chief David L. Maggard Jr., Chief of Airport Police.
More info >
12/12/2018 08:30 AM
(Los Angeles, California – November 21, 2018) In a graduations ceremony held today at the Los Angeles Police Academy near Dodger Stadium, six new Airport Police were sworn-in by Chief David L. Maggard Jr., Chief of Airport Police.
More info >
09/28/2018 12:00 AM
(Los Angeles, California – September 28, 2018) The largest aviation law enforcement agency in the Nation just increased by three. In a graduation ceremony held at the iconic Los Angeles Police Academy, LAPD Class 4-18 which included three new Airport Police officers were sworn into service.
More info >
LAWA DEPARTMENT OPERATIONS CENTER
Airport Response Communications and Coordination (ARCC) Units
LAWA Information Line
GUEST SERVICES DIVISION
|Guest Experience Members||
|Volunteer Information Professionals||
|Chief Executive Officer||
|Chief Operating Officer||
|Chief Development Officer||
|Chief Experience Officer||
|Chief Financial Officer||
|Chief Information Officer||
|Chief of Security and Public Safety||
|Deputy Executive Director – Commercial Development||
|Deputy Executive Director – Environmental Programs||
|Deputy Executive Director – Facilities Management||
|Deputy Executive Director – Operations and Emergency Management||
|Deputy Executive Director – Planning and Development||
|Program Executive, Automated People Mover||
|6053 West Century Blvd. , Suite 500
Los Angeles, CA 90045
LAX and Van Nuys Airport Invoices
LAWA Remittance Payment Address:
|Cashier’s Office (Petty Cash)||
Faithful Performance Guarantee (FPG):
Los Angeles World Airports
Promissory Note-to-Pay (PTP)
P. O. Box 92216
AIR SERVICES MARKETING
|Airport Police Station
6320 West 96th Street
Los Angeles, CA 90045
|Chief of Airport Police||
|Business and Information (Automated)||
|Lost & Found
5600 W. Century Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90045
|Security Credentials Section (Badging)||
BUSINESS, JOBS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
|6053 W. Century Blvd., Suite #300
Los Angeles, CA 90045
COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT GROUP
COORDINATOR FOR DISABILITY SERVICES via California Relay
(424) 646-5005 711
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SERVICES
ETHICS & OMBUDS OFFICE
FACILITIES ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL SUPPORT
FINANCE & BUDGET
HUMAN RESOURCES SERVICES
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY GROUP
PROCUREMENT SERVICES DIVISION
VAN NUYS AIRPORT
|FlyAway Bus Operations||
|Noise Management 24-Hour
Community Response Line
|Coordinator for Disability Services
via California Relay
BOARD OF AIRPORT COMMISSIONERS
Security | Glassdoor
We have been receiving some suspicious activity from you or someone sharing your internet network.
Please wait while we verify that you’re a real person. Your content will appear shortly.
If you continue to see this message, please email
to let us know you’re having trouble.
Nous aider à garder Glassdoor sécurisée
Nous avons reçu des activités suspectes venant de quelqu’un utilisant votre réseau internet.
Veuillez patienter pendant que nous vérifions que vous êtes une vraie personne. Votre contenu
apparaîtra bientôt. Si vous continuez à voir ce message, veuillez envoyer un
pour nous informer du désagrément.
Unterstützen Sie uns beim Schutz von Glassdoor
Wir haben einige verdächtige Aktivitäten von Ihnen oder von jemandem, der in ihrem
Internet-Netzwerk angemeldet ist, festgestellt. Bitte warten Sie, während wir
überprüfen, ob Sie ein Mensch und kein Bot sind. Ihr Inhalt wird in Kürze angezeigt.
Wenn Sie weiterhin diese Meldung erhalten, informieren Sie uns darüber bitte per E-Mail:
We hebben verdachte activiteiten waargenomen op Glassdoor van iemand of iemand die uw internet netwerk deelt.
Een momentje geduld totdat we hebben bevestigd dat u daadwerkelijk een persoon bent. Uw bijdrage zal spoedig te zien zijn.
Als u deze melding blijft zien, e-mail ons:
om ons te laten weten dat uw probleem zich nog steeds voordoet.
Hemos estado detectando actividad sospechosa tuya o de alguien con quien compartes tu red de Internet. Espera
mientras verificamos que eres una persona real. Tu contenido se mostrará en breve. Si continúas recibiendo
este mensaje, envía un correo electrónico
a para informarnos de
que tienes problemas.
Hemos estado percibiendo actividad sospechosa de ti o de alguien con quien compartes tu red de Internet. Espera
mientras verificamos que eres una persona real. Tu contenido se mostrará en breve. Si continúas recibiendo este
mensaje, envía un correo electrónico a
para hacernos saber que
estás teniendo problemas.
Temos recebido algumas atividades suspeitas de você ou de alguém que esteja usando a mesma rede. Aguarde enquanto
confirmamos que você é uma pessoa de verdade. Seu conteúdo aparecerá em breve. Caso continue recebendo esta
mensagem, envie um email para
informar sobre o problema.
Abbiamo notato alcune attività sospette da parte tua o di una persona che condivide la tua rete Internet.
Attendi mentre verifichiamo che sei una persona reale. Il tuo contenuto verrà visualizzato a breve. Se continui
a visualizzare questo messaggio, invia un’e-mail all’indirizzo
per informarci del
Please enable Cookies and reload the page.
This process is automatic. Your browser will redirect to your requested content shortly.
Please allow up to 5 seconds…
Code: CF-102 / 6a9299ba785b3595
Lax World and Breakaway Lacrosse announce a merger.
Lax World, a specialty lacrosse retailer founded in 1988 and headquartered in Baltimore, MD has merged with lacrosse dealer Breakaway Lacrosse, who has been in Seattle since 2002. The deal will grow the companies to 14 locations, expand its online presence and warehousing, and grow its team sale reach from coast to coast. The deal will allow us to provide more value to our customers and extends the companies market reach to 5 key markets with plans to expand into several others.
We have always been proud members of the lacrosse community in Seattle and have watched it develop into one of the strongest and fastest growing markets in the country. We have recently relocated in Bellevue and are very excited to show the Seattle community our new space. In Addition to our exciting new location, we will be rebranding the store name to Lax World. The Breakaway staff have built a great reputation and commitment to the community and are now positioned with their new partnership to better service our customers and offer a greater selection of apparel and equipment.
We welcome you to visit our store to share our excitement with you and show you how much we appreciate being part of your community. We are committed to bringing the best selection of lacrosse equipment and most professional service for your teams.
We have a strong tradition in team sales and coming together will allow us to better service our leagues, programs and coaches in Seattle. We would love the opportunity to continue to work with you and welcome all new partnerships. We will be reaching out to you to show our passion for working with teams, coaches and young athletes to help make the game more enjoyable and get you the gear you need play safe and look good.
Please reach out to us:
Lax World/Breakaway Team Sports
11639 NE 8th Street
Bellevue, WA 98005
Hours: M-F 10-7, Sat 10-5, sun 12-5
WORLD WAY: The City of LAX
WORLD WAY: The City of LAX
This project would not have been possible without the incredible creative team that helped tell this story. Your talents and contributions to this project are so greatly appreciated –
And to the organizations that contributed support and access to so many incredible locations –
Los Angeles Tourism and Convention Board
Los Angeles World Airports
H Hotel Los Angeles
Star Alliance Lounge LAX
A special thank you to these people and teams who helped make this project better –
LAWA Media Relations
LAWA Airport Operations
LAWA Environmental Programs Group
And finally, a gracious thank you to my friends, family, and colleagues for your support, and for putting up with me rambling about an airport for the past six years.
For more information, licensing inquiries, or questions, please email lax at chrispzero.com or contact me.
Los Angeles Hosts Men’s World Championship 2023
World Lacrosse Senior-Level Men’s World Championship To Be Held In 2023
COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO, USA – World Lacrosse announced today that its senior-level Men’s World Championship, originally scheduled for 2022, is being moved back one year to 2023 in response to other changes in the international sport calendar, to better accommodate athlete availability and to ease financial burden on its member-National Governing Bodies.
With the Tokyo Olympic Games being moved to 2021, The World Games – in which women’s and men’s lacrosse both will be featured for the first time — has been moved to 2022. As a result, the World Lacrosse Board of Directors today approved a recommendation from Management to move the senior-level Men’s World Championship back one year to 2023. The event will take place in Los Angeles, California, USA in the July-September timeframe.
With the change, the revised World Lacrosse major event calendar for the next four years is as follows:
Get Early Access
“*” indicates required fields
2021 World Lacrosse Men’s U20 World Championship
June 17-26, 2021
2021 World Lacrosse Women’s World Championship
July 7-17, 2021
Towson, Maryland, USA
The World Games
July 7-17, 2022
Birmingham, Alabama, USA
2023 World Lacrosse Men’s World Championship
Los Angeles, California, USA
In other action taken today by the World Lacrosse Board of Directors:
• The Board endorsed a series of recommendations from the Blue Skies Working Group related to further revisions to the World Championship event calendar and age classification structure for future World Lacrosse events, including a permanent change in the upper age limit for the age-group Men’s and Women’s World Championships to U20. Those recommendations will now be shared directly with World Lacrosse member-National Governing Bodies for further review and input, including a webinar later in June addressing the recommendations, before final action is taken.
• The Board approved creation of a COVID-19 Relief Grant Program, through which World Lacrosse member-National Governing Bodies may apply to receive grant funding to support budget relief due to lost revenue or other direct impacts resulting from the COVID-19 global pandemic. The process to apply for a grant and award criteria will be shared with World Lacrosse member-NGBs in the coming days. Consideration will also be given to the creation of a separate grant program for Continental Federations.
• Finally, the Board received an update on planning for the 2020 World Lacrosse General Assembly, which will be held October 18 in a virtual format.
Media Contact: Darryl Seibel
Email: [email protected]
LAX WORLD THE LACROSSE STORE Trademark of Lax World, Inc.
– Serial Number 74101844
LAX WORLD THE LACROSSE STORE Trademark
On Monday, October 1, 1990, a trademark application was filed for LAX WORLD THE LACROSSE STORE with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The USPTO has given the LAX WORLD THE LACROSSE STORE trademark a serial number of 74101844. The federal status of this trademark filing is CANCELLED – SECTION 8 as of Monday, December 28, 1998. This trademark is owned by Lax World, Inc.. The LAX WORLD THE LACROSSE STORE trademark is filed in the Computer & Software Services & Scientific Services category with the following description:
retail sporting goods store services featuring lacrosse equipment and apparel
|Word Mark||LAX WORLD THE LACROSSE STORE|
|Filing Date||Monday, October 1, 1990|
|Status||710 – CANCELLED – SECTION 8|
|Status Date||Monday, December 28, 1998|
|Registration Date||Tuesday, June 23, 1992|
|Mark Drawing||3T13 – Illustration: Drawing or design which also includes word(s) / letter(s) / number(s)|
|Published for Opposition Date||Tuesday, March 31, 1992|
|Attorney Name||JOHN M. KERNEY|
|Law Office Location Code||J60|
|Employee Name||HERMAN, RUSS|
|Correspondent||JOHN M. KERNEY
21 WEST SUSQUEHANNA AVENUE, SUITE 100
TOWSON, MD 21204
|Disclaimer with Predetermined Text||“THE LACROSSE STORE”|
|Goods and Services||retail sporting goods store services featuring lacrosse equipment and apparel|
|International Class||042 – Scientific and technological services and research and design relating thereto; industrial analysis and research services; design and development of computer hardware and software.|
|US Class Codes||101|
|Class Status Code||2 – Sec. 8 – Entire Registration|
|Class Status Date||Monday, December 28, 1998|
|First Use Anywhere Date||Thursday, September 1, 1988|
|First Use In Commerce Date||Thursday, September 1, 1988|
Trademark Owner History
|Party Name||Lax World, Inc.|
|Party Type||30 – Original Registrant|
|Legal Entity Type||03 – Corporation|
|Address||Towson, MD 21204|
|Party Name||Lax World, Inc.|
|Party Type||20 – Owner at Publication|
|Legal Entity Type||03 – Corporation|
|Address||Towson, MD 21204|
|Party Name||Lax World, Inc.|
|Party Type||10 – Original Applicant|
|Legal Entity Type||03 – Corporation|
|Address||Towson, MD 21204|
|Event Date||Event Description|
|Monday, December 28, 1998||CANCELLED SEC. 8 (6-YR)|
|Tuesday, June 23, 1992||REGISTERED-PRINCIPAL REGISTER|
|Tuesday, March 31, 1992||PUBLISHED FOR OPPOSITION|
|Friday, February 28, 1992||NOTICE OF PUBLICATION|
|Thursday, October 31, 1991||APPROVED FOR PUB – PRINCIPAL REGISTER|
|Monday, October 28, 1991||EXAMINER’S AMENDMENT MAILED|
|Thursday, October 3, 1991||CORRESPONDENCE RECEIVED IN LAW OFFICE|
|Monday, August 12, 1991||NON-FINAL ACTION MAILED|
|Friday, July 19, 1991||CORRESPONDENCE RECEIVED IN LAW OFFICE|
|Wednesday, March 27, 1991||NON-FINAL ACTION MAILED|
|Friday, March 1, 1991||ASSIGNED TO EXAMINER|
90,000 Ruler weak and crafty, bald-headed dandy, enemy of labor?
Accidentally Warmed by Glory,
He reigned over us then.
“Accidentally warmed by glory” – the poet here means the victory over Napoleon in the war of 1812 and explains that it was God who helped the Russian people, and not the tsar.
What does liberal reforms have to do with it? Yes, despite the fact that this quatrain of the leading secular poet of that time clearly demonstrates the attitude of a part of the liberal-minded elite towards Alexander I.The Treaty of Tilsit, concluded in 1807, was considered a disgrace for Russia. Yes, we were forced to make concessions that gave Napoleon more power, but this delay of five years was necessary for us to gather strength and repulse the enemy troops – the war was inevitable. However, the poet does not take this into account. In addition, the Emperor, who tried to rebuild Russia on European rails and stopped halfway, was treated as a traitor by those intoxicated by Decembrism.
Why did this happen and what was the main reason for the termination of liberal reforms? Of course, the war with Napoleon.
The events of 1812-1815 had a great influence on the domestic policy of Russia. In Russian society, they raised a wave of patriotism and interest in politics, awakened hope for transformation and expansion of the previous reform program. However, the Russian government, on the contrary, embarked on a course of conservatism and did not want to return to the old reforms that were too liberal for Russia. Fighting the aftermath of the French Revolution added fuel to the fire. It became clear that it was impossible to pursue a conservative policy outside the state, and inside the country to continue the revolutionary transformations for that time.
Therefore, the government did not curtail the reforms immediately, but continued for some time to pretend that the previous direction was developing. This imitation was necessary in order to suppress the discontent of the liberal-minded circles of high society.
Write your comment after reading the discussion rules.
Author’s spelling and punctuation retained
90,000 RIAC :: For Whom the Bell Tolls?
Against the background of a heated discussion about the crisis of the modern world order, an article by the American neo-realist scientist John Joseph Mearsheimer, who in his usual manner harshly and pragmatically expressed his point of view on the transformation of the modern world order, was not lost.In the recently published article “Doomed to Fail. The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order ”J. Mearsheimer aims to determine the reasons for the decline of the modern world order and determine the type of new order that will replace the“ liberal ”one.
J. Mearsheimer urges, first of all, the ruling elites to recognize that the liberal international order has turned out to be an unsuccessful enterprise without a future and it is necessary to resist any temptation to continue attempts to forcibly spread democracy throughout the planet through changes in political regimes. In addition, the United States should strive to maximize its influence in international economic institutions – this is essential for the distribution of the balance of power in the formation of a new order. It is imperative that the United States does not allow China to dominate these institutions. Finally, US policymakers must work to create a “strong, limited” order that can contain Chinese expansion. To this end, it is necessary to continue efforts to create a Trans-Pacific Partnership and a military alliance in Asia similar to NATO during the Cold War.The US must make an effort to pull Russia out of China’s orbit and integrate it into the American international order.
J. Mearsheimer concludes that the emerging “comprehensive international order” will be based on realistic principles of managing the world economy, addressing arms control issues and such global problems as climate change.
The theme of the crisis / collapse of the “liberal” international order has firmly entered the scientific discourse of foreign and Russian analysts. If Robert Keohane in 1984 admitted the possibility of world hegemony of one of the superpowers , then after the collapse of the USSR, the concept of establishing an American unipolar liberal world order dominates in the scientific and political circles of the United States.
However, in the second decade of the XXI century. the tone of publications by Western political scientists, primarily American ones, was replaced by pessimistic assessments of the crisis / collapse of the liberal world order. One of the proponents of the concept of the liberal order – J.Nye – doubts that the “liberal order” will survive the current crisis. In his opinion, the reason for the crisis lies in the fact that the liberal order “was largely limited to a narrow circle of like-minded states concentrated on both sides of the Atlantic” and “did not include such large countries as China, India and the states of the Soviet bloc” [2 ].
On October 11, 2017, the New York Times drew attention to the “German manifesto” written by a group of German foreign policy experts. It says that the actions of President Donald Trump have jeopardized the “liberal world order.” Donald Trump’s victory “dealt a heavy blow to the normative foundations of Western liberalism.” The German Manifesto notes the importance of liberal values and institutions for Germany’s prosperity and insists on adjusting to the European specifics of Germany’s participation in transatlantic relations.
J. Basby, the author of a critical analysis of the “German Manifesto”, urges to face the truth – the crisis of the “liberal world order” arose before D.Trump to power, and the president himself was his offspring. “The liberal order explodes and the idea of a liberal community becomes a myth.” J. Basby continues to note that fundamental changes are taking place in the modern world, characterized by the growth of non-state actors, the fragmentation of global governance, the emergence of new ideas and norms, many of which are not liberal, and the expansion of global and functional interdependence. It must be admitted, the author concludes, that a return to the old liberal order is impossible.The United States and Europe must adapt to the new realities of world politics, in which liberal functions will be combined with others. The future of the world lies in the development of a more universal community and order that is consistent with diversity and pluralism in its norms, modes of interaction and leadership. The narrow emphasis on the liberal order alone has led to a disregard for the diversity of voices in global politics.
Against the background of a heated discussion about the crisis of the modern world order, an article by the American neo-realist scientist John Joseph Mearsheimer, who in his usual manner harshly and pragmatically expressed his point of view on the transformation of the modern world order, was not lost.In the recently published article “Doomed to Fail. The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order “J. Mearsheimer aims to determine the reasons for the decline of the modern world order and determine the type of new order that will replace the” liberal “.
Let’s start with what the author means by the world order. J. Mearsheimer believes that the “global distribution of power” is dominant in the definition of the world order. This becomes clear from his assessment of the evolution of the world order after World War II.
The American political scientist identifies three main differences between “orders”. The first distinction he makes is between “international orders” ( international orders ) and “bounded orders” ( bounded orders ). For order to be considered international, it must include all the great powers of the world. “Limited orders” are designed primarily to enable rival great powers to compete with each other.J. Mearsheimer identifies the following types of “international orders” that can be organized by great powers: realistic, agnostic, ideological (including liberal). The choice of order depends primarily on the distribution of power between the great powers. The key question is whether the system is bipolar, multipolar, or unipolar.
After World War II, the system moved from a multipolar to a bipolar world order (1945-1989).). As the main protagonists of the post-war world, the USA and the USSR formed an overarching international order , which was neither liberal nor communist, but fully consistent with the security interests of both sides. After the collapse of the USSR, the US administration, starting with the presidency of George W. Bush, took up the organization and spread of the liberal international order throughout the world. The United States used existing international institutions (UN, arms control regimes, etc.)).
The creation of a liberal international order involved three major challenges. First, it was necessary to expand the presence of adherents of the liberal order in international institutions. Second, it was necessary to create an open and inclusive international economy that would maximize free trade and facilitate the liberation of capital markets. This hyperglobalized world economy was supposed to be more ambitious in scale than the economic order of the Cold War era. Third, it was important to vigorously export liberal democracy around the world.
The fulfillment of these three tasks fit into the main liberal theories – liberal institutionalism, the theory of economic interdependence, and the theory of a democratic world. Thus, in the minds of its architects, building a lasting, sustainable and liberal international order was synonymous with creating a peaceful world.
The integration of China and Russia into the liberal order was especially important to its success because they were the most powerful states in the world after the United States.The aim was to embed them in as many institutions as possible and fully integrate them into an open international economy and facilitate the transformation into liberal democracies.
NATO’s expansion into Eastern Europe was indicative of how the United States and its allies seek to create a liberal international order. NATO’s advance eastward was not part of the classic strategy of containing Russia. The goal was different – to integrate the countries of Eastern Europe and, if possible, Russia into the liberal “security community” that emerged in Western Europe during the Cold War.
Following the same liberal logic, the United States based its policy on China. The involvement of China, said US Secretary of State M. Albright, will lead to active membership of China in major world institutions and help to integrate it into the economic order under the auspices of the United States. In this case, China will become a responsible participant ( responsible stakeholder ) of the international system, motivated to maintain peaceful relations with other countries. Engagement will help transform China into a liberal democracy.
J. Mearsheimer believes that the doctrine of George W. Bush, which was developed in 2002 and was used to justify the invasion of Iraq in March 2003, is an example of the US global policy aimed at building a liberal international order. According to the US administration, the best way to combat nuclear proliferation and terrorism was to transform all the countries of the Greater Middle East into liberal democracies that would transform the region into a giant zone of peace, thus eliminating the dual problems of proliferation and terrorism. An American scientist quotes President George W. Bush: “The world is clearly interested in spreading democratic values, because stable and free nations do not give rise to ideologies of murder. They encourage the peaceful pursuit of a better life ”.
In the early 1990s. it seemed to many observers that the United States was well positioned to build a liberal international order. It was widely believed in the West that political change had reached such a limit that there was no reasonable alternative to liberal democracy.China was in the early stages of its rise, and Russia throughout the 1990s. was in a state of permanent weakness. At the time, it was widely believed in the West that almost every country in the world would eventually become a liberal democracy. This point of view was convincingly expressed in the work of Francis Fukuyama “The End of History.” During the 1990s and early 2000s. The United States and its allies have successfully moved towards the creation of a full-fledged liberal international order.
J.Mearsheimer characterizes the 1990s – 2004. as “gold” for the successful implementation of the liberal project. According to Freedom House , in 1986, 34% of the world’s countries were democratic, this figure rose to 41% by 1996, and then to 47% in 2006. Few expected that it would begin to disintegrate in a few years. – in the 2000s. J. Mearsheimer makes an important clarification to explain the attitude of realist scholars to the concept of a “liberal world order”: became possible due to the established unipolarity.However, this conclusion is incorrect. Discussions within policymakers and the foreign policy establishment suggest that these policies were motivated by liberal theories and that the United States and its allies in the West were firmly committed to creating a liberal international order that did not take into account balance of power politics ( balance of power politics ). It should be noted that almost all realists opposed NATO expansion, the war in Iraq and the Bush doctrine. Moreover, they preferred to focus on deterrence rather than dealing with China. If the United States were guided by a realistic logic after the Cold War, it would strive to create an agnostic international order and pursue a policy advocated by realist thinkers ”.
Since 2005, the liberal order began to face problems so serious that they began to destroy it. J. Mearsheimer attributes the failures of the United States and NATO allies in Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Libya, and Yemen to the failures of the plans of the “liberal world order”.The United States and its allies “inadvertently played a central role in spreading illiberal unrest” in these regions. Following the failure of voting in 2005 on the Constitutional Treaty of the European Union, the eurozone crisis began, the exacerbation of relations between Greece and Germany, Brexit, right-wing xenophobia spread, and the leaders of a number of Eastern European states showed illiberal positions.
J. Mearsheimer predicts further deterioration in relations between Russia and the West. In his opinion, this is caused by the expansion of the EU and NATO to the East, the Ukrainian crisis, the efforts of Western states to promote democracy in countries such as Georgia and Ukraine, in Russia itself. Given this state of affairs, Moscow is looking for opportunities to sow discord in the West and weaken the EU and NATO.
The American scientist believes that with the coming to power of D. Trump, the cracks in transatlantic relations deepened. The President of the United States is suspicious of almost all the institutions that make up the liberal international order, incl.including to such as the EU and NATO, which he considers obsolete. Against this backdrop, mistrust has emerged between Trump and European leaders.
In addition, J. Mearsheimer draws attention to the enormous damage caused by the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, which not only worsened the living conditions of millions of people, but also called into question the competence of the elites that govern the liberal international order.
In addition to deteriorating relations between Russia and the West, there are alarming signs of a potential conflict with China, which intends to change the status quo in the regions of the East China Sea, South China Sea, Taiwan, and borders with India.At present, the United States is more interested in containing China than in integrating it into global structures. Donald Trump’s administration recently stated that supporting China’s accession to the WTO was a mistake, since China’s establishment of a protectionist policy clearly shows that it does not want to play by the rules of this institution.
Finally, since 2006, the number of liberal democracies has begun to decline, reversing a trend that once looked unstoppable.It seems that soft authoritarianism has become an attractive alternative to liberal democracy. The latter has lost some of its attractiveness in recent years, this is due to the fact that the political system of the United States often looks inoperative. Even serious scholars are worried about the future of American democracy. “In general, the liberal international order is crumbling,” summarizes J. Mearsheimer .
Something went wrong? J. Mearsheimer believes that the liberal international order contained three generic shortcomings.The first was the initial impossibility of implementing an ambitious social engineering project on a global scale. As the neorealists assumed, its implementation led to exactly the opposite results – first of all, to resistance from the side of nationalism. The project was also hindered by changes in the balance of power politics. There was a unification of political regimes that opposed the attempts of the United States to change the government. For example, Syria and Iran have provided support to the US adversaries in Iraq, while Russia and China have solidified their solidarity in the Security Council on many issues.
Second, the architects of the liberal order underestimated the aspiration of the peoples of individual states to substantiate national identity and sovereignty. The liberal international order poses serious political problems with respect to the sovereignty and national identity of the liberal democracies themselves; and even more so when efforts to change the regime fail, it leads to the displacement of huge flows of refugees to liberal countries.
Third, hyperglobalization has led to significant economic and social costs for large numbers of people within liberal democracies, further undermining the liberal international order.Moreover, an open international economy contributed to the growth of China, which, along with the resurgence of Russia, ultimately led to shifts in the global balance of power, undermined unipolarity and, consequently, the conditions for the creation of a liberal international order.
Attempts by the United States to advance democracy by force have led to lost wars. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has fought seven wars; one war for two out of every three years during that period. However, these wars did not achieve their goals.
After the end of the Cold War, American politicians did not seriously consider the possibility of military action against China and Russia. Nonetheless, the United States has sought to transform these states into liberal democracies and integrate them into a liberal world order dominated by Washington. Leaders in the United States have not only been clear about their intentions, but have relied on nongovernmental organizations and various sophisticated strategies to push Beijing and Moscow towards liberal democracy.In essence, their goal was peaceful regime change. As expected, China and Russia have resisted the unipolar world for the same reason that Americans are currently opposed to Russian interference in their country’s politics.
Nationalism is the most powerful political ideology, and self-determination and sovereignty are of paramount importance to all countries. China and Russia are resisting the spread of the liberal order for realistic reasons, as its implementation would allow the United States to dominate the international system economically, militarily, and politically. Unsurprisingly, China is seeking to oust US military forces from the western Pacific, and Russia has long opposed EU and NATO expansion into Eastern Europe. According to J. Mearsheimer, the shift of these institutions towards Russia led to the Ukrainian crisis in 2014. Thus, nationalist and realistic reasons forced the two main powers to challenge American efforts to create a lasting liberal international order.
However, even in the camp of liberal democracies, there is a turn against the liberal international order.This is primarily due to the fact that liberal states are delegating more and more powers to supranational institutions. This gives the impression that states are abandoning national sovereignty.
J. Mearsheimer refers to J. Colgan and R. Keohane, who note that “in the minds of people there is a feeling that foreign forces are in control of their lives.” One of the reasons the British voted for Brexit was the belief that their country had transferred too much power to Brussels and lost control of its own economy.Concerns about the loss of sovereignty have played an important role in the United States. D. Trump ran for president under the slogan “America First”. In his campaign speeches, he sharply criticized all the key institutions that make up the liberal international order.
Value-wise, liberalism is an individualistic ideology that attaches great importance to the concept of inalienable rights. At the heart of the universal ideology is the postulate that every person on Earth has the same set of fundamental rights.This universalist or transnational perspective is in stark contrast to entrenched nationalism based on the belief that the world is divided into distinct nations, each with its own culture. The preservation of this culture is best served by one’s own state, which ensures survival in the face of challenges from the “other”. An example of this policy is the EU’s Schengen Agreement, which has largely eliminated the borders between most of its member states.In addition, the EU is deeply committed to the principles of opening its doors to refugees fleeing problems in their home countries.
According to J. Mearsheimer, modern hyperglobalization, which began to gain momentum in the 1980s. and accelerated after the end of the Cold War, effectively overturning the Bretton Woods Consensus, which meant moderate globalization and worked well for four decades. This consensus fostered an open international economy while protecting national markets.For example, there were serious restrictions on the volume of capital flows across state borders, and governments had significant opportunities to take protectionist measures in the interests of sovereign states.
The new order, created mainly by Western politicians, was intended to significantly reduce the regulation of global markets by removing controls on capital flows and replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) with the World Trade Organization (WTO).In fact, J. Mearsheimer stresses, any government interference in the activities of the world economy was considered harmful to the liberal international order.
The American scientist believes that hyperglobalization has caused a number of serious economic problems that have caused rejection of the liberal world order in the states that make up the core of this system. More and more people are unemployed. The traditional economic base of many regions has been destroyed.The dynamism inherent in the global economy not only threatens jobs, but also creates a keen sense of uncertainty about the future among people around the world. Moreover, hyperglobalization has done little to raise the real incomes of the lower and middle classes in the liberal West.
These escalating problems have led to widespread dissatisfaction with the liberal international order and a growing desire by governments to adopt protectionist economic policies that will undermine the existing system.D. Trump capitalized on this hostility towards the existing order in the 2016 presidential campaign, not only protesting against international institutions, but also justifying the need for protectionist economic policies.
In addition, J. Mearsheimer notes, the ease with which capital moves across borders and the weakening of the regulatory role of national governments provoke large-scale economic crises. First of all, he is referring to the large-scale crises in Asia in 1997-1998.and the global financial crisis 2007-2008. J. Mearsheimer predicts crises in the euro area and the weakening of the euro due to the fact that the EU has not made a significant move towards a financial and political union.
J. Mearsheimer devoted a separate section to the involvement of China in globalization processes. Before D. Trump came to power in 2017, Western elites, in line with their policy of engaging rather than containing China after the end of the Cold War, were deeply committed to integrating Beijing into the global economy, including all of its key economic institutions.They assumed that an increasingly prosperous and wealthy China would eventually become a liberal democracy and a permanent member of the international liberal order. However, the architects of this policy did not realize that by helping to accelerate China’s growth, they were effectively helping to undermine the liberal order, as China quickly became an economic power with significant military capabilities. In fact, they helped him become a great power, thereby undermining the unipolarity that is necessary to maintain a global liberal world order.
This problem is compounded by the resurgence of Russia, which is once again a great power, albeit clearly weak economically. With the rise of China and the return of Russia, the international system became multipolar, a lethal factor for the liberal international order. Neither China nor Russia became liberal democracies. With or without China, the liberal international order was doomed to fail because it was fatal at birth. With the election of D.Trump, the liberal world order would turn into an agnostic one, even if the international system remained unipolar. Indeed, D. Trump seems inclined to destroy it.
Summing up the results of his research, J. Mearsheimer comes to the conclusion that all the various causal processes described above have seriously influenced the undermining of the liberal international order. While each has its own logic, they often act synergistically. For example, the negative effects of hyperglobalization on the lower and middle classes, combined with nationalist resentment over immigration and a sense of lost sovereignty, is fueling populist backlash against the principles and practices of the liberal order.Indeed, this anger has often been directed at liberal elites who have benefited from and vigorously defend order.
In connection with the fact that the unipolar period is over, concludes J. Mearsheimer, “in the foreseeable future there is no chance of maintaining any liberal international order” . The new multipolar world will be dominated by various types of realistic orders.
There will likely be three realistic orders for the foreseeable future: a “weak” ( thin ) international order and two “hard-bounded” ( thick bounded ) orders: one led by China and the other with the United States.The emerging “weak” international order will mainly concern control over arms control agreements, ensuring the efficient operation of the world economy, and climate change. The institutions that make up the international order will focus on promoting interstate cooperation. In contrast, the two “hard-coded” orders will focus primarily on security competition. Significant economic and military competition can be observed between these two orders.
The relationship between the US-China-led “tough” international order will be reminiscent of the bipolar world of the Cold War. Russia will be involved in issues related to arms control. Washington, Beijing and Moscow will have to negotiate new documents to limit their arsenals, as the superpowers did during the Cold War. Nevertheless, the “hard” order under the leadership of the United States and China will be largely responsible for solving basic security issues.
The international economic situation will be very different from what it was during the Cold War. As the world economy remains highly interdependent, the emerging international order will play a key role in managing economic relations between countries around the world. J. Mearsheimer predicts the preservation of the intertwining and interaction of international economic relations between the United States and China. Nevertheless, China will strive to build up its economic power.In this regard, he will try to rewrite the rules in current international economic institutions and create new institutions that reflect his growing strength.
As an example of Chinese actions to establish economic dominance, J. Mearsheimer mentions the “Made in China in 2025” plan announced by Beijing in 2015. China’s highly ambitious Belt and Road Initiative, launched in 2013, aims not only to help China sustain its impressive economic growth, but also to spread Chinese military and political power around the world. …In this case, the American scientist believes, China’s strategy is to provide large government subsidies to state-owned companies and supplement their research with technologies stolen from American and other Western companies. China is also using its growing economic power to force its East Asian neighbors to side with Beijing. The main financial instrument for the creation of the Chinese “hard limited” order is becoming the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank ( Asian Infrastructure Development Bank ), from which the United States refused to participate in the activities of which.
The Trump administration’s tough economic policy towards China is just the beginning of what promises to be a long and intense rivalry between the “tightly constrained” orders of the United States and China. The United States will try to limit the transfer of dual-use technologies to China.
The rivalry between the Chinese-US-led blocs will involve both comprehensive economic and military competition, as was the case under the bipolar system.The difference will be that China and the United States will be deeply involved in managing the global economy, which was not the case during the Cold War.
As for Russia, J. Mearsheimer notes that it is undoubtedly a great power, an important actor in a multipolar world, albeit weaker than China and the United States. The key question remains which side it will take in the confrontation between the United States and China. J. Mearsheimer does not exclude the possibility of her going over to the side of the United States in the future.A strong China poses a great threat to Russia, given their geographic proximity. In this case, Russia will be slightly integrated into the “strong limited” order of the United States. If Moscow chooses the side of Beijing, then its inclusion in China’s “strong limited” order will also be negligible. It is possible that Russia will try to stay away from joining the projects of the United States and China and will try to create its own order based on regional institutions under its influence.
Europe (European Union) J. Mearsheimer assigns a place in a “strong limited” order under the auspices of the United States. He is skeptical about the EU’s military power to contain China. However, he highly appreciates the economic potential and scientific and technical equipment. The United States is not interested in transferring European technologies, especially dual-use technologies, to China. Europeans are interested in an American military umbrella on the Old Continent; and it can be used as leverage to encourage Europeans to cooperate on the economic front against China.
J. Mearsheimer urges, first of all, the ruling elites to recognize that the liberal international order has turned out to be an unsuccessful enterprise without a future and it is necessary to resist any temptation to continue attempts to forcibly spread democracy throughout the planet through changes in political regimes. In addition, the United States should strive to maximize its influence in international economic institutions – this is essential for the distribution of the balance of power in the formation of a new order.It is imperative that the United States does not allow China to dominate these institutions. Finally, US policymakers must work to create a “strong, limited” order that can contain Chinese expansion. To this end, it is necessary to continue efforts to create a Trans-Pacific Partnership and a military alliance in Asia similar to NATO during the Cold War. The US must make an effort to pull Russia out of China’s orbit and integrate it into the American international order.
Thus, J.Mearsheimer, the emerging “comprehensive international order” ( an overarching international order ) will be based on realistic principles of managing the world economy, addressing arms control issues and such global problems as climate change .
When J. Mearsheimer identifies the project of the American order of the 1990s. with the liberal, he means, first of all, its ideological character. It does not even occur to him to extend the theme of the crisis of the project of the liberal world order to the ideology of liberalism and liberalism as a project of state structure.
By the way, if we take a scientifically balanced position, then liberalism as a modern political project does not exist in reality and never fully existed. The liberal program substantiated by the theoreticians “was not implemented anywhere.” This was stated by the liberal economist Ludwig von Mises in 1962: “Only with some stretch can we say that the world has ever survived the liberal era” . In England, the term “liberal” is used primarily to refer to a program that differs only in detail from the totalitarianism of the socialists.In the United States, “liberal” today means a set of ideas and political postulates that are in all respects opposite to what previous generations meant by liberalism .
Classical liberalism, defined by the well-known formula “the state is the night watchman”, could not stand the clash with the “rebellious” masses and the “leviathan state” and left the political scene in English, giving way to the confrontation between “direct” democracy and “representative” democracy.Both in the first and in the second case, they operate with similar concepts. And only the realizable hierarchy of the triad “personality-society” (communitarianism) -state “makes it possible to establish significant differences between them in the type of political regime.
In no case have the supporters of “direct” democracy succeeded in bringing a speculative attractive ideal model to its ideal embodiment. The formulated concepts of the “communist”, “third”, “fourth” way invariably ran into human weaknesses and shortcomings, degraded towards, as a rule, authoritarian despotism or violent totalitarianism.
As for “representative” democracy, after the laconic convincing words of W. Churchill, there is nothing more to add to its explanation: democracy is “the worst form of government, if you don’t count all the others that have been tested over time.”
It is instructive to observe the discussions between liberals, socialists, conservatives about which of them most observes the values of freedom, democracy, equality, human rights, patriotism, statehood.The merit of the founders of the Yalta World, to whom the leaders of the USA, USSR, Great Britain belong equally, was in their creation of a system of international regimes and institutions for the dissemination and maintenance of universal democratic values. Seven decades later, they continue to remain the standard of morality and ethics, behavior in the international space.
Convincing is the conclusion of Amitava Acharya, who argues that at the moment the “rising powers” are not in a position to completely reverse the current order, and in fact they are trying to preserve its institutions in the short and medium term.In this regard, A. Acharia defines the modern world as a “multiplex world” in which “elements of the liberal order survive, but are included in the complex of many intersecting international orders.” He emphasizes that we are talking about a multi-component, not multipolar world and believes that the modern world is more complex than it was under the American-led liberal hegemonic order . A. Acharia notes that “this is a world with many modernities, where Western liberal modernity (and its preferred paths to economic development and management) is only part of what is offered.A multiplex world is like a multiplex movie theater that gives its audience a choice of different films, actors, directors and stories under one roof. D. Trump and Brexit have shown that there are serious differences in the scenario of the world order even in the West – and not only between the West and the rest, as is commonly believed. At the same time, the multiplex world is a world of interconnections and interdependence. It is not a unitary global order, liberal or otherwise, but a complex of cross, if not competing, international orders and globalisms. “
The modern world order is in an unstable transitional state, fraught with global and regional conflicts. Following the disappearance of the bipolar system, which tied regional spaces like a hoop, and the collapse of the USSR, which played the role of a policeman in its sphere of influence, a wave of disintegration of a number of countries followed (Yugoslavia, Libya, Iraq, Syria), and a reformatting of the regions that developed within the framework of the agreements Versailles and Yalta systems.
J. Nye believes that in the absence of global governance, the security of peoples, their prosperity and well-being, environmental protection should be taken under responsible control and regulation by integrated regional organizations under the auspices of great powers.
1. Keohane R. O After Hegemony Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton University Press, 1984.
2. Nye J.S. Will the Liberal Order Survive? The History of an Idea // Foreign Affairs. Vol. 96, no. 1.
3. John J. Mearsheimer. Bound to Fail. The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order // International Security, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Spring 2019), pp. 7-50.
4. Ibid p.23.
6. Ibid., P. 28.
7. Ibid., P. 40.
9. Mises L. von. Liberalism. M .: Socium, 2001.S. 7.
10. Ibid. C.5, 7.
11. Acharia A. The end of the American World Order. Cambridge: Polity Press. 2014.224 p.
90,034 90,000 World Bank promises slow growth for many years
World Bank experts revised downward global GDP growth rates in 2021. If in June last year, global GDP growth was predicted at 4.2%, now it has been adjusted to 4 %.In 2022, experts predict the growth of the world economy by 3.8%, according to the January report of the World Bank “World Economic Outlook”. The reasons for revising the forecast are quite understandable: a powerful new wave of the coronavirus epidemic, weak demand amid uncertain prospects, a decrease in business investment activity and a snowballing level of public and private debt. “In 2021, the global economy is expected to grow by 4%, provided that the started use of vaccines against COVID-19 will continue on a large scale throughout the coming year,” – said in a document posted on the World Bank website.
“After the global recession caused by the coronavirus epidemic, the world economy is entering a protracted period of weak economic growth,” World Bank economists Francisca Onsorg and Naotaka Sugawara write in their blog and predict an even greater slowdown in economic growth in 82 countries of the world to 1.9 % per year over the next 10 years.
Improving prospects (increasing GDP by an average of 0.8%) is possible only through active reforms that will accelerate growth, experts say.“Experience shows that investors are welcoming institutional changes and are raising their own long-term forecasts,” Onsorg and Sugawara emphasize. They include the development of technology, health care, education and environmental protection as key reforms, as well as improving the quality of public administration and transparency of public debt.
Russian experts share the pessimism of the World Bank analysts regarding the prospects for the world economy, especially noting the danger of an increase in the national debt of many countries.“During the pandemic, the global debt has grown sharply – by $ 15 trillion – and exceeded $ 272 trillion in the third quarter of 2020,” says Evgeny Kogan, professor at the Higher School of Economics, co-chairman of the Growth Party. – A significant part of the income of world businesses and states will go to servicing this debt, which cannot but affect efficiency. While interest rates are not very high, it does not look tragic, but we should not forget about inflation, which will rise. ”
Inflation will worsen the material condition of already impoverished citizens and the country will face a dilemma, sterilize the money supply or allow a rise in prices, adds Alexander Shirov, director of the Institute for Economic Forecasting of the Russian Academy of Sciences.Any of these options will have a negative impact on economic growth. The outlook for the Russian economy in the forecast of the World Bank looks worse than global: in 2021, GDP will grow by 2.6%, and in 2022 – by 3%. “Further support for growth will be provided by the rise in prices for industrial goods, as well as the continuation of government measures to support the economy. These include keeping interest rates at record lows and flexible fiscal policies, ”the World Bank report says.
Shirov considers such forecasts to be realistic. “Despite the fact that the fall in 2020 was not the strongest (-4%), the economic recovery will drag on until 2022. Commodity markets will recover more slowly than expected, demand remains weak, investment will remain too,” says the economist. In his opinion, the state can “stir up” the economy. “In a situation of low demand, it is necessary to increase incomes of the population and stimulate private investments with state support in the form of state guarantees and public-private partnerships.National projects must be actively and consistently implemented, ”Shirov is sure.
Kogan, like the analysts of the World Bank, believes that for stable economic growth both in our country and in the world, reforms are needed – fiscal, monetary, etc. “One of the reforms that is unlikely to be implemented, but almost all countries are interested in it, is the deregulation of the world economy and world finance,” he says.
“Today, the turnover of funds is falling, a lot of problems arise due to the fact that the hydra of global compliance is trying to control all processes in the economy,” explains Kogan.- This octopus, hiding behind the flag of combating money laundering of dubious origins and global risks, squeezed economic freedom so much that transaction costs rose sharply. Accordingly, the costs of businesses and banks are growing, which negatively affects economic processes. ”
In theory, there is a chance for Russia to act against the trend and loosen regulation so that the economy can develop at a faster pace. “But the chances for such a scenario, alas, are few,” admits Kogan.
According to Anatoly Gozhia, a lecturer at the Department of Financial Disciplines of the Higher School of Financial Management, the restoration of domestic business is hindered by a drop in domestic consumption due to a decrease in citizens’ incomes. Considering that, in the end, it is consumer demand that provides about 50% of the country’s GDP, it is precisely its stimulation, according to the economist, that should become the primary task in the final situation. This requires a wider use of measures to support the population, by analogy with other economically developed economies.“We need to make full use of the possibilities of increasing the budget deficit. At the moment it is minimal and is easily covered by the possibilities of internal borrowing, ”says Gozhiy.
It should be noted that the government is fully aware of the problem of low consumer activity of the population. However, the difficulty lies in the fact that it cannot be solved by economic methods, since it is mainly associated with the psychology of people, the Minister of Economic Development Maxim Reshetnikov explained to journalists at the end of December.
Another necessary condition for the dynamic development of the economy Gozhiy considers a favorable environment for investment. “An example of improving the investment climate in a particular sector of the economy can serve as the preferential mortgage program and the soft monetary policy pursued by the Bank of Russia during this period. At the turn of 2020–2021 The central bank left everyone in a state of certain uncertainty about their future actions. However, if the mega-regulator finds opportunities to reduce the cost and increase the availability of credit resources for business, then these additional injections into the country’s economy may be decisive for dynamic development, ”the expert says.
However, not all Russian experts share the pessimism of the World Bank analysts. “The World Bank’s forecasts for oil prices for 2021 – $ 44 per barrel – look more conservative compared to the forecasts of other experts. And this means that the growth of Russia’s GDP may be underestimated, ”says Bakhtiyar Jafarov, head of the project for the direction“ Macroeconomic Analysis and Financial Markets ”of the CSR. – For example, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its December Short-term Review of Energy Markets predicted in 2021.the price of Brent oil at $ 48.5 per barrel, and WTI oil at $ 45.8 per barrel. And at the beginning of 2021, oil prices have already jumped above $ 56 per barrel of Brent ”.
According to Jafarov, the dynamics of Russian GDP will also depend on the indicators of recovery of certain sectors and branches of the economy, where the speed of recovery and the effect of government support measures are still difficult to assess. “A number of sectors received significant impetus even during the development of the pandemic,” the economist points out.- Thus, the construction sector received support in the form of stimulating consumer demand with preferential mortgages and other state programs. The pharmaceutical and chemical industries will continue to show strong growth rates amid increased global demand for vaccines, antiseptics and components for their production. ”
I am not vaccinated against covid because … We analyze popular reasons
Professor of the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology Georgy Bazykin
Now the effectiveness of various vaccines against new variants of coronavirus is closely monitored all over the world, including in Russia.According to the latest data, vaccines that protected against the original variants of SARS-CoV-2 remain effective against the new ones widespread in Russia, primarily Alpha and Delta. The list of countries where a large proportion of the population is vaccinated is growing, and vaccination everywhere reduces the total number of cases, although it is mainly new variants of the virus that are found in these countries. It is impossible to predict in advance how the vaccine will act on those options that will appear in the future, but even if they partially go away from immunity, the composition of the vaccines can be updated.This is done, for example, every year with the flu vaccine.
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology and Rutgers University (USA) Konstantin Severinov
Vaccines against COVID-19, the effectiveness of which has been proven, lead to the formation of antibodies in vaccinated people that neutralize the virus and protect against infection … New strains of the virus are neutralized by antibodies in the blood of the vaccinated more slowly than the original Wuhan variant against which vaccines were developed, but in any case, neutralization takes place.In the blood of unvaccinated people, the virus is not neutralized at all. The level of protection provided by vaccines that have passed the necessary tests is high enough that a person either does not get sick with the new variants or suffer the disease more easily than an unvaccinated person. Most likely, there will be no special drugs against different strains of coronavirus: they simply will not be required.
Doctor of Psychology, Head of the Laboratory of Social and Economic Psychology at the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Timofey Nestik
the unintended consequences of vaccinations, the belief that most other people do not trust vaccines, and the belief in conspiracy theories.But the biggest contribution to it comes from the perception of COVID-19 as a disease that is still poorly understood and the consequences of which are unknown. It is important to understand that the nature of COVID-19 has already been studied much better than in 2020, most independent experts agree on many points. And the effectiveness of vaccines against smallpox and poliomyelitis is also not one hundred percent: vaccinations against these diseases are effective in 90-95% of cases (“Sputnik” is effective in 97.6% of cases – approx. TASS).
11 ways to recognize the weak character of a person already at the first meeting / AdMe
When we hear the warning: “This person has character!”, We prepare in advance that it will not be easy with a new acquaintance.If sharp corners are visible immediately, then people usually mask and hide their weaknesses. But many years of psychological experience makes it possible, with due attention, to draw a conclusion about the maturity of a person by his behavior.
Scientists from the Institute for the Study of Character have been researching human personality for many years and are convinced that there are no good and bad traits, but there are strengths and weaknesses. The strong help us grow, and the weak slow down and make us unhappy. We at 5 Fun Facts thought about this and, having analyzed the experience of popular psychologists, drew illustrative illustrations from life.
1. Imitation of an idol
For children and adolescents, imitation is a normal form of socialization. Determining their attitude to the world around them, they, like no one else, need a role model. With age, a healthy, strengthened person stops copying and finds himself. If an adult continues to look for idols for himself, then his character has not yet been formed. Cases of fanaticism and complete replacement of one’s own identity are called “celebrity imitation syndrome”, which affects about 15% of the total number of people living on the planet.
2. Inability to face difficulties face to face
We are all characterized by shyness and timidity, especially in important, crucial moments of life. But some people, when faced with minor difficulties or embarrassing situations, hide their heads in the sand. They even instinctively tuck their shoulders, pushing the neck inward. Psychologist Bill Knaus called it the ostrich trap syndrome, which fetters with fear and insecurity, making it difficult to fulfill your dreams and move towards your goal.
3. Obsession with oneself
People tend to frame photographs of loved ones, pets or just pleasant moments in life. But if a person hangs up his dwelling with his own photographs and looks in the mirror for a long time or counts the number of likes in social networks every free minute, then most likely you have a hysterical (demonstrative) personality type in front of you. It is characterized by narcissism, an insatiable thirst for attention, a need for reverence.The main weakness of such people is that they are very easy to manipulate, playing on their sense of self-importance.
4. Fear of attracting attention
Modesty is a good and useful quality as long as it does not prevent a person from being himself and self-actualizing. Psychologist Barbara Markway believes that being overly shy is often mistaken for introversion. However, introverts, preferring loneliness, do not avoid communication, but simply choose it more carefully, while shy ones suffer from low self-esteem, are afraid of being rejected, and restrain their real desires.
5. Criticism of other people’s achievements behind them
Professor of clinical psychology Robert Leahy distinguishes 3 types of envy: depressive, positive and hostile. Depressive jealousy lowers our self-esteem and makes us feel like a failure, positive jealousy motivates us to be better, and hostile jealousy causes anger and judgment. And if the first 2 types most often have a temporary effect and can even positively affect a person, then the third is part of the character and attitude towards life.Instead of getting better, a person begins to criticize and humiliate the one who was able to achieve results in order to look better against his background.
6. Inability to insist on your own
It is easier to agree than to argue. This is a wonderful character trait that is inherent in flexible people who know how to avoid conflict. But only if it does not interfere with their own interests. A strong individual protects his personal space and respects someone else’s, while a weak one easily succumbs to pressure and himself tactlessly violates boundaries.
If you find it difficult to say “no”, then psychotherapist Diana Barth advises to start small: instead of refusal, learn to speak with confidence about what you want. For example, if you are offered coffee, you can say, “Thank you, but I would like to drink water.”
7. Inflating an elephant from a fly
Auto-aggression, or self-destructive behavior, is a very destructive defense mechanism. They most often suffer from children who have experienced difficult moments, but sometimes adults also get stuck in this state: they begin to exaggerate at the slightest difficulty, blame themselves for mistakes.By the way, self-humiliation, self-inflicted physical harm, excessive enthusiasm for the dangerous aspects of extreme sports, even simple clicking on the nose are also the results of this mechanism.
8. Fear of expressing emotions
In order to openly show your emotions, you need to have sufficient strength of mind. There is nothing wrong with tears, for example, if they are not performed theatrically. However, in our culture, it is customary to hide your feelings, this is just a sign of good manners and restraint.But to constantly hide under the mask means to be afraid of condemnation, to hide from the outside world.
9. Reluctance to ask for help
In difficult situations, it is sometimes wiser to seek support from more skillful, experienced or educated friends and colleagues. But for some people, asking for help means admitting a weakness that they diligently hide. In addition, establishing communication is also work, so people who are insecure try to avoid teamwork.Gretchen Rubin, author of the bestselling project Happiness Project, calls the ability to ask for help the main secret of maturity.
10. Finding logical excuses for our actions
Rationalization helps us find reasonable reasons for a negative situation and cope with emotions. So we kind of cool our feelings with reason, so as not to experience pain, fear and regret. But, on the other hand, we deceive ourselves instead of dealing with the problem, we convince ourselves that someone else is good enough and guilty.It is much easier to come up with a seemingly logical explanation for everything, instead of looking inside.
11. Frequent change of poses with the search for a fulcrum
Lie-recognition specialist Paul Ekman writes that if during a conversation a partner shows excessive unmotivated variability of postures, then this indicates a general immaturity of his personality. A stance with a frequent change of the supporting leg and the position of the feet betrays unsteadiness of character, low self-discipline, and unreliability.
None of us are perfect, so if you recognize yourself in one of the characters in our illustrations, then this is great news. Firstly, you are able to soberly assess yourself and your shortcomings, and secondly, you are ready to become better. Is not it?
Illustrator Inna Grevtseva specially for Bright Side
The weakest football club in Europe, Sueca United, four victories in 20 years, a club where homeless people, alcoholics and drug addicts play – December 4, 2020
Have you ever thought about what is the weakest football club in Europe? The answer to this question is not as simple as it seems.In the basements of the lower leagues of any European country, there are many teams that win on very big holidays. But Sueca United from the Spanish suburb of Valencia broke all kinds of anti-records. In its twenty-year history, this Spanish club has won only 4 matches.
“In 2001, Sueca United began playing in the lowest Spanish division called the Segunda Regional Grupo 11,” says Spanish journalist and statistician Borja Padre Valero. – It turns out that the club is already 20 years old.During this time, they played about six hundred matches, of which they won only four games. It turns out that Sueca wins on average once every five years or once every 150 matches. No other club has worse indicators and results at such a long distance. So the Suek players can safely be awarded the title of the weakest club in Europe for the last 20 years. They can also be called the weakest European club in the 21st century. That will be right too. ”
Since Segunda Regional Grupo 11 is considered the lowest division in the structure of Spanish football, no one is kicked out of it.There is simply nowhere to fall below. This is the very, very last division of Spain, its deepest point of the bottom. This is where Sueca United plays.
Throughout its twenty-year history, the club has never climbed at least one division higher. It is very difficult to count on this, given that the team wins on average once every five years. And in the mid-tenths, Sueca managed to set an anti-record and conceded 546 goals in 32 matches in one championship. Curiously, this result beat the previous anti-record of 499 goals conceded by the same team by 47 goals.
Why alcoholics and drug addicts play here
Now is the time to talk about the person on whom this club is based. His name is Pau Codina. In one person, it combines so many different functions that you can lose count. He is the founder, president, manager, scout, head coach, sponsor, captain, and even the best scorer in Sueca history. And why his team is showing such results – the answer is simple. The fact is that 80 percent of the club is people who are treated for drugs and alcohol, as well as the homeless, the unemployed and the poor.Pau Codina tells how he came up with the idea to create such a club:
“Once my childhood friend Paco, with whom we trained as a teenager, approached me. Once he gave good prospects and was in the second team of Villarreal, but then he began to smoke, drink, take drugs. He ended up on the street and asked for help, said he wanted to quit everything and start a normal life. We started training together first. I helped him get in shape and after a couple of months brought him to our training at Montahenos.
But the coach and the president didn’t allow him not only to train, but they didn’t even let him into the locker room. They said that they knew Paco, remembered how he was kicked out of Villarreal’s double for violating the regime and made it clear that they did not need such degraded people in the team. All this made me very angry, and I could not restrain myself from such injustice. Why not give the person a chance?
I began to think that people like Paco also need to be given a chance to return to normal life through the same football.But who will do this? Then it occurred to me that it was necessary to create a club in which anyone could play football, regardless of their past. In 2001, we entered the lowest division in Spain. Paco invited people who, like him, were at the bottom: alcoholics, drug addicts, homeless people. Since then, our club strategy has not changed. We try to help people who are struggling with alcohol or drug addiction. The door to our team is always open for them.
How the club lives
Sueki’s club colors are the same as those of English Manchester United.But the team is not wearing red and black because Pau was inspired by Sir Alex Fergusson’s legendary brigade. Here the love of the founder of “Sueka” for music has already affected. He was very much inspired and admired by several bands from Manchester who were independent in their views and expressed this through their songs. On the Sueki T-shirts, in place of the title sponsor, the inscription Júcar Viu flaunts on the chest from year to year for 17 years. This ecological platform was created in 2003 to restore the Khukar River, requiring a higher ecological flow.
The platform is part of the New Aquatic Culture Foundation, which opposes the transfer of water between basins, and also organizes various events where it raises sensitive topics on river protection, climate change and global warming. At every home game of Sueca, its players distribute leaflets to opponents, referees and spectators urging them to use water carefully, protect nature and the environment, not litter rivers, lakes, etc.
The main and most devoted fan of Sueca for many years Raul Jimenez has been the vicar of the Church of San Pedro de Sueca.He does not miss a single game of the club, every time he blesses the players before matches and admires the activities of Pau Codina:
“What Pau does cannot but deserve respect. He has the same mission as the church: with his football club, he helps people find life after they are lost in themselves, says Vicar Raul Jimenez.
Despite the disgusting results, Sueca United has a large number of players from the Spanish national team. Yes, this is not a typo or a joke.In fact, Sueca is the base club of the Spanish national team playing in the World and European Championships among the homeless.
This season, Sueca United, after seven rounds played, is in the last place in the table, losing in all matches with a large score on duty. For example, Athletic Waltz and Conde did not spare our heroes and defeated them 21: 0 and 20: 1. Perello won with a slightly smaller difference – 15: 1. The best result so far is a home defeat against Almonis with a score of 2: 7:
“We managed to score twice and lost by only 5 goals.This is a very good result for us, considering that very often we lose by 20 or even 30 goals. ”
But Pau Codina does not despair. For him, the priority is not results, but helping people who have sunk to the bottom.
“I understand that it is impossible to fight even for the penultimate place in the division with a squad like ours. It is difficult to count even on some points when you have people on your team who took hard and cheap drugs or are undergoing treatment for alcoholism a month ago.Most of them do not even have houses, so they do not have the opportunity to get enough sleep, rest, and recover. Many do not always eat their fill.
Therefore, the four victories that we have achieved in 20 years are tantamount to four victories in the Champions League of Real Madrid. I remember them by heart: the scores, the names of the teams, the authors of the goals by the minute, how the course of events developed. Our longest streak without a win goes back 8 years.
I am often asked why am I wasting time on this team? Of course, I could play in a stronger club or even run several divisions higher.But what will it give me besides personal satisfaction? When I see drug addicts, alcoholics, homeless people come to us and they get the feeling that someone needs them in this life – this is much more important than any cups, medals, victories and promotions between divisions. ”
Download Sport24 app for iOS
Download Sport24 app for Android
Weak ruble, new sanctions, price increases, strange Central Bank: Glazyev’s view
“People, events, facts” – you make the news that happens around us.And we are talking about them. This is a section about the most current events. Interesting stories and hot reports, boring interviews and vivid opinions.
Events of domestic, foreign and international politics, political intrigues and secrets, invisible levers for making public decisions, behind the scenes of negotiations, analytics on events and forecasts for the near future and promising trends, public figures of world politics and their “gray cardinals”, conspiracies against Russia and exposing the domestic “fifth column” – all this and much you will find in the materials of the Politics Department of Constantinople.
The ideological department of Constantinople is a factory of Russian meanings. We do not reveal undercover intrigues, we do not “reinvent bicycles” and we do not “discover America”. We return lost meanings to obvious things. Russia is a great Orthodox power with a thousand-year history. The Russian Church is the foundation of our statehood and culture. Moscow is the Third Rome. A Russian is one who sincerely loves Russia, its history and culture.The family is the union of a man and a woman. And their children. Many children are desirable. People’s conservation is the key task of the state. A task that cannot be solved without a coherent ideology.
Constantinople’s investigations are the fruit of the joint work of a group of analysts and experts. We reveal the mechanism of work of oligarchic corporations, the anatomy of the preparation of color revolutions, the structure of criminal ethnic groups.