How do you beat a 1 3 1 defense: How to Beat a 1-3-1 Zone Defense (16 Strategies and Plays)
How to Beat a 1-3-1 Zone Defense (16 Strategies and Plays)
If you’ve played against a 1-3-1 zone defense, you know how effective it can be.
It’s an aggressive, disruptive, in-your-face defense that attempts to “speed up” the offense and confuse them with traps and irregular defensive positioning.
To defeat it, the offense must be calm under pressure and make smart decisions.
(This defense shouldn’t be used in youth basketball… but many coaches do anyway)
Below we’ll go through 16 strategies your team can use to break open a 1-3-1.
Let’s get started:
1-3-1 Zone Offense Strategies
1. Use an Even Front Setup
Most teams will use an “even front” setup when playing against a 1-3-1 defense.
The two main options are:
2-1-2 Setup — Two players in the slots, a player in the high post, and two players in the corners.
2-3 Setup — Two players in the slots, a player in the high post, and two players on the wings.
The point of this is to split the “chaser” at the top of the zone.
The two players at the top will usually be your point guard (1) and either a trailing big (4) or a second guard (2), but all players should understand the responsibilities of each position.
2. Shift the Defense
Continuing on from the last point…
Two players at the top gives you the option to easily shift the defense from side to side.
This is super effective at the beginning of the possession when the chaser first steps up to guard the ball, especially if the defense likes to trap at the top.
Before crossing the halfway line or just as the defender commits, players have the option to reverse the ball to a trailing teammate on the opposite side of the court.
This stifles any traps and forces the defense to shift to the opposite side of the floor.
The receiver will have several important seconds to attack / create if there’s a gap.
3. Best Playmaker in the High Post
Many coaches choose the wrong player to put in the high post.
It’s common for teams to automatically put the tallest player on the team there — which somewhat makes sense because it’s a difficult pass and they’re a bigger target — but I’ve found teams have more success putting their best playmaker in the high post.
“Best playmaker” meaning a player who can score themselves AND create for others.
You need someone there who can quickly read the defense and make smart decisions.
4. Disciplined Court Spacing
Nothing you read in this article will help if your players don’t keep good spacing.
They should constantly search for and move into open space on the perimeter.
The 1-3-1 defense is effective because it creates havoc and confusion, so having off-ball players continually working to get open and find holes is crucial.
Using a 2-1-2 or 2-3 setup will help your team achieve this.
5. Attack the Gaps
If your players are spaced correctly and constantly moving into open space, there will be many opportunities to “attack the gaps” in the zone.
The key to this is reading the defense BEFORE catching the ball.
(Players who catch the ball and then survey the defense will be too slow)
If a player already knows there’s a drivable gap as they catch, they can immediately put the ball on the floor and attack before the defense has a chance to rotate.
The goal is to “collapse” the defense.
Attacking the gaps in the zone will force help which leaves teammates open.
6. Overload the Zone
“Overloading” is one of the best ways to defeat the 1-3-1 zone defense.
This involves bringing four offensive players to one side of the court, forcing defenders to move out of their regular 1-3-1 positions if they want to cover all offensive players.
(this works best if your best shooter is on the opposite wing)
For example… (1) at the top, (3) in the corner, (4) on the elbow, (5) in the short corner, and (2) on the opposite wing.
If your players can move the ball quickly and intelligently, open shots will appear as the defenders scramble from closeout to closeout.
7. Screen the Chaser
Another smart way to break down a 1-3-1 defense is to screen the top defender (the chaser).
Any offensive player can be the screener, but most coaches will have the player in the high post step out to set an on-ball screen for the ball-handler.
This can be done at the start of the possession, but it’s even more effective when executed after a ball reversal to catch the top defender off guard.
Done correctly, the ball-handler will find themselves with a ton of space to attack the gap, collapse the defense, and either score themselves or create a shot for a teammate.
8. Screen the Warrior
Perhaps the most difficult role in a 1-3-1 defense is being the “warrior.”
This player is responsible for covering both baseline corners. That’s no easy task and requires continually sprinting from corner to corner throughout a possession.
An offensive player in the low post or short corner can make the warrior’s job even harder by screening them as they sprint the baseline.
Even if you don’t bring them to a complete stop, just slowing them down for a half-second can give a shooter in the corner a wide open look.
9. Utilize Skip Passes
On-time and on-target skip passes can be devastating to a 1-3-1 defense.
The way the zone loads up to the ball makes switching to the opposite side of the court on a skip pass very difficult for the defensive team.
This is especially true for the Warrior, who is forced to sprint from sideline-to-sideline in order to cover the offensive player in the ball-side corner.
Done correctly, you’ll get many opportunities to attack late closeouts.
(these are difficult passes to throw for young players… they can get the ball there, sure… but it won’t be a powerful / on-target pass which gives a teammate time to shoot or attack before the defense rotates… and that’s a big reason why the 1-3-1 is so effective in youth basketball)
10. Utilize Pass Fakes
“Fake a pass to make a pass.”
That’s an important quote for all players to remember, but it’s especially important for teams playing against a 1-3-1 zone defense.
You see, the 1-3-1 is an aggressive zone that emphasises deflections…
When playing against one, you’ll see defenders flying around the court… jump passing lanes and leaping / lunging at every opportunity, doing their best to get a fingertip on the ball.
Disciplined teams can take advantage of this aggressiveness by utilizing pass fakes.
A quick pass fake on the perimeter can open up a driving lane, and any pass fake from the high post is guaranteed to get every defender taking a step or two in that direction.
11. Lob Passes
Coaches would be surprised by how many “lob pass” opportunities there are against a 1-3-1.
Due to the rotations in the 1-3-1 defense and the lack of big bodies close to the hoop, there’s often a large amount of open space on the weak-side low block.
(this is also the reason why offensive rebounding is crucial, which we’ll get to in a minute)
So, if you have players who can throw an accurate lob pass and players who can go up and get it, there’s a big opportunity to get a few easy points.
Remember — you can take advantage of this action even if you don’t have players who can finish an alley-oop dunk. The receiver can catch, land, and then go back up and finish the layup.
A good offensive rebounding strategy is essential against a 1-3-1 defense.
Because of the positions defenders usually find themselves in when a shot goes up, defensive rebounding is one of the biggest weaknesses of the defense.
So you need to take advantage!
Some teams send 3 players to the offensive glass while dropping 2 back to safety, others send everyone below the free-throw line in to rebound.
Whichever strategy you choose, make sure you’re exploiting this weakness.
If your players are quick to react and aggressive in their pursuit of the ball, you’re going to get plenty of offensive rebounds, 2nd chance points, and draw a ton of fouls inside.
13. Beat Them Down the Floor
As with all zones, one of the best ways to defeat them is to get down the floor quickly.
Do this by encouraging your point guard to advance the ball with a pass instead of dribbling the entire length of the floor by themselves.
Even if you don’t get a quick score, this can force defenders into poor positions as they scramble to pick up the ball to prevent a layup or wide open shot.
14. Figure Out Where They Trap
As the team’s coach, one of the first things you should be evaluating in the first 5 minutes of the game is where the opposition likes to trap.
> Are they trapping the high post?
> Are they trapping the corners?
> Are they trapping at the top?
A 1-3-1 zone defense provides many trapping opportunities.
Figuring out which traps your opponent likes to use will allow you to give players the most appropriate advice and put players in the right positions to be successful.
Teams can change it up during the game, of course… but most teams have a specific set of rules they use 90% of the time to keep things simple for the defenders.
1-3-1 Zone Offense Plays
Below I’ll share two highly-effective basketball plays to use against a 1-3-1 zone.
Both are designed to finish in an “overload” position.
So, if you don’t get a clean shot opportunity off any of the initial actions, your team is now in the perfect position to start picking apart the defense using the strategies outlined above.
Because my audience is primarily youth coaches, both plays are aimed at getting the ball inside the paint for an easy finish or to draw the foul.
a. 1-4 High Play
Players start in a 1-4 high setup.
1. The point guard’s first option is to get the ball to one of the players in the high post.
2. Whoever catches the ball, the opposite post immediately cuts towards the basket and looks to get a deep seal on the “warrior,” who will usually be a smaller defender. If available, dump the ball inside and score an easy two-point layup.
3. As this happens, (1) slides across to the wing and (2) slides down to the corner.
4. If the pass inside isn’t open, players will now find themselves in an “overload” setup.
1. The point guard’s second option is to pass the ball to a teammate on the perimeter.
2. When this happens, the ball-side high post immediately steps towards the basket and attempts to get a deep seal on their opponent. If the pass is open, give it.
3. (2) takes a few dribbles towards the baseline to improve the passing angle, (5) slides across to the ball-side high post, and (1) steps towards the ball to provide an outlet pass.
Again, players will find themselves in an “overload” setup and must take advantage.
How you attack from this position will vary depending on what the defenders choose to do, but the key is exploiting mismatches and the confusion that follows as the defense attempts to figure out the best way to defend so many players on one side of the court.
b. 2-1-2 Play
Players start in a 2-1-2 setup.
1. The first option is to get the ball to the high post if they can get open.
2. On the catch, (5)’s first option is to attack or pass to the players in the short corner for an open shot or one-dribble and then they go up.
3. If those options aren’t open, (5) passes out to the ball-side corner.
4. As soon as that happens, the opposite short corner (2) steps up and sets a strong back-screen on (5)’s defender. (5) should then dive to the hoop for the potential catch and layup.
If that’s not open, the team will now find themselves in an overload position and should work to take advantage of that.
The 1-3-1 defense is effective because it’s aggressive, disruptive, and confusing.
Defenders are placed in “awkward” spots on the court that make things complicated for offensive players who haven’t had experience playing against it.
But it’s definitely not impossible to beat.
With patience, good spacing, smart ball movement, and knowledge of the most effective “strategies” to use against a 1-3-1, your team should have no trouble picking them apart.
How to Beat a 1-3-1 Zone in Basketball
The 1-3-1 zone defense is said to be the most versatile of all the types of zone defense. Using the 1-3-1 zone defense, teams can either match up or trap. With that being said, there are several weaknesses that the offense may exploit. It may take getting used to, but the point is to know how to beat a 1-3-1 zone in basketball. Let’s get right to it.What is a 1-3-1 Zone in Basketball?
The 1-3-1 zone defense is a defensive basketball formation referring to the way defenders position themselves. One defender is at the top of the key, three defenders in the free-throw line area, and another one placed on the baseline near the basket.
The first to use this formation is Red Sarachek, the legendary basketball coach that mentored Red Holzman, Jack Donohue, and Lou Carnesecca. The primary purpose of the 1-3-1 is to trap and force a turnover. This happens when the defender at the top hounds the ballhandler, leading him to a corner. From there, the nearest defender quickly closes in and double-teams hard. If the offensive team is inexperienced in facing a 1-3-1 zone defense, turnovers rapidly pile up, leading to easy transition baskets on the other end.
Like any basketball strategy, the 1-3-1 zone defense has its advantages and disadvantages. What exactly are they?
- Will quickly force turnovers leading to fastbreak opportunities
- It has a surprise factor since not many teams use the 1-3-1 zone defense.
- Cuts off normal passing lanes so teams couldn’t run their typical offense
- Creates predictable offense, which plays right into the defense’s hands
- It can be applied full or half-court, making it the most versatile zone defense formation
- Fun and exciting
- Almost zero interior defense
- The corners and the high post are there all day to exploit.
- Gives up easy baskets
- As is true with most zone defenses, the 1-3-1 zone defense is vulnerable to offensive rebounds.
- Not the best choice to develop defensive fundamentals
- Requires so much energy to employ
1. Force the number in your favor. Use sets and passes to force the number in your favor. When you use ball reversals to shift the zone, there will be opportunities for a 2-on-1 or a 3-on-2 situation. That numbers disadvantage doesn’t bode well for the defense.
2. Use screens. By using screens, the offense forces the defense to delay a little bit, especially on shifts. Since the 1-3-1 formation naturally takes away ball reversals, this makes the screens much more valuable in this setting. Never hesitate to use ball screens and pin downs, especially when your team looks for cross-court and skip passes to open teammates on the opposite side.
3. Misdirection. Like a good magician, it’s always best to hide your intentions. When you’re looking to attack from the corner, fake as if you are looking at the middle and vice-versa.
4. Spacing. In number 1, we spoke about the importance of creating a numbers advantage. The only way that can be nullified is the offense has terrible spacing. Only then can a defensive player effectively guard two players since they are only relatively close to each other.
5. Attack and collapse the zone. If the offense is relegated to passing the ball around the perimeter, that’s a win for the defense. Make it a point to attack the middle of the zone or the gaps. If it collapses, swing the ball to the perimeter for open shots.
This 1-3-1 zone defensive drill isolates the “spine” or the backbone of the defense. These three defensive players must move in harmony to prevent confusion as the defense shifts. To start the drill, scatter four players on the perimeter with two more on each block. Pass the ball around the perimeter as the chaser, the middle, and the tail practice their appropriate coverages.
2. The Pistons Drill
While the “spine” focuses on the backbone, this drill concentrates on the wing defenders’ defensive responsibilities. (They are called the “weak side wing” and the “ball side wing.”)
To begin the drill, position two “offensive” players on the guard lanes on top and two more on each block. As the ball is passed from guard to guard, the wing defenders follow the cardinal rule in 1-3-1 defense: When the ball comes to this side of the floor, the wing in that particular direction goes up, and the other goes down to the block. Every now and then, the guards throw the ball to the opposite block to test the wings’ coverage skills.
3. The Warrior Drill
The “warrior” is the guy in the rear of the 1-3-1 zone defense, sometimes called the “tail.
To begin the drill, position two players in each corner and two players on the block. The offensive guys on the block will attempt to set baseline screens to free the shooters in the corner. Two coaches station themselves on the perimeter and sway the ball from one side to the other. The drill may continue for 25 seconds at full speed, or the coaches may set a number of deflections to signal a stoppage.
There are several ways to break down a 1-3-1 zone defense. The corners, the high posts, and the baseline (which is behind the zone) are all there to take. Any zone defense may be beat using quick passing, penetration, and drive and dish plays. Here are 5 of the best strategies to break a 1-3-1 zone defense:
As suggested by its name, this zone offense features four offensive players spread on the outside. The two are spread on the top of the key (from there, they can stagger the one defender), the other two are on the wings (ready to slide in the corners), and one guy in the low post.
The purpose of this offense is to over shift the 1-3-1 zone so you may have the chance to pass to the post and create open shots. The key to this offense is patience. More often than not, the offensive guy in the low post and the guys on the wings/corners will get open shot opportunities.
2. 1-3-1 Zone Offense
The 1-3-1 zone offense buster starts out something very similar to the formation of the 1-3-1 defense. One player initiates the offense on the top, one is in the free throw/ high post area, two players on the wings, and another in the low post. From there, the ballhandler should avoid the coffin corners, the place in the wing where the 1-3-1 zone likes to trap.
To do this, the player in the high post rotates to the strong-side corner as soon as the pass is made to the wing. Simultaneously, the guy in the weakside corner flashes to the high post, and the big man posts up. In this setup, the middle and baseline defenders are forced to defend the corner, the high post, and the low post. Last time we checked, three is always better than two.
3. The “45”
The “45” starts with a 2-1-2 defensive formation with two guards on top, one player in the free-throw line area, and the other two on each block. This play often ends up in an open three via a skip pass.
From the initial formation, the ballhandler tries to hide his intention by forcing the attention of two defenders in the middle. The goal is to hit the player coming from the block, flashing to the corner. As soon as the pass is made, the offensive player from the free-throw line takes his place in the block.
The guard initiating the pass in this set takes his position in the free-throw line. This player and his teammate on the weak side block screens his own guy as the other guard slides into an open three on the weak side wing. The offensive man on the strong-side corner makes the skip pass, and they get a free look.
1. This video by Basketball Coach Allen contains the 4-out offense, one of the better offenses that play on the 1-3-1 zone defense weakness. It also includes the 5-out offense, a rather radical implementation of the same principles of the 4-out, but emphasizing attacking the baseline.
2. This video explains how to use the 2-1-2 offense to break the 1-3-1 zone defense down. If appropriately used, this offense will lead to an easy basket either by a quick low post play or a timely cut by an offensive player in the baseline.
The 1-3-1 zone defense refers to the formation of the defensive players in this particular type of zone defense. One defender is called the “middle,” and his role is to meet the ballhandler and force him to one side. (The 1-3-1 is not to be confused with the 1-1-3 zone defense in basketball pioneered by Arizona’s Lute Olson.)
The three defenders are positioned near the free-throw line. The one in the middle of that three-man pack is called the “chaser.” The ones outside are called “wings.” The chaser’s purpose is to defend the middle of the floor, while the wings look to deny the nearest receivers or trap if they receive the ball in the coffin corners. The last piece of the 1-3-1 zone is called the “warrior” or “chaser.” Their job is to protect the basket and chase the corner shooters.
Like any defensive setup, a 1-3-1 zone has its pros and cons. It often creates turnovers and forces the offense to pass over the defense. Most zone offenses work against the 2-3 or 1-2-2, but only a number of them are geared against the 1-3-1 zone. After a few looks, most of the defenders could adjust and shut these sets down.
With that being said, no matter how dynamic the 1-3-1 zone defense is, it has its fair share of chinks. The baseline, the corners, and the low post are vulnerable areas, while the constant shifting and anticipating takes up a lot of energy. However, if a team could master it enough, it is an excellent defensive formation that forces many turnovers.
One of the best ways to attack a 1-3-1 zone defense is by either stretching or collapsing it. If the offense can force the 1-3-1 to stretch, then they can take the defense away from the basket. If the ball makes its way into the hands of a capable low post scorer, it’s over. The offense may also attack by collapsing the defense– either by attacking the gaps or by penetration– and then kicking the ball outside for open jumpers.
Considering all of the tips, plays, and drills in this article, we hope to point you in the right direction on how to beat a 1-3-1 zone defense in basketball. It does take proficiency to do so. Patience, spacing, and passing– skills you need to break a 1-3-1 zone defense– are not often shown by newer basketball players.
Did you find this post helpful? Then you may also like other FAQ basketball articles here.
> How to Beat a 2-3 Zone in Basketball
> How to Beat a 3-2 Zone in Basketball
Installing the 1-3-1 extended zone defense
Playing tough, man-to-man defense is the cornerstone of most coaching philosophies. Even when your team is not blessed with explosive offensive firepower, you still remain competitive by getting after it on the defensive end.
But, predictability often leads to defeat. Simply playing man-to-man all the time allows the opposition to know what to expect. Teams no longer have to scout you and opposing coaches become familiar with your tendencies, strengths and weaknesses. You as a coach become stale by barking out the same instructions over and over again. Sure, a good coach who believes in his man-to-man defense never is going to abandon it but to break out of your predictability, try installing a new defense, like the 1-3-1 extended zone defense.Seven basic rules of the 1-3-1
The 1-3-1 extended zone defense is a great way to keep offenses guessing and out of their rhythm. Here are the basic rules.
Rule No. 1: Force lob passes as often as possible. Make opponents throw over your defenders from the wings to the corners and vice versa. Do not allow direct or penetrating passes.
Rule No. 2: Teach defenders to be on their toes while being tall, athletic, active and to cut off passing lanes.
Rule No. 3: Hands are up and players are bouncing in position to distract the offense. The three defenders closest to the 3-point line need to keep their hands high with their wrists as high as the tops of their ears.
Rule No. 4: When the ball leaves a passer’s hands, your defenders need to be moving to their next spot on the floor.
Rule No. 5: Bait passers into seeing something that isn’t there. Steals and deflections are available in this defense if your players lull the opposition into throwing “innocent” passes.
Rule No. 6: Anticipate passes and jump in front of them. Know the passes most likely to be made.
Rule No. 7: Rebound! Rebound! Rebound! This does not go without saying. The most difficult part of any zone defense is finding a man to box out. Remember, most offenses attack this zone from a modified sort of square set with high wings, corners and a post roaming the middle.
Many coaches disparage the 1-3-1 as a “junk” defense or the sign of a weak team. These are the coaches you want to face because generally they don’t know how to attack this type of defense.
In fact, there are eight solid reasons to run an extended 1-3-1 as a complement to your primary defense:
1. The 1-3-1 changes the tempo of the offense. Many teams become programmed into hitting their entry pass and running to their familiar spot on the floor. The 1-3-1 makes them slow down and think of a new way to attack. When teams slow down, they are not playing their game.
2. Dribble penetration decreases. Any zone defense, when run properly, always has help built into it. When teams do penetrate, it often is from angles from which they are unfamiliar. This leads to poor passes or shots.
3. A regular zone offense becomes disrupted against a 1-3-1 extended zone. Many teams attack zones with a three-out, two-in alignment. This actually plays directly into the strength of the 1-3-1.
4. Weak ball handlers are forced to handle the ball more often. Since the 1-3-1 gives the illusion of more open spaces, teams are tempted to throw the ball to anyone, even weak ball handlers, in the belief that if that ball handler is alone in a space, then he or she has a chance for success.
5. The extended 1-3-1 also creates the illusion of good shots for the offense. The fact is that players may have more open looks but they are catching the ball outside their comfort zone.
6. The offense has a “hurry up” mentality because they feel a double-team is coming at them.
7. The opposition now must plan for the 1-3-1 and not simply focus on your man-to-man defense.
8. Your players have a chance to conserve some energy for a few minutes while protecting a player who may be in foul trouble.Initial set
This defense works best if you have a couple of long-armed, lanky players who anticipate well.
Know your players individual strengths and weaknesses to position them in the spots where they are going to be most successful in this set. Consider the following responsibilities when using this defense.
DIAGRAM 1: Initial set.
X1: X1 is your most athletic big guard with a big wing span and good anticipation skills. X1’s responsibility is to force the ball to a side, then try to keep it on that side or to force the opponent to throw a lob over his head to the opposite guard on the high wing. X1 never faces the opposite baseline. X1’s feet face the ball-side sideline. If X1 is square to the baseline, he or she cannot force the lob or influence the ball to one side.
X5: This is your least mobile player. X5’s job is to defend the center triangle. X5’s motion always is from block to high post to opposite block (in that order) as the ball moves from side to side. X5 never moves block to block unless there is a very rare corner-to-corner skip pass. Even on a corner-to-opposite-wing skip pass, X5 moves from the ball-side block to the high post with arms wide to defend a penetrating pass or drive. X5 tries to front all players and force lob passes.
X3, X4: These two players are your third and fourth best athletes. They need to have good instincts, be active (bouncing with wrists at their ears) and be good rebounders. As the ball comes up the floor, they face quartering toward the ball (or sideline). They are looking to bait a lazy pass or force a lob pass to the corner.
X2: This is your quickest player. X2 needs to be tough and aggressive and often is your best defender. X2’s job is to run corner to corner, covering the baseline while forcing action up the sideline away from the basket. On skip passes, X2 must switch sides of the floor as the ball is in the air. A good offense will try a skip pass from the ball-side corner to the opposite wing to draw the defense, then kick to the new ball-side corner for a 3-pointer. X2 needs to challenge this shot.
DIAGRAM 2: Cat and mouse. Teach your players to jump up and back and side to side. They need to bounce a lot. When the ball crosses mid-court, the ball-side wing (X3 in this case) slides higher to cause problems for the entry pass. X2 rotates to the ball side and X4 covers behind.
DIAGRAM 3: Pass to corner. When the pass is in the air, players need to get to their spots before the catch is made. In this case with 1 passing to 3, X3 and X2 must double-team 3 in the corner immediately. X5, knowing the ball is going to the corner, slides to the ball-side block to cut off 5, who should be cutting to that spot. X1 then slides to the foul line.
DIAGRAM 4: Skip to wing. The weak-side wing defender needs to see the entire floor and move down the key as low as the lowest offside offensive player. This defender also anticipates cross-court skip passes, as well as be the communicator to call cuts and flashes from the weak side. The baseline defender (X2) is quick to cover corner to corner and never gives up a baseline drive.
DIAGRAM 5: Out of the middle. Even if a ball is passed over the top of a defender’s position, the defender must collapse with his or her back to the baseline while looking to strip the ball. The center denies the post everywhere and is responsible for stepping up and stopping dribble penetration. Everything must be forced from the middle of the floor — the shaded area in the diagram is where the ball never should enter.Use the 1-3-1 as a change of pace. Use it after dead balls, beginning of quarters and any point when you want to catch the offense off guard.
Attacking Basketball Zone Defenses
What to Discover or Recall:
Discover that no two zones are the same, even if their basic alignments start out the same.
Explore the basic components that comprise a successful zone attack.
Learn that during a game that the coach must be attentive and instantly recognize various zones alignments along with their specific strengths and weaknesses.
Understand the common mistakes made against zone defenses,
Understand the “Don’ts” in attacking zone defenses.
Although their zone alignments may start out the same, no two zones are the same. Each zone defense has its own unique characteristics. They will vary according to a team’s player personnel and shifting abilities. Therefore, coaches cannot just be a spectator and watch the ball during the game. They must be alert and attentive. They must be able to instantly recognize the various zone alignments and be able to analyze their specific strengths and weakness.
| Zone Weaknesses | Attacking Zones | Reads & Counters | Common Errors | Zone Don’ts |
2 – 3 Zone
1 – 2 – 2 Zone
2 – 1 – 2 Zone
1 – 3 – 1 Zone
Sharp accurate passing is a key ingredient in attacking any zone defense. Make the zone defense work by moving the ball from sideline to sideline. Good ball movement increases the chances of defensive break downs and results in good shots. Incorporate skip passes, post feeds, and pump fake passes. Pass to the open player. Do not force the ball or make difficult passes. Pass to a specific target away from the defense. Do not pass to any player that does not call for or want the ball. Eliminate dribbling especially the trap or one bounce dribble which allows the zone to recover and match up.
Raising Your Level of Passing
Push the Ball
Beat the defense down the court. Keep head and eyes up and pass the ball ahead. Most zone defenses are susceptible to fast breaks. However, this is mainly due to the fact that teams do not work on defensive transition rather than playing zone defense. Also, by pushing the ball it will force the opponent to get back on defense rather than going to the offensive boards. If a good shot is not available on the early break flow directly into your zone offense.
Attack Post Defenders
Must establish an inside threat. Get the ball inside to the post whenever possible. Play your best offensive post player in low to take advantage in that most zone defenders play behind when guarding the low post area. When the zone collapses in order to protect the middle, it opens up outside shots for your spot up shooters.
Note: Inside players that find it difficult to get open against aggressive person to person defense usually find it much easier to get open and score against zone defenses.
Good outside shooting will definitely hurt any zone especially with the help of the three point shot line. Without it you could be in for a long season. However, outside shooters need to spot up in open areas, facing the basket ready to receive the ball and shoot. They should be alert for cross court skip passes and kick out passes from the post.
Improving Your Shooting
Zones are weak in the seams and gaps. Dribble penetration into a seam will not produce a good shot. However, in splitting the defense, it will draw two defenders to the ball creating wide open shots off kick out passes. Ballhandlers should be careful to avoid offensive fouls.
Players also need to be aware of the zones rebounding weaknesses. Since in a zone defenders are assigned areas to rebound rather than individual players to box out, it gives the offense a real opportunity to get inside and block the defenders out on missed shots. Also, be sure to attack the side of the zone where the strongest rebounders are located. You want the opponent’s best rebounders on ball side guarding the ball rather than on the weakside where they can rebound.
In every type of zone there are some shifts that are difficult. These are the shifts you what your players to be aware of and exploit. Against man to man defenses, players are expected to “read” and counter defensive deployment. However, when it comes to zone defenses, players cannot be expected to “read” the defensive deployment since it involves analyzing the movement of all five defensive players. It is the coach’s or an assistant coach’s responsibility to constantly analyze and make adjustments against zone defenses.
Analyzing and Attacking Zone Shifts & Weaknesses
| 2-3 (2-1-2) Zones | 1-2-2 (3-2) Zones | 1-3-1 Zones |
2-3 (2-1-2) Zone Reads & Counters
The 2-3 zone is strong along the baseline, but are very vulnerable to outside shooting.
Things to Watch For
Watch the basic shifts of the baseline players. Can they cover the wings?
Do they contest post feeds? How do they cover the middle?
How fast do they rotate and closeout on ball reversals?
Attacking the Wings
Covering the weakside wing is a problem of two three zone. Usually a baseline player will step out and show until the guard can shift over; and then recovers back to the baseline. This vulnerability should be exploited. Since this shift involves different players on each side of the court, you want to attack the side which the show & recover shift is the weakest.
Place your best shooters on the wings. Observe how the opponent is covering the wings. Do they rely on their two outside players? Do they rotate out a baseline players to cover the wings? Which baseline player rotates out the slowest? How quick do they rotate and recover? You want to attack the side of the weakest wing rotations.
Anytime the baseline defender stays or is slow moving out, it creates a good opportunity for an open spot up three point shot.
If/when the baseline player rotates out to cover the wing, it opens up the low post area for an easy inside shot.
When the middle defender drops to help out against the baseline player, it opens up a post roll to the basket.
Out Numbered Situation
When the opponent keep their baseline players inside and cover the wings with just their outside players, play three on two and move the ball. Maintain proper spacing. When defender X2 covers the point O1 and X1 covers O2, it leaves O3 wide open. If X2 guards O3 and X1 moves over to cover O1, it leaves shooter O2 open. If/when X1 and X2 stay out on the wings it opens up O1 at the top of the circle.
Although the 2-3 zone alignment appears to be strong in the middle, the real strength is contingent on the defender and not the alignment. Analyze the defensive ability and capability of the middle defender. Can they be readily posted up? How do they cover flashes into the middle? How do they match up against a high post.
The majority of zone post defenders play upright and behind. They do a poor job of contesting post feeds and passing lanes. When the defense plays behind, the offensive post is going to score, get foul or both. Isolate the middle defender by moving your best offensive post inside and get them ball.
Offensive Rebounding & Second Efforts
Determine which of the two baseline defenders is the weakest rebounder. Can you take offensive rebounding advantage of them by creating a mismatch by placing a strong rebounder on that side? Attack the side of the strongest rebounder. It is better to have them playing on ballside or guarding a shooter rather than being on the weakside in position to rebound.
How will the 2-3 zone match up against the above offensive alignments?
The three two or 1-2-2 zone is strong against outside shooters. However, it is weak in the middle and in the corners where their two baseline players have to guard corner to corner.
Things To Watch For
1-2-2 zones weak are vulnerable to inside and baseline attacks.
Watch the basic shifts of the two baseline players. Can they cover the corners?
Do they contest low post feeds?
How do they cover the middle? How fast do they rotate and closeout on ball reversal?
Strong Post Ups
The majority of zone post defenders play upright and behind. They do a poor job of contesting post feeds and passing lanes. Attack the weakest of the two baseline defenders. Move your best post up player to that side of the court. Get the ball inside. When the defense plays behind, the offensive post is going to score, get foul or both.
Attacking the Middle
The 1-2-2 zone has a big hole in the middle. Observe how the opponent is protecting the middle. Do they rely on their baseline players? Do they collapse their outside players opening up skip passes and outside shots? How do they defend post flashes and high post alignments?
1-2-2 zone is very susceptible to corner shots. Watch the baseline defenders. How do they close out on corner shots? How fast do they recover back into the low post area? Attack the weakest player by placing your best corner shooter on that side of the court. Peripheral passers should also be alert to baseline rotations. Any time a defender is slow in recovering back into the low post area it opens up an opportunity for an easy inside shot.
Observe how the wing defenders shift. Do they drop all the way to the baseline? Do they close out quickly? In a 1-2-2 zone, when the ball is on wing or in corner, the weakside wing drops to the baseline and has primary rebounding responsibility. Determine which of the defensive wings is the smallest and weakest rebounder. Can you take offensive rebounding advantage of them by creating a mismatch by placing a big player on the weakside boards? Also, be alert for the cross court or “X” pass opportunity when the weakside wing does not drop or is slow in dropping to the baseline
Offensive Rebounding & Second Efforts
Determine which of the baseline defenders is the weakest rebounder. Can you take offensive rebounding advantage of them by creating a mismatch by placing a strong rebounder on that side? Think about attacking the side of the court that the strongest rebounder is positioned. It is better to have them playing on ballside or guarding a shooter rather than being on the weakside in position to rebound.
How will the specific 1-2-2 zone match up against various offensive alignments?
The 1-3-1 zone is strong down the middle and across the free throw line extended. However, they are vulnerable to baseline and corner shots.
Things to Watch For
Watch the shifts of the baseline player. Does one player cover both corners or do they alternate with the high post player?
Do they contest low post feeds?
Can they handle high post rolls?
How fast do they rotate and closeout on ball reversal?
Attacking the Baseline
Watch the basic shifts of the baseline player. Can they cover the corners? Do they rely on one player to cover both corners? Do the middle and baseline defender switch roles on ball reversals? If so, does it makes them vulnerable in the middle? Do they employ wing drops to cover the corner? Place your best shooters in the corners and attack the side of the weakest rotations.
Although the 1-3-1 zone alignment appears strong in the middle, the real strength is contingent on the defender and not the alignment. Analyze the defensive ability and capability of the baseline defender. Can they be readily posted up? How do they cover flashes into the middle? How do they match up against a high post?
The majority of zone post defenders play upright and behind. They do a poor job of contesting post feeds and passing lanes. when the defense plays behind, the offensive post is going to score, get foul or both. Isolate the middle defender by moving your best offensive post inside and get them ball.
High Post Entry and Skip Passes
How do they cover the middle? Do they contest high post feeds? The 1-3-1 Zone also has problems matching up against a 2-1-2 offensive alignment. Anytime the ball is passed into the high post it immediately creates a three on two situation and the post should look to feed the open player on the baseline. The skip pass is also an import weapon. Players should constantly be looking to make a skip pass to the opposite corner especially when in trouble. Against a 1-3-1 zone the opposite corner will be always open.
Cat Spread Offense
Ball reversal is a key to attacking the baseline. Observe how the weakside wing shifts. Do they drop all the way to the baseline? How quick do they rotate and closeout? In a 1-3-1 zone, when the ball is on wing or in corner, the weakside wing drops to the baseline and has primary rebounding responsibility. Determine which of the defensive wings is the smallest and weakest rebounder. Can you take offensive rebounding advantage of them by creating a mismatch by placing a big player on the weakside boards? Also, be alert for the cross court or skip pass opportunity when the weakside wing drops to the baseline.
When the weakside wing defender drops down to the baseline, it opens up an opportunity for quick ball reversal or a skip pass to open O2.
If the wing recovers to the ball, it opens up the low post area for an easy inside shot.
When the middle defender drops to help out against the baseline player, it opens up the middle of the zone.
Offensive Rebounding & Second Efforts
Determine which of the baseline defenders is the weakest rebounder. Can you take offensive rebounding advantage of them by creating a mismatch by placing a strong rebounder on that side? Think about attacking the side of the court that the strongest rebounder is positioned. It is better to have them playing on ballside or guarding a shooter rather than being on the weakside in position to rebound.
Offensive Rebounding Techniques
How will the specific 1-3-1 zone match up against the above offensive alignments?
Not organizing quickly, by delaying to getting to offensive positions.
Not having patience and spreading the floor.
Bouncing the ball (trap dribble) before passing or shooting.
Not faking or looking off receivers before passing.
Not splitting the defensive alignment, therefore, making it easier for the zone to match up.
Not passing the post into the post.
Not reversing the ball and attacking the weakside of the zone.
Relying too much on outside shooting.
Poor shot selection (forcing or hurrying shots).
Lack of offensive rebounding effort.
Do not hurry. Have patience and spread the zone.
Do not telegraph passes. Look off the receivers.
Do not lob the ball. Use sharp, crisp passes.
Do not throw one handed passes.
Do not throw to the same receiver every time.
Do not forget to pass the ball inside.
Do not trap dribble.
Do not match up or stand behind defensive players. Move to the gaps in the zone.
Do not give up the ball if unguarded.
Do not forget to rebound.
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Attacking a 1-3-1 Zone Defense by Jake Erbentraut Video
Attacking a 1-3-1 Zone Defense
Jake Erbentraut won 100 games faster than any coach in Wilmot High School (WI) history. In this attacking a 1-3-1 zone defense video, he shares his strategies for beating the 1-3-1 zone defense. Coach Erbentraut spent time researching the best ways to take down the 1-3-1 and shares them with you in this highly organized presentation. Included are strategies to exploit the defense, set plays, and practice drills to prepare your team to play against the 1-3-1.
1-3-1 Tendencies and Weaknesses
In order to beat any defense, you must first understand how it works. Coach Erbentraut breaks down the 1-3-1 so you can see what the defense is trying to accomplish. You will learn how players are to position themselves in the 1-3-1, when and where they want to trap, and how they rotate.
Learning how the defense works then allows you to identify its weaknesses. Coach Erbentraut then shows you a variety of offensive concepts that take advantage of these weaknesses. You will see how you can flatten the defense in transition. Create pockets with player movement that help you find open shots by passing the ball. You can also exploit the middle of the zone using the dribble attack. Coach Erbentraut also explains how to space the floor so you can attack any traps and rebound better.
Alignment, Sets, and Drills
Coach Erbentraut also gives you four different alignments and four set plays that can be used to score against the 1-3-1. X-Game puts the defense into constant overloads which confuses defensive responsibilities and rotations. Broncos is another play that produces layups for guards using screening actions. Other plays help you penetrate the middle of the defense, free up shooters with double screens, and get the ball inside to the post.
To play against the 1-3-1, you need to drill it in practice. Coach Erbentraut offers up drills that develop the skills needed to beat the 1-3-1. Passing skills are improved using Man in the Middle and Confidence drills. The 4-on-4 Diamond drill teaches players to read and react in game-like situations to find open spots and create scoring opportunities. Erbentraut also includes drills to work on ball movement patterns that break down the zone. In all, you will see eight drills that will prepare your team to play against zone defenses.
This is the new gold standard of instructional videos for playing against the 1-3-1 zone. If you face opponents that run the 1-3-1, this video should be in your collection. Rent this attacking a 1-3-1 zone defense DVD today.
Amazon.com: Multi-Dimensional 1-3-1 Zone Defense : Movies & TV
with Carl Bruggink, former Clintonville High School Head Boys Basketball Coach; member of the Wisconsin Basketball Coaches Association Hall of Fame. During his tenure as head coach, Bruggink’s teams won 549 games, two state titles (1977 and 1989), three state runner-up trophies (1976, 1987, 1988), nine conference championships and only 5 losing seasons in a 41 year coaching career; high school coach of Dick and Jack Bennett See a proven method of using the 1-3-1 Match-up Zone in different ways based on the strength of the other team and force your opponent to go to their fourth and fifth option to beat you. Using on court player interaction, Wisconsin high school coaching legend Carl Bruggink will demonstrate his unique and simple 1-3-1 Match-Up Zone that uses man-to-man principles. The defense starts by applying ball pressure complimented by “nearby help. ” You’ll see how each position within the zone is to react and rotate based upon the most common ways an offense may attack certain aspects of a zone. Coach Bruggink starts the DVD by explaining personnel and the alignment of the zone. He carefully explains the “eight keys” necessary to execute the 1-3-1, including anticipation, containment, playing “one man away” and staying with the dribbler. He fully explains each of the player responsibilities within his 1-3-1 Matchup Zone Defense. Coach Bruggink covers the basic defensive set-up and rotations necessary to make this defense almost impenetrable by dribble drive. You’ll see how applying man-to-man defensive principles and proper ‘bumping’ will let you create a virtual wall to protect your paint from easy scoring opportunities. He also shows you a simple, quick adjustment to an opponent’s two-man front. With the use of on court player instruction, coach will demonstrate how each player is to rotate based upon the most common forms of attack that most zone offenses utilize, whether it be four guards and a post, a player in the high post or low post. .
1-3-1 Zone Defense. Full Coaching Guide Updated 2021
The 1-3-1 Zone Defense is a unique defense that is run in many different levels.
Position players are between the player and the basket. In contrast, this type of defense forces the offense to throw lob passes over the defense.
- Offense Must Adapt
- Causes Confusion
- Great For Transition Offense
- Corners and High Post
- Lots of Energy
- Takes time to learn
REASONS TO USE 1-3-1 ZONE DEFENSE
The 1-3-1 could be a very productive defense especially when used properly. Here are the three biggest reasons to use a 1-3-1 zone.
- Personnel of YOUR team
When your team is made up of a lot of long and athletic players, this type of zone is extremely beneficial for your team. The length and athleticism will cause havoc for the offense, and it will lead into a lot of turnovers. These turnovers will result in easy fast break points for your team.
You should have a lot of length and athleticism between positions 2-4, have one of your wings have a good mind for anticipation (the top of the zone), a center that is big, and a point guard that is quick (so he can run baseline to baseline).
- Personnel of OPPOSING team
Sometime the best reason to do something isn’t because your team is good at it, but because the other team is bad at it. A 1-3-1 is a defense that not a lot of teams run; therefore, not a lot of teams see a 1-3-1 throughout the season. Because of their lack of practice time against this type of zone it will lead to sloppines on offense and confusion.
This zone is also good against teams that have smaller guards who are good drivers. It makes it hard for smaller guards to see around the length of the forwards in a 1-3-1. It is also harder to drive against a 1-3-1 because of the positioning of the defense. This zone will lead to the other team taking more 3 point shots, but usually contested 3 point shots.
- Keep a team out of their comfort zone
Being able to play multiple defense is a problem for many offenses as long as the defenses are capable. If your team is able to play primarily man but able to switch it up for short stints during the game and play zone it will keep the offense guessing. It will keep them from getting constant momentum, and getting comfortable with running the same plays the whole game.
A defense that can keep the offense guessing is a defense that is built to last. Many teams attempt to do this by having a proficient man to man defense. If you can be proficient at any type of defense it is good to stay in that defense. But if your team is only good, or average, it is always a good idea to be good, or average, at multiple types of defenses. If you can’t get to great, get to good at multiple types. This will keep offenses confused, leading to your advantage.
HOW TO SET UP THE ZONE DEFESE
Know your players!
Choose the players accordingly to their capabilities
3. Player with the best anticipation skills (Helps to be long and athletic as well)
5. Biggest and best rebounder
1 Quickest player- needs to get sideline to sideline as fast as possible
2&4. Long and Tall – Make it difficult for passes to go above you and around you
Chaser – Top of the Zone
Force the basketball to one side of the floor. Must be able to influence the dribbler to one side of the court.
Sets the tone, and brings energy!
- Great anticipation skills
This is the greatest talent of the guy at the top of the zone. He needs to be able to anticipate when the pass is going to switch sides of the court and try to get steals. He also has to be able to read when the ball handler will pick up the ball(and either pressure or get far away)
- Athletic Ability
This is important because they are essentially the one playing the most defense. They need to be long and athletic to try and impact the passes that go over their hand.
- Endurance. Covering a lot of area
Between this person and the PG, they will do a substantial amount of running compared to the others. This position will need to make a lot of quick short movements.
Stay between the basketball and the rim at all times.
Keep the ball out of either post. High Post/ Low post.
- Bigger player/Best Rebounder
The number one job of this position is to stop all middle penetration before they can get inside the 3; however, its most important job is to be an animal on the glass. This zone is a hard zone to rebound out of when players get out of position. The center will always be in the area of the basket though and has the responsibility of getting a lot of rebounds.
- Stop Dribble penetration
Number one job. The top and the wing are trying to force everything into the middle, it is this position´s job to make sure that the offensive player doesn’t get by him. A somewhat easy job, but if not done properly will ruin the zone.
Warrior – Underneath the basket
Cover both baseline corners. Sprinting from side to side.
Eyes and voice of the defense. Direct the defense.
- Great communicator
This player needs to be the quarterback of the defense. He needs to tell all the players where they need to go and when they need to go. He is capable of seeing everything, and needs to adjust the defense to what he sees.
- Quickest and Smartest Player
This player has a LOT of ground to cover. He needs to be able to go from corner to corner fast as possible. It is important for this person to be quick so that the other team doesn’t get easy shots from the corner.
Contesting outside shots and stopping dribble penetration. Fight for weak side block position
- Long And/Or Athletic
Obviously best if they are both long and athletic. But it is important that they are one or the other. They will need to be able to block the vision of the ball handler from seeing the openings on the floor. This can come from good pressure, or just being so long that players can’t see over them.
- Good perimeter defenders
These players need to be able to contain the ball handler. They have to force everything towards the middle. If the ball handler is able to beat them to the sideline then it defeats the benefits of the zone and your team will need to get out of it.
- Anticipate to deflect lobbing passes and trap. Dfelect or Steal
These players should have good anticipation skills. They will need to have good timing to try and steal passes that go above them or try to go around them. They will also need to know when it is best to trap the other team.
How a 1-3-1 Works
In this set up, the offense will usually place their players in a 2-1-2 formation.
2 players on top, one on the high post and 2 in the corners
The top of the zone Influence the ball to one side of the court, preferably the ball handler off hand. The chaser influences the ball handler to one side. It can also be used as a full court press into 1-3-1 zone defense.
The chaser has to be in the passing lane, making the ball stay on just one side. The only reverse pass would be a high lob pass. It is important that the chaser can see the ball and the opposite guard at the same time, so he can be in the passing line.
When the ball gets to the corner it is important for “the chaser” to then take away the pass back (if you’re trapping the corners), or to cover the high post/top of the key (if you are not trapping the corners).
Our center should deny the pass to the high post, the center has to full front the high post there. If there isn’t a player on the high post the center still needs to be there. The center needs to stop and contain any possible penetration between the chaser and the wings.
When the ball gets to the corner, the center needs to cover the block in case of any cutters or post ups. The center will need to be in a denial position if your team decides to trap the corner.
Our warrior, who is typically the point guard, needs to play on the ball side block. The warrior will be in this position because it is their job to close out to any pass that goes to the corner. When the ball goes to the corner, the warrior needs to play that man 1 on 1, containing any possible drives.
When the ball gets reversed really quick (which shouldn’t happen if played properly), this position will need to bust their butt to get from one corner all the way to the other corner.
It might happens that a team tries to post up the warrior, the center will typically come down and double the post to make it difficult on the post player. Guard has anything baseline, and the big has anything in the middle.
The wings jobs are easy. Force everything at the top towards the middle of the floor (where the chaser and center are). They should also try and make every pass a lob pass over top of them, attempting to steal anything that they can steal.
If they are on the ball side and the ball goes from the top, over their head, to the corner this position has two different option:
- Trap the corner. Corners are good places to trap, but if you do it all the time a team may get used to it and figure out a good solution that could put your defense at risk.
- Play the same way they played if the ball was at the top. Play help side defense, play between the ball and their closest teammate, and try to force passes over their head.
If the ball is on the opposite side of the court from the wing they have different responsibilities. While the ball is at the top (near half court) they need to cover the weak side block area. They need to do this to make sure there are no lob passes towards the rim, and that no one gets behind them. Still making it easy to close out to their position if the ball switches sides of the court.
If the ball goes to the opposite corner the responsibilities become to play a safety. See where the openings are on the floor and make sure no one flashes into these areas for an easy catch and score. They need to attempt to steal any skip passes that aren’t line drives.
If the team is able to get a skip from the corner to the opposite wing, and the wing defender can’t steal it, their responsibility is to make sure the extra reversal pass is slowed down by jumping into the passing lane. Forcing that player back towards the middle of the zone and all the help.
If the offensive team is able to get the ball in the post, and a double team comes from the center. The strong side wing needs to deny any direct pass back out to the wing/corner. And the weak side wing needs to take away and pass towards a cutter, and close buckets near the hoop.
Defensive rotations when the ball is reversed with a guard to guard pass.
If the offense is able to lob the pass over the top of our chaser. The chaser must turn and sprint with high hands making the reversal pass difficult, making the ball stay on that side. The wing needs to be in the passing lane to the corner.
The center must be between the ball and the basket, denying every entry pass. Every player should move with the ball in the air
Practicing this defensive rotation until it becomes automatic.
What makes this 1-3-1 unique is how we play the passing lanes.
DRIBBLE PENETRATION FROM THE WING
If there is a dribble penetration from the wing, the chaser and the wing will squeeze. Trying to deny the penetration, the center will also be ready to contain. By stunting and playing the passing lanes the team will be able to get steals. It is important that the offense hesitates by having high intensity.
When the ball goes to the corner. Pass from the wing, Our warrior plays face up, containing the penetration. The center will drop and the Chaser will be the one that takes the high post.
The warrior must force every dribble penetration to the middle where there is plenty of help.
Opponents will move their opposite guard to the high post, The chaser will be the one that takes that player and stands between both player
Swing Pass Rotations
The 1-3-1 can be vulnerable to skip passes.
For example, from the corner to the opposite wing pass.
When the ball is in the air, the most important rotation is that the weak side wing player sprints to a position where he gives time for the other players to recover, he should play the passing lane to the corner.
The chaser will move up and the center will take the High post again and the weak side wing will drop down the weak side low post.
It is important to practice this rotation until it becomes automatic.
When there is a pass from corner to cornes (a very difficult and unlikely pass because of the hoop and the pressure that should be applied). The concept is the same, the weak side wing has to give the defense time by playing 2 players, trying to force the ball handler in the corner to drive baesline. He will give the Warrior time to recover. The center will do the same, and he will cover the low post. The chaser will be the one that plays defense on the high post.
DEFENDING THE HIGH POST.
The center is the main player for this spot on the floor. This is a dangerous spot. From here they can see the floor and find open spaces. We want the ball to get out of there as soon as possible. It is important to pressure the ball so he can not find easy passes.
The wing players have to make the passes to the corners difficult.
The only pass that we want is the pass out to one of the guards
DEFENDING THE LOW POST
If we are running our 1-3-1 well, the ball should not get there often. If the ball gets there from the corner, the center will drop down and take that player and play one on one. When the ball is entered from a different place, and the PG is already there the center will come down and double the post.
THOUGHTS AND CONCLUSION
In this blog post we cover how to run 1-3-1 zone defense, position responsibilities and basic cover rotations, this is a great defense to run for any youth and high school team. It may be a hard defense to learn at first, but once familiarized with your team it can become extremely useful.
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A. Ya. Gomelsky about strategy and tactics in basketball
Strategy is the main theoretical focus of all team work, which determines the means and methods of preparation for the main competition. The four-year plan for the preparation of the USSR national team for the Olympics in Seoul is the team’s strategy in 1985-1988. The strategy also includes managing the team during the competition.
Tactics is a part of a strategy that solves the main tasks of training, taking into account specific capabilities – the resources of the team, the characteristics of the opponents, the conditions of the competition. All this determines the tactical and combinational baggage of the team.
When choosing tactics of the game (attacks), one should proceed, first of all, from the real capabilities of the players, taking into account, first of all, their strengths, for the disclosure of which combinations are built and learned. Secondly, the attack tactics are determined by the strength and weakness of a real opponent in a tournament or match.
Playing combinations I usually discuss with the players for whom this combination is designed.I know the strengths of my players, but the players themselves know them even better and can make significant adjustments to the combinations I proposed.
A.Ya. Gomelsky about playing defense
I believe that defense is the coach’s main concern: firstly, because the victory of the team largely depends on its strength, secondly, because the attack starts from defense, like from a stove, and thirdly, because the players themselves they never work on protection elements, and finally, because viewers, as a rule, do not see it, even journalists often underestimate it.
The best team cannot win without strong defense. Team defense is based on the individual characteristics, capabilities and attitudes of all players. Often in training, and in competition, individual players show indifference to defensive actions. This has always worried me and even made me angry. Yes, the black work in defense is not so effective – except for such techniques as block-shot, rebound from the backboard, interception. ‘ And many players are not aggressive in defense, they are resting in defense, trying to prove themselves in attack.
I am sure that today it is simply impossible to defend without great desire, responsibility, initiative, passion.
If the defender gave the attacker the ball in the danger zone, he has already lost. And how many cases when the center is given to get the ball in a three-second zone under the shield, do not try to actively fight for an advantageous position.
Often, defensive players are in no hurry, they do not concentrate their attention and efforts on this part of the game.
I want to emphasize that the psychology of defense is one of the most important concerns of the coach, and the focus on defense often depends more than on technique and physical condition.Isn’t the ability to intercept the ball and win the rebound depend on intelligence and the ability to calculate your strength? If a player goes to intercept the ball, exposing his rear, and slips past the ball, isn’t this the result of poor calculation, inability to anticipate, anticipate the situation, think and act responsibly? All this is the psychology of defense.
I believe that a player who defends weakly and ineptly inflicts more damage on the team than a player who is weak offensively. The definition of “good defense is head and legs”, although still valid, suffers from incompleteness.Fast, tenacious, active hands that can both hit and intercept the ball, and prevent a throw, pass, and kick the ball while dribbling are no less important for a defender
Counterattack is the most spectacular and quickest use of all opportunities to achieve a result.
Fast play requires high technique. The desire to play at high speeds is commendable and acceptable only if the speed does not exceed the state of the art. Otherwise, there will be more mistakes, ball losses than achievements.Therefore, in an effort to prepare a quick break, it is necessary to train and execute all technical elements at high speeds, using both active and passive resistance of defenders in situations 1 – 1, 2-1, 3-2, 4-3, 5-4 and with numerical equality.
My idea of a counterattack consists in striving not only to quickly move to the opponent’s shield, but also to quickly transfer the ball to the opponent’s shield with the help of sharp passes, or, if there is no free recipient to receive the ball, with dribbling the ball, with active forward movement.Players aim to create a triangle in the front line of attack with the apex on the free-throw line at the end of the rapid break. The player with the ball should be here, and the other two players should be to the left and right of him, 4-5 m in front.
A counterattack is possible in the following situations:
1) when intercepting the ball;
2) when taking a rebound on his shield;
3) after the opponent has punched free throws;
4) after winning a dropped ball;
5) after the opponent manages to score the ball.
The best outcome of a quick breakthrough is taking the opponent’s ring with a numerical advantage, when situations are realized in numerical equality: 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4. This is easier than outplaying the 5-5 defense, which has already built its defensive lines.
There are three phases in a counterattack, which are equally important for success:
1) the beginning of a fast break – picking up the ball, first pass, movement of the players, their start;
2) the middle stage of attack development – the players’ transition to the middle line of the field, their advance;
3) completion of the attack – passing the ball at speed and throwing in the immediate vicinity of the backboard.
The timing of the “rehearsed fast break” depends on the speed of the players, the passing of the ball and the final throw. The USSR national team spent 5-7 seconds on an echeloned quick break. I think that the schemes of her tactical formations will provide great opportunities for the creativity of coaches working with any teams.
The game in the USSR national team of such powerful and high centers as A. Sabonis and V. Tkachenko made it possible to carry out a counterattack due to one long pass across the entire area.
Center # 5, after picking up the ball from the backboard, passes it to the runner in the gap # 2.
Such an attack was especially successful when building a zone or mixed defense, when one of the defenders or extreme attackers playing in the front line of defense received the task to run into the gap at the moment of throwing on our ring, in the expectation that the giants would be able to take possession of the ball, bounced off the backboard, and make a long pass across the entire field. Naturally, such a system of counterattack requires special coordination of actions, and its development takes considerable time in the training process.
Development of a quick counterattack through the middle of the field.
Players # 5, # 4, # 3 fight for the bounce of the ball and, having mastered it, try to make the first pass to player # 2, who passes the ball to player # 1. Player # 1 dives forward with a dribble across the middle of the court. Players # 2 and # 3 overtake the dribbler at high speed, form a triangle with # 1, and end the attack with a close throw if they manage to create a numerical advantage under the opponent’s shield.
If it was not possible to complete the attack in the first echelon, then the second echelon comes into action – center players # 4 and # 5.They, each on their own side of the site, rush to the opponent’s shield. The attack is completed by the one on whose side the ball is.
Development of a fast break along the sideline.
In the event of a rebound to the left of the backboard, the center player makes a quick pass to Player # 2, who opens up for the pass to the touchline just above the free throw line. At the intersection of the sideline with the center line, player # 1 receives a pass from player # 2, then passes it to player # 4, who rushes forward on the left edge.Player # 4 has three possible ways to continue the attack: kick the ball to player # 5 or # 3 running straight to the opponent’s backboard, or pass to player # 2 in the arc. It is clear that the pass should be made by the most open player in the most advantageous situation.
A similar situation occurs when attacking on the opposite side.
Development of a fast break after a free throw into our ring.
If player # 4 catches a ball that bounces off the backboard or quickly misses the goal line, the first pass should be left to the sideline to player # 1, opening at or above the free-throw line.Player # 2 opens in the center circle, receives the ball and dribbles forward. Players # 5 and # 3 overtake the dribbler along the sidelines, player # 4 overtakes him to the right, and player # 2 stays slightly behind in a spotting position. Thus, player # 2 has four options to choose which direction to attack.
Same formation as before, but after rebounding from a shot for a field goal or throwing in from the endline.
Rapid break development after a dropped ball in the center circle or free throw line in our half of the field.
Player # 5 discounts Player # 4 who is ready to receive the ball with his hands up. After catching the ball, # 4 passes forward to Player # 1, who opens up for the pass after being screened by Player # 3. Players # 2 and # 4 support the attack. This combination can be played in both directions. Her success is based on her high height, good jumping ability and the ability to accurately throw the ball to the center player’s partner.
Same setup, but now Player # 4 is screening Player # 2, who, after receiving the ball from Player # 3, rushes forward.
The easiest way to complete a counterattack is to take the players’ shortest route to the opponent’s shield. However, with the development of a counterattack, variants with cross barriers are possible
with triple interaction
screening for second-tier players in the center of the field.
Many teams in the world, including the USSR national team, after failing to complete the counterattack with an effective throw, when switching to a positional attack, spent precious time on placing players, thereby allowing the enemy to prepare for defensive actions and take advantageous positions for all defenders.This is why a quick or non-stop attack after a counterattack (“transit game”) is increasingly used in the tactics of the best teams in the world. I will give an example of such an attack in the USSR national team.
Fast Break was not completed by the players of the first tier of attack # 2 and # 3, nor the second tier # 4 and # 5. They, each on their side, set screens for those entering the field # 3 and # 2 for a throw from a medium or long distance, and then go to the backboard to get the ball in the three-second zone outright or to fight on the backboard, after throwing one of the players # 2 or # 3.The options for a non-stop attack can be very different. It can be double or triple screening for the team’s sniper, entering the three-second zone of the winger or center after receiving the screen. It all depends on the characteristics and capabilities of the player for whom the combination is being made.
Double screen for Marchiulionis (# 2) for a left-handed attack from the free throw area.
Players # 4 (Volkov) and # 3 (Tikhonenko) simultaneously put up two screens for player # 2 (Marchule-nisa).# 2 rushes into the free-throw line, where he receives the ball from player # 1 (Sokka). “Marciulionis has opportunities to continue the attack:
a) receiving the ball in motion and passing under the shield;
b) receiving the ball with a stop and throwing the ring;
c) passing the ball to player # 5 (Sabonis) in case there is a switch of defenders.
Players # 4 and # 2, after being screened, go under the shield to fight for a rebound.
There are several mixed protection systems:
1.Four players build zone defense 2-2
, and one defender personally takes care of the strongest attacking sniper or center, depending on the capabilities and tactics of the opponent.
2. Three players build a 2-1 zone defense and two guard the strongest enemy snipers.
3. One player performs a zone formation, and four personally guard the opponents.
4. Two players build a zone defense, and three act on the principle of individual defense.
Mixed defense has brought good luck to the USSR national team and the CSKA team more than once. The choice of defense has always been determined by the characteristics of the opponent and our capabilities.
In the final of the Olympic tournament in Seoul against the Yugoslavian team, we used a mixed defense 1-4.
Sabonis performed zone defense, the rest of the players closely guarded their rivals. This was due to the presence of Vrankovic or Raja in the Yugoslav team, which are not very dangerous away from the shield, and the fact that Petrovich, Paspal, Kukoch posed a great threat.The players who patronized the leaders of the Yugoslav team could, with a greater degree of risk, fight with their rivals for the ball. They knew that Sabonis would help them if they were beaten.
A similar defense was chosen in the semifinal tournament in Seoul against the US team. Sabonis performed zone defense and allowed Robinson or Reed or Maning to shoot from afar. But the rest of the US players were completely covered, and a player like Maning did not bring the team a single point. As a result, the USSR national team won 82:76.And Sabonis, who participated in the Olympics after a serious injury, two operations, took first place in the selection of balls from shields and made a great contribution to the victory of the USSR national team.
Sometimes, with two pivots Sabonis – Tkachenko, we built a mixed, personally assigned defense 3-2. Two giants and one mobile defender played well in the zone. In the early 70s, it was Eremin, then Valters, and at the Olympics and the pre-Olympic tournament this function was performed by Sokk, and instead of Sabonis and Tkachenko in Holland, Belostenny and Volkov played.
At the Seoul Olympics, we used such a defense (3 in the zone, 2 in person) against the Brazilian national team.
Sabonis, Volkov and Sokk built a triangle, on the top of which Sabonis and Volkov played. Tikhonenko personally took care of So-uza, and Marchiulionis – Schmidt, and although these two players scored 65 points together, the match turned out to be very difficult, but we still won 110: 105. The mistake in the choice of defense consisted in the fact that Schmidt outplayed the smaller Marchyulionis in different positions, and Souza outplayed the slower Tikhonenko.In the last 10 minutes of the match, Volkov was assigned to Schmidt, Marchiulionis switched to Souza, and we exchanged Tikhonenko for Goborov in zone defense.
Advantages of mixed defense
1. Effective when guarding the strongest sniper or center, because allows you to fight with him for getting the ball, while waiting for the active help of teammates, without fear of a throw.
2. Such a system, if the opponent is not prepared for it, tactically introduces confusion and makes it difficult to carry out combinations of screens.
3. Combines the best aspects of individual and zone protection systems.
4. Facilitates a quick transition from defense to counterattack.
5. Allows players to use their strengths on the defensive and not show weaknesses.
6. Can take out the dispatcher-declarer from the game and deprive the opponent of the usual alignment and rhythm, destroy the counterattack, if applying pressure across the entire field.
Weakness of the mixed defense
1. A technically competent team that has several leaders, easily rebuilds the attack and breaks the mixed defense.
2. The simultaneous movement of two or three players on the diagonal can destroy the mixed defense, if the opponent manages to create a numerical advantage on one of the sides of the field.
3. Often vulnerable to medium throws from 3-4 meters.
4. Requires special long-term preparation, coordinated actions, high teamwork of the whole team for rebuilding and interchangeability in positions.
5. If one of the five players did not have time to rebuild or did not cope with their duties, then the whole idea of such a defense is thwarted.
A.Ya. Gomel. Pressing Defense
Pressing is the most active type of defense, constant pressure on the opponent. It can be personal or zone, it can start from the moment the opponent throws in: across the entire court, on 3/4 of it, in his own half, i.e. 1/2 platform.
The purpose of the defense by pressing is not only psychological pressure on the opponent, but also the desire to break the current game of the opponent, to break his usual connections between defense and attack, his combinations, to make inaccurate transfers of the ball, hasty – throws.You cannot apply pressure without mastering enough individual protection techniques. This form of defense requires high physical condition, good reserve and teamwork of all players and team members.
Pressing is used both as a system of playing at long periods of time, and as a forced measure: when losing in the account to increase the tempo or when waiting for pressure from the opponent.
Playing with pressure, we try to take the ball away from the opponent – we force him to make loose, inaccurate passes that are easily intercepted.Often the rivals of the front line of pressure, having conceded the rivals, do not pursue them, but watch the development of further events – this is a gross mistake. It is necessary to chase the player with the ball, trying to knock the ball from him from behind, stepping on his heels. Thus, you force your opponent to rush, worry, make mistakes.
If in a zone or personal pressure you are left without a player and do not help a friend, you are making a mistake. If one of the five pressing ones is not active, the work of the whole team goes down the drain. Pressing is, first of all, the active defense of the team.
In modern basketball, many coaches are inclined to believe that personal pressing is less effective, difficult, leads to a large number of personal violations and is inferior in usefulness to zone pressing systems. I also believe that a strong, technical player with good dribbling can handle personal pressure.
In addition, with an extended defense, it would be incredibly difficult to keep one on one such players as Marchiulionis, Volkov, Kurtinaitis, Petrovich, Schmidt, Kukach, Paspal, Rivier, Gal-lis.I’m not talking about the NBA players. But although zone pressing has become more popular, it is impossible to do without the ability to play personal pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to train the defense daily 1 – 1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4 all over the court, with and without the ball, with and without dribbling, with and without screens, at first with a step, then at high speed.
Useful exercises in which the number of defenders prevails over the number of attackers. These exercises contribute to the interaction of defenders, instill in the skills of tackling the ball.They are also good for attacking players. When training personal pressing, due attention should be paid to the rapid movement of the players in an active stance, in different directions, with a skillful change in the positions of the players. Frontline defenders seek to push their attackers back to the sidelines and prevent the attacker from getting around them with and without the ball.
If one of the defenders succeeds in stopping the attacker with the ball at the sideline at the intersection with the penalty or center line, the defensive partner must come to the aid of a teammate: together they force him to make a cross-over, which the other three players are ready to intercept.
The initial stage of personal pressing is carried out by two fundamentally different tactical formations:
1. The opponent who introduces the ball is kept by a high mobile extreme and with an active movement of his hands prevents him from making an aiming pass.
2. No one takes care of the opponent who introduces the ball into the game, but two pressing ones prevent the most dangerous dribbler from getting the ball.
For example, Volkov insured Sokka and Marchiulionis from behind when throwing to player 5.
A few tips when defending with personal pressure:
1) never let the dribbler get around you, do not pass him through the center of the field, push him to the sideline, make him stop and do not give an accurate pass by interfering with his hand movements;
2) if the defense partner let himself be outflanked, immediately come to his aid, of course, without leaving your ward in a pitching position under the shield;
3) constantly monitor not only your ward, observe the actions of partners, learn to see the whole field.
In the USSR and CSKA national teams, the zone pressing 1-2-1 – 1 brought us the most success. We started pressing from the opponent’s front line after a scored and free kick. High extreme Volkov interfered with the throw-in of the ball. If the ball was thrown to the right, Marchiulionis and Volkov attacked with two of defender X2, trying to prevent him from going forward and make an aimed pass to defender XI, Sokk followed the movement of XZ and X4. Sabonis insured the rear, was responsible for long passes and for the X5 player. Tikhonenko in the center of the field followed X4’s pass with a long pass and went to the side of the pass.
Returning with a fragile attack, we built defense 2-3
Basketball Zone Defense
The meaning of this defense is that the players are responsible for a certain area of the field, in accordance with the position of the ball and the formation of the attacking team.
Advantages of zone defense:
1. It makes it possible to arrange the players in accordance with their physical, technical and mental characteristics.
Tall, jumpy players are located close to the shield, mobile, fast players – in positions higher from the shield.
2. More team-based, easy to learn, able to compensate for individual gaps in the defense.
3. Promotes counterattack and frequent interceptions with the greatest possible risk, because partners are always ready to help.
4. The number of fouls in zone defense is usually less than in personal defense.
5. This defense is less vulnerable against a combination of screens.
6. Can concentrate with strong opponent centers and stretch with snipers.
7.More than personal defense, it saves players’ strength and protects leaders from fouls.
8. Most effective against opponents with strong centers.
9. A team that owns zone defense can easily build mixed forms of defense: 3-2, 4-1, 2-3.
10. Convenient and suitable for small fields.
Disadvantages of zone defense:
1. It is inferior to the personal psychological responsibility of the players, their charge for an individual victory in defense.
2. Less suitable against teams with strong snipers.
3. Generally, the corners of the court are less protected in zone defense.
4. Zone defense may be used sporadically and should not be the primary form of defense. It is inappropriate to use zone defense at the beginning of the meeting, when the opponent’s players are not tired yet, they are energetic enough – their throws are more accurate and effective than at the end of the game.
There are several formations of zone defense, but each of the zone defense should be easily transformed depending on the attack – it should stretch when attacking from a distance and group around the ring.
An even type of zone defense constructions includes systems: 2-2-1, 2-1-2, 2-3.
Odd formation: 1-2-2, 1-3-1, 3-2.
Each of these constructions has its own advantages and disadvantages, which are useful to analyze.
Arrows indicate the direction of movement of the players. Shaded areas on the court are weak defensive positions.
Zone defense 1-2-2
# 1 – the lightest, fastest defender, # 2 and # 3 – are quite mobile, jumpy, it is good if their height is at least 2 m. # 4 and # 5 are centers. Their task is to fight the opponent’s centers, to pick up balls from the backboard.
This system is most useful against teams looking to attack from under the shield through the post. Disadvantages – weak positions indicated in the picture.
Zone protection 2-1-2
It is used against strong opposing centers who are dangerous on the “second floor” when picking up the ball. Good for developing a counterattack with fast players # 1 and # 2. Vulnerable in 45 corners, center for long and medium shots.Center # 5’s job is to patronize the center rivals and, together with # 3 and # 4, create a bouncing triangle. # 3 and # 4 are mobile and high end, they can be swapped depending on the location of the sniper’s attack.
Zone protection 1-3-1
Helps to constantly hold # 3, # 5, # 2 between the ball and the basket, used against strong opponent centers and shots from middle and close positions. Her weakness is throws from the corners of the court and passes to the backboard along the front line.
# 1 is the fastest defender, running to the lead in every possible situation, # 2 and # 3 are mobile, jumpy players, # 5 is center, # 4 is a fast winger, able to move to the corners of the court.
Zone protection 3-2
# 1, # 2 and # 3 are aggressive, agile players, on whose activity the success of the entire system largely depends. All three are aimed at interception and counterattack. This system is most acceptable against teams looking to attack from a distance, and less suitable against strong centers.The three-second zone and 45-angle positions are the most vulnerable. # 1 is responsible for the foul line. # 2 and # 3 take part in the fight for the rebound. # 5 and # 4 are first and second centers.
Zone protection 2-3
The strongest under the shield, in the corners of the court along the endline. Used against a tall, powerful team attacking from close positions and from under the shield. It is often used for group tackling of the ball in the corners of the court. When # 4 and # 2 or # 3 and # 1 interact, the defenses are less effective on the foul line and at an angle of 45.# 5 is center, # 4 is second center, # 3 is winger, # 1 and # 2 are defenders constantly aiming at interception and counterattack.
Zone protection 2-2-1
This defense is used by agile and short teams aimed at interception of the ball and constant counterattack. This zone counterattack is used against teams seeking to attack from medium distances. Center # 5 is responsible for rebounds, outer # 3 and # 4 are responsible for positions in the corners and under 45, rebounds and the penalty line.
Defenders # 1 and # 2 seek to close the passages to the shield and the three-second zone, while they themselves are constantly aiming for a counterattack.
A.Ya. GomelDefense against a player with the ball
It is necessary to work out the correct body position in a basketball stance: the center of gravity is distributed evenly on both legs, but not on a full foot, but on toes, with a “charged” (ready for any movement) foot, knees slightly bent, legs slightly wider than shoulders. Boxing stance – like the great Michael Jordan.
If the opponent is in possession of the ball, one hand of the defender should be directed at the ball and constantly attack the opponent, not allowing him to aim or shoot (best if it touches the attacker), and the other hand should be pulled back slightly. Many defenders, being between the player with the ball and the basket, even in the correct stance, do not actively act with their hands, do not make an offensive movement towards the attacker, which allows the opponent to calmly take further actions. It must be remembered that you cannot cross your legs, that the distance between the defender and the opponent must be calculated that the opponent can pass with a lead to the ring.
Contact defense against the ball carrier, although difficult and somewhat risky, is modern and has its advantages. If your arm, outstretched to the opponent, reaches his chest, then thereby you prevent the attacker from raising the ball up for a throw.
The movements of the defender should be trained regularly:
a) in each workout – with and without resistance;
b) with one or two balls;
c) with side steps, contacting the arm closest to the attacker’s body.
The actions of the defender in different situations can be divided into 12 positions:
1. Defense against the dribbler dribbling the ball to your ring.
2. Defending against a player who ends the dribble and wants to make either a hoop or pass.
3. Defense against an attacker 5-6 m from the shield, but not using dribble.
4. Actions of outnumbered defenders.
5. Actions of two defenders against three attackers.
6. Actions of three defenders against four attackers.
7. Actions of defenders during screens.
8. Protection against rear curtain.
9. Slip protection.
10. Group tackling of the ball by two defenders.
11. Defending against the first transfer to the counterattack.
12. Fighting the attacker in the corners of the court.
Let’s try to analyze the actions of the defender in each of these positions.
1. The task of the defender is in a parallel low stance, without crossing his legs, to move his back forward, knees are slightly bent, one hand always makes attacking movements towards the dribbler (feints with the body and head participate in this frightening dribbling motion), with the other hand he tries to stop the dribble (if possible, kick the ball).A raised hand is ready to prevent the presenter from making a transfer. Hands can be changed, they are in motion all the time.
As already mentioned, one should move on a “charged” foot, the heels do not touch the floor, the back is straight, slightly tilted forward, the head is lifted up.
The leader should be pushed back to the sideline, in the corner of the court, or his movement should be directed to the defending partner, remembering that the leader should not be allowed to go to the “strong” side (if left-handed – left, if right-handed – right).
The distance from the leader should be maintained depending on the speed of his dash with the ball, his ability to attack or make a pass, as well as on your capabilities, taking into account the position on the field of the defense partners.Do not rush to take the ball away from a good dribbler, wait for it to stop or make an error.
2. If the attacker has finished dribbling and stopped to throw or pass the ball, the defender must certainly get closer to him, actively using his arms, preventing him from concentrating for subsequent actions. The hand closest to the opponent should touch his chest or abdomen with the fingers and not allow him to lift the ball up to attack the ring or pass. The defender seeks to force the opponent to turn his back to the shield and, without stopping to attack the attacker, prevents him from making an aimed pass.The defender must signal to his defensive partners to be ready to intercept the ball. This is already a team action.
3. If the opponent has received the ball 5-6 m from the backboard and he is in possession of the dribble, the defender must not stop actively attacking the attacker; make short lunges with the front leg, act with your hands, not allowing him to aim. The attacker cannot be allowed to go to the backboard on the front line, if he moves a little towards it, none of the partners will help the defender. The hand close to the endline insures the dribble passage, the other attacks the attacker.
Do not give in to feints. If the attacker went along the end line, where the defender took position, you can meet him with your chest and show the referees that he knocked you down. Do not be afraid and learn to fall gently on your back.
If the attacker, despite the defender’s activity, lifted the ball for a throw, try to jump with him and prevent the throw. Do not stop working even when the opponent has already made a throw or pass. Do not turn away from him and block his path to the shield.After taking a step back, face him, and do not try to run after him. You should always be in these moments between your opponent and your shield.
4. If the defender turned out to be one against two attackers, he tries to prevent the ball from being thrown from under the backboard and retreats with his back to his ring so that he can see both attackers. With false movements, he tries to stop the player with the ball and prevent him from making a pass to the opponent under the hoop or catching him in order to block the throw from afar. Without allowing the ball to be thrown from under the backboard, the defender will fulfill his mission.
Training 2×1 on the spot and on the move develops reaction in defenders, teaches active hand movement, backward movement, composure and the ability to intercept the ball.
5. Two defenders against three forwards – a common situation in any match, so the defenders, regardless of their role, being in the minority, should know their maneuver.
The front defender moves towards the dribbler to stop him at the top of the three-point attack zone.He uses a feint, showing that making contact with this attacker is his main real task. At the same time, he should not get close to the opponent leading the ball. The back defensive player takes a position on the free throw line, following the front one and after the pass from the dribbler moves towards the player who received the ball – he is responsible for this player’s passage to the backboard or a shot from close range. The front defender, meanwhile, quickly moves to the third attacker under the shield, managing to prevent him from receiving the ball.The task of the two defenders is to prevent the ball from being thrown from under the backboard. Exercises 3×2, 4×3, 5×4 are a good school for training such actions. You can train them by attacking with two balls.
6. If three defenders defend against four attackers, their actions are structured as follows. If attacker XI has the ball, defender? 1 rushes to him, defender? 2 is responsible for the throw and transition to the attacker’s shield XZ, defender? 3 is shifted to the backboard. If the ball is received by the attacker X2, is the defender aiming for it? 1.Defender # 3 is responsible for the attacker X4, defender # 2 moves to the ring.
Exercise 4×3 in place and on the move, rebounding after throwing, with one and two balls – a good rehearsal for a three-against-four defense.
7. Today, no even a very serious team can imagine an attack without a combination of screens.
Coordination of actions of team defenders, warning of an upcoming screening determine the preparation of the team to deal with screens.
A defender guarding a player who puts a screen is obliged to warn his partner about an impending threat. If the off-ball is screened by strikers of the same height, there is no great danger of a change of defenders.
If defenders want to avoid a change when screening from the side, the defender must turn towards the defender and retreat, bypassing him from behind, which will not allow the striker to pass to the backboard.
If the attacker is screening from the “blind” side, from behind, the defender must open towards the defending partner, turning sideways to him.This will make it difficult to set the screen.
8. If your partner puts a screen on the sniper when attacking from medium or long distances behind the defender and you did not manage to get out from under such a screen, a change is necessary: your partner switches to the sniper with a raised hand and prevents him from making a throw. You are left with a dangerous, taller opponent, and your task is to prevent him from getting the ball or picking up the ball after the throw.
It is difficult to do without the help of partners in this situation.In general, I am a supporter of the smallest change in the screens, because this reduces individual responsibility and gives the attacker a chance to beat the defender.
9. If your player, in possession of the ball, seeks to pass to a partner who is close to him, you must step back and let your defense partner slip, and then take an active position in relation to your attacker.
10. The defender should always try to direct the dribbler to the sideline, to the corner of the court, to force him to stop and turn his back to the backboard.
The second defender, seeing this situation, attacks the opponent with the ball from the other side. Both of them, with active hand movements, interfere with making an aiming transfer. It is important that the rest of the defensive players are ready, aiming to intercept the ball.
11. Defense against the first pass in a quick breakthrough was used by the USSR national team more than once against opponents who counterattack through a quick dribbler, sending him the first pass after picking up the ball from the backboard. So we often defended against the Spanish national team, where Karbolan or Salobal were the dribblers? 1.
The high center of our team, playing close to the backboard, be it Tkachenko, Sabonis or Belostenny, prevents the dribbler from making an aimed first pass. At the same time, our fast defender, for example Khomichuyus, is putting pressure on the rival’s number 1 and does not allow him to get the ball. Our three other players had to immediately return to their zone.
So often the counterattack of the Spanish national team, in which the Spaniards were especially dangerous and effective, was thwarted.
I must say that there are some significant differences between the game of ours and the American defenders.According to my conclusions, they are as follows:
1. Americans in defense always act offensively, they are not afraid of a contact attack on the attacker who is in possession of the ball.
In a low stance with raised arms, the US defender seeks to knock the ball, prevent a pass, let alone a throw. If the attacker lifts the ball up, the defender immediately reacts to this: his hand goes up and seeks to interfere with any actions of the attacker. The attacker lowered the ball down – the defender immediately takes two quick steps back, preparing to prevent the opponent from passing without losing his defensive stance.
2. During active actions, the American defender never allows the attacker to pass with the ball through the center, into the middle, but constantly pushes him to the sideline. When an attacker passes along the endline, teammates immediately come to the defender’s aid. Our tactic is, on the contrary, to close the front line, where, we believe, it is more difficult to provide command assistance. I think that it is best to find a compromise here: train a safety net both in the middle of the three-second zone, and when passing along the front.And in games, take into account the peculiarities of the attackers being guarded, do not allow them to pass in their favorite directions (left hand, favorite throwing point, feints, etc.).
3. In screening, the first attempt of an American defender is to follow his guardian. With a quick movement of his leg close to the one covering the screen, he tries to get ahead of the setting of the screen and stay with his ward, and if this fails, the attacking players change. At the same time, the activity does not decrease.
Attack against zone defense – Basketball Federation of Ukraine
At the beginning of September on our website we talked about the use of zone defense 1-3-1 in your team’s games, about its advantages and weaknesses.We also talked about how to train this defense and looked at the lead-up exercises and play patterns. Today we will talk about the basics and rules of organizing offensive versus zone defense, expressed by experienced coaches, and suggest some schemes for attacking against zone 1-3-1. From my experience, observing the games of other coaches and practice, I want to tell you about the importance of the first 4 seconds of the transition from defense to attack. And this is especially true for offense versus zone defense.
A) Immediately put the ball into play on a hit after passing it through the basket or make an instant pass after picking up the ball and move as far forward as possible with the ball to the opponent’s half.Why? This must be done within the first 4 seconds, not allowing the enemy to build up an organized zone defense. Use a fast breakout with a numerical advantage, as well as use situations where a small player defends against a large player and vice versa.
B) The rule * 2-3 * will help you to use this instant transition. What does it mean? Your team has a rule * 2-3 *:
* 2 * – these are two players of your team – one of whom will do the throw-in after the goal is scored or after the rebound (usually this is one of your centers) and the second player who will receive first pass (usually your point guard).
* 3 * are three players who instantly fill three corridors, running away in a fast break and ready to get the ball to attack the basket.
The player who received the ball for a throw-in or after a rebound passes forward to one of the * 3 * for the BP or advances with a dribble to the opponent’s half to give the opponent time to organize a 5-on-5 team defense. Obviously, it is easier to complete the attack numerically. advantage (4 v 3, 3 v 2 or 2 v 1) or attack in a 3 v 3, 2 v 2 or 1 v 1 situation, having more room for maneuver and outplaying with the passage to the basket.
10 tips from coach David Bluth when attacking the zone.
Dear Colleagues, Attacking against zone defense and its many variations is not as easy as it might seem to some coaches. Overwhelming zone defense can be a real nightmare for your team …
It can block your snipers, prevent the ball from reaching the basket, and create offensive organization problems.
As a coach, you need to have proven strategies to attack and defeat zone defenses…
Today we’re going to give you 10 quick “keys” to overcome any zone defense. These 10 buttons will lay the foundations for overcoming zone defenses, and make your attack convenient for your players:
1. Rest easy. When playing against zone defense, calmness is one of the main ingredients for success.Otherwise, defense will determine how you play.
2. Use postbacks. Reversing the ball is the best way to stretch your defense. This allows the offense to dictate how and when it wants to score.
3. Read what type of zone the opponent is playing and how they move when the ball moves in attack. Each player must know who is guarding them within the zone and how they can free themselves from the defender by entering free spaces.
4.Use deceptive moves to create free spaces (holes) in the zone. Most of the zones move during the flight of the ball. By making a quick pass, pass or throw, we open up holes in the defense that provide perimeter players with the ability to go through the opening gaps.
5. See holes and use them. When passing towards the center player, the defense usually uses two defenders. Teach your center backer to read defense and open up in open space.Many trainers use the expression – * fill in the hole *. The perimeter players use the shooting passes, but in cases of safety net from the post defender, they immediately pass the ball to the incoming player.
6. Players need to see the entire area. After bypassing his defender, the attacker goes to the basket and the weak side (the helping side) reacts to this pass by going to the aid. This creates great opportunities for the attacking player with the ball to pass the ball to a free partner in the 3-point position, which further complicates the tasks of the defense.
7. The rebound is another big success factor. The team that wins the rebound on the opponent’s basket and in other areas of the court where the balls are tied wins more often.
8. Shots without the ball (entrances to free spaces) help to stretch the zone defense. There are four wrenches for diving to the basket.
– On a pass to the touchline, a perimeter player dashes towards the basket to receive the ball in the open area of the penalty area.
– When a partner dribbles the ball towards a player and a defender blocks the line to him, that player dashes behind the defender to receive the ball.
– After passing to the endline, the perimeter player dives into the corner. This will force the defense to decide who will defend and how between the three offensive players in that area.
– Know about the “vacuum” – holes in the defense. We like our striker on the assisting side (the non-ball side) to rush into the middle of the penalty area (vacuum) after the zone defenders have moved towards the ball.
9. Players on the perimeter must be positioned high and wide. The declarer is two meters above the 3-point line. The extreme players are one step away from the sideline.
10. Center players. The center players position themselves one in the position of the lower center, being located closer to the endline, away from the visual control of the defenders, the other in the position of the high center on the LSB. Distance is critical in center positioning, make sure your players know this.
In order to master these 10 principles, you must apply them and practice them in your training. You also need to understand what kind of zone you are playing against, what are the best formations and setups to use against a specific zone …
Offensive game patterns against zones 1-3-1.
I would like to present for you some offensive playsets against the 1-3-1 zone from the US varsity coaches.Ideas on how to attack zone 1-3-1- from Xavier Men’s Basketball Newsletter.
Rules – Attacks against 1-3-1
1. Move the ball forward on the court as quickly as possible (get the advantage – don’t give them time to build a zone). Back passes (make the area wiggle).
2. Pass the ball inward.
– For every 3-4 passes, the ball must go to the center player
– Pass inward outward
– Instant passes on the perimeter.
4. Use swing passes and make the defense turn their heads.
5. Do overloads.
6. Use an attack with barriers
– Barriers inward,
– Small to large.
7. Big guys should use short and wide corners (stretch protection)
8. Use long and short passes.
From Xavier Men’s Basketball Newsletter. Option 1 (Looking for an overhead gear) and Option 2.
Option 3 Option 4
Option 5 Rapid attack
Attack against zone 1-3-1.The attack that I use (Coach DeSalvo) against zone 1-3-1 with a very strong player in position 2.
01 passes the ball 02.02 back passes 01.01 passes on 03.
In the diagrams below … 03 passes the ball 4 into the corner. 2 (the best player) rushes into the LSB. 1 is shifted to the weak side. 4 can pass the ball to 2nd on the left elbow or 1st to the 3-point line. 3rd insures a quick break, and 5 takes a low center position on the right to pick up or receive the ball.
Attack against zone 1-3-1 “BIG”. These diagrams show the possibilities of passing the ball to the center players with their timely and coordinated movements in the attack
01 dribbles the ball to the right, at the same time partners 04, 05 and 03 change their positions, as shown in the diagram on the left. Accordingly, with the movement of the attacking players, the defense players are also shifted. 01 betrays the ball to 02, and there may be an opportunity for 04 or 05 to pass the ball. This opportunity appears when 04 blocks X5 with his back.Also there are opportunities to pass the ball 03. Option “BIG” when moving 01 with the ball to the left.
Here it is possible to pass the ball to 05 to the high center position and 04 to a free short corner on the right. Attack against zone 1-3-1.
This attack pattern is against the 1-3-1 zone by Sean Miller of the Arizona Wildcats men’s team coach.
Initial spread. In this setup, we avoid the trap at the bottom center position. The best center player is in the bottom center position.The sniper is positioned in a high center position. 02 moved from LShB to the right corner. 03 makes a dash for LSB. 04 passes the ball to 02 in the corner. 05 opens to receive the ball. Now X1 and X5 should cover the three attackers. The attack has several options for the attack.
Variant throw from an angle.
If X5 and X1 overlap 05, pass the ball to 02 for a free throw. 05 blocks X1.
Transfer to the center in the diagram on the left. If X5 blocks the pass to 03 and X1 defends against 05, pass 05 in a mismatch situation.Transfer to high center position. If X5 defends against 05 and if X1 overlaps 02, transfer 03 to the high center position for a free throw.
Diagram on the top left: Attachment option from flank to flank. If X3 came out of the flank to LSHB to defend 03, 03 can screen x3. 01 dashes to the right edge and receives an overhead gear from 04 for a pass to the basket. Scheme at the top right: After not being able to free throw, restore the formation.
V. Melnichuk translation 01.12. 2016
Offense in formation 1-3-1 against zone defense
This attack is one of the most popular and is often used as a main attack against both personal and zone defense. It also has good potential for use against adaptive defenses. Player 1 at the top of the free throw area should be the best at passing and shooting long distances.In the course of interactions, he has to change positions with players 2 and 3, who must be good at jumping and dribbling, as they often have the opportunity to pass to the basket with a dribble at an angle of 45 °. At the same time, they need to be able to clearly stop for jump shots from medium distances or passes to the opened player during zone defense shifts.
Player 4, on the free throw line, is an agile, technical center player. Player 5, at the endline, should be more agile and accurate at mid-range shots than Player 4.If these players have equal abilities, they can swap places.
Combinations of continuous attack in 1-3-1 formation against zone defense are shown in fig. 167-171.
Fig. 167. Player 1 passes the ball to Player 2. Player 5 dives into the corner. Player 2 passes the ball to Player 5, who is moving into the corner. Player 5’s movement will be determined by the defensive line-up. He steps aside enough to be able to receive the transmission. In some zonal defenses, such as 2-3, the backline player in the zone can move forward towards Player 2, allowing Player 5 to stay much closer to the basket.Player 5 must turn to face the basket after receiving the ball, ready to shoot into the basket. Player 2 breaks through the zone, waiting for a pass from Player 5. Player 1 moves to the side of the ball. Player 4, center, turns to the ball to a position from which he can exit to the basket on the ball-side after Player 2 passes. break through to the basket on the left. In this case, it may turn out to be open, since the zone should shift towards player 2.Knowing this, Player 2 must be ready to pass in advance. If the ball is not passed to player 2, he goes to the side of the court furthest from the ball.
Rice. 168. Player 5 receives the ball in the corner, but can neither pass it to player 2 or 4, nor take a shot to the basket. He passes the ball back to Player 1, who is in position to receive the pass. Player 4, after his exit, remains in the post in the lower free-throw area.Player 3 also changes his position. He quickly enters the outer semicircle of the free throw area, ready to receive the ball from Player 1 and take a jump shot.
Fig. 169. If none of the options described is realized, Player 3 goes to the top of the free throw area and receives a pass from Player 1. Player 4 moves to the left corner of the court, anticipating the development of the attack to the left. Player 5 moves out of the corner to the free throw line. Player 3 passes the ball to Player 2, who in turn passes the ball to Player 4, and the continuous attack can continue to the other side.Players 1, 3, and 2 swap positions, as do players 4 and 5.
Fig. 170 (variant of the previous combination). The attack begins in the same way as the previous one, with the transfer to player 2 and the movement of players 5 and 4 in accordance with the plan shown in Fig. 167. But in this variation, player 2 returns the ball to player 1 and goes through the zone to the far corner. Players 5 and 4, anticipating this maneuver, perform a V-shaped movement towards the ball. Player 3 steps back in the direction of the basket and receives the ball from Player 1.The players have the same attack options as in fig. 167.
Fig. 171 (continuation of the variant shown in Fig. 170). If the zone moves quickly towards the ball, Player 5 goes to the ball on the endline and Player 4 to the middle free-throw area on the side of the ball. The defenders’ attention is now focused on the left side of the court. This allows Player 1 to go to the right side and receive a pass over the shooting area. This interaction, carried out from time to time, will keep the players in the zone on their toes and make it easier for the attackers in the main attack.90,000 Dubl Da Costa helped Avtomobilist win back from 1: 3 and win: News: Kontinental Hockey League (KHL)
Game day On October 15, matches were opened in the Urals – Traktor beat Sochi in Chelyabinsk for the first time in six years, and Avtomobilist won a strong-willed victory over Salavat Yulaev.
Giki’s double brought Traktor victory over Sochi
4 – 2
Chelyabinsk residents played their first match after a difficult trip to the Far East, where the team achieved the maximum result. Strengthening for “Traktor” was the return to the ice of defender Lawres Pilut , missed several games due to injury. HC Sochi came from Yekaterinburg, where they managed to achieve a resounding victory over Avtomobilist (5: 4 B). Head coach Andrei Nazarov today left out of the Martin Bakos, whose place in the second line was taken by Andrei Bakanov.
Despite Traktor’s six-game winning streak, statistics spoke against him – Sochi had not lost in Chelyabinsk since 2015. Perhaps it was the unfortunate statistics that made the hosts be a little cautious, and at the start of the game the puck was more often controlled by the Black Sea players. This did not prevent the Chelyabinsk players from opening an account: a beautiful goal was created by a bunch of Nick Bailen – Tomas Gika. On emotions, players in black uniforms rushed forward and missed a counterattack, Amir Garayev scored. “Traktor” unsuccessfully took video viewing, which is why he was sent off and conceded also in the minority, Nikita Feoktistov became the author of the goal. The attack of both teams significantly exceeded the defense – if not for the fortune and saves of the goalkeepers, much more goals could have been scored in the first period.
Amir Garayev, forward of HC Sochi:
– It was a good match, an offensive defeat. We tried, fought, and imposed our own game. We missed the annoying goals and did not bring the game to victory.My goal? It came out “2 in 1”, and Kirill Petkov blocked the defender, and I decided to throw – and the puck went into the goal. Andrey Nazarov? He instills in us active, fast hockey – to go to the goal, to a nickle, to throw more. Nazarov is a mentor, a coach with a capital letter. He has great authority in the KHL. We all try to obey him and do what he says.
Immediately after the break, the hosts spent six minutes in a row in the majority, but did not hit of Magnus Hellberg. “Traktor” as a whole is not so strong in the implementation of the excess (19.1%), but here it is worth paying tribute to the gate guard and the special brigade of the minority of guests.Later, “Sochi” earned two more penalties, which did not help the Chelyabinsk team to level the score – Hellberg and the selfless field players of the “Leopards” stopped all attacks and throws of the opponent. A big problem for the guests, in addition to sending off, was the throw-in, where they outright lost to Traktor (7-22).
Andrey Nazarov, head coach of HC Sochi:
– The third away match, I didn’t have enough strength. But in general we scored two goals, controlled the game, and could even win outright.While we are learning how to win such matches, we make gross mistakes, earn unnecessary deletions. The guys tried, well done, the movement was normal, but we need to learn how to finish the game correctly with the score 2: 1. “Traktor” equalized and came out ahead only thanks to our mistakes. Why did I take time out? I got bored and did it.
In the third period, Nazarov’s wards came out tired, which is why the hosts literally tore apart their defense with short passes. This could not go on for a long time, and in the 46th minute Geek still threw Hellberg with a mustache throw.After the score became equal, the game also leveled off – the guests began to undergo dangerous attacks, disturbing Roman Villa. However, towards the end of normal time, Anvar Gatiyatulin’s wards again seized the initiative and still “put the squeeze on” the opponent – Temu Pulkkinen succeeded in a cannon shot at nine. In the last minutes, the Leopards took down the goalkeeper, staged several fights, but only let them into the empty net – 4: 2. Traktor beat Sochi on home ice for the first time in six years.
Anvar Gatiyatulin, head coach of Traktor:
– We are glad to win, a tough match, but we assumed that it would be like this. It can be seen that the movement, completion in the attack, the accuracy of the transmissions were not enough. All this is due to the lack of freshness. But the guys are great, they showed character. We had to break into the opponent’s defense during the match, and we managed it in the third period. I will appreciate the game of the whole team positively. Everyone did what was required. But, of course, there are mistakes that we will try to fix.For the most part, the finish was lacking in lightness. When will the injured come back? Andrey Stas by the end of the month, and Alexey Potapov by the beginning of November.
He was Traktor’s most active player, scored two goals and gave an assist.
Tomas Gika, Traktor forward:
– A good game that ended in victory for us. We had a good start, then we failed to convert the majority several times, but we still achieved the final victory. Did I score 3 points? My first goal was a good pass from Nick Bailen who saw me open. The second goal was scored when Lukasz Sedlak played well in the forecheck and got a good rebound. And after my transfer Nikita Tertyshny got into an empty net.My dances before matches? I love being that funniest guy on the team. We started this tradition last year. But there are still 40 matches ahead, and I will have to come up with something new, although it will be difficult. However, my wife dances beautifully, so she will help me.
Created a small masterpiece in the episode with the first goal, extending his streak to four games (2 + 4).
Until recently he kept Sochi in the game, some of his saves became a real decoration of the match.
Position of teams before the game
Position of teams after the game
Before the game
Strong-willed victory of “Motorist”
4 – 3 FROM
The Urals, having suffered two defeats from Avangard and Sochi, hosted Salavat Yulaev at their home court – this was the third meeting of the teams in the current championship. Let us remind you that the last matches were taken by the Yulaevites, who have been playing quite successfully in the matches against Avtomobilist lately.
The Bashkir team arrived in the capital of the Urals after a not entirely successful home streak, crushing defeat to the army team from the Neva and losing in a series of post-match shots to Ak Bars. Considering what serious rivals the Ufa team will have to face on a long trip, the easy life of the squad Tomi Lyamsya in Yekaterinburg was definitely not worth expecting. The coaching staff of the guests made two changes: Danil Alalykin came out in the center of the fourth troika, and Evgeny Lisovets became a partner of the experienced namesake Biryukov in the defense line.
Markus Granlund, Salavat Yulaev forward:
– We had a good match, we had a good advantage – we were leading in two goals, but then, it’s hard to say why, we lost the advantage, allowing the opponent to win. I think our squad needs to play better and try harder on the ice, because the opponents know how we acted last season, study us and are better prepared for us. We need to move more and play more forward, then the result will come.
Bill Peters entrusted the last frontier to the best newcomer of the last week KHL Vladimir Galkin. Sergey Shumakov, gaining points in three matches in a row, was transferred to the first link, Dmitry Zhukenov appeared on the right flank of the third combination, but another forward Georgy Belousov missed the game against Salavat. In the third pair of defense, to Zakhar Arzamastsev’s was Alexander Sevostyanov.
Ufa players quickly took the lead thanks to the successful connection of defender Andrey Zubarev to the attack when playing in equal compositions. After the missed puck, the Avtomobilist players applied good pressure in a foreign zone, but faced an organized defense of the opponent, and Juha Metsola played confidently and reliably at the goal.
Jeff Platt, Salavat Yulaev forward:
– Today we didn’t have so many emotions in the match, because we left them in the Green Derby.There was every reason to win over Avtomobilist, but, unfortunately, such a result. The key point is that when the score was 3: 1, everything worked out for us, but when we played in the minority, the clubs broke twice – this is the turning point when the opponent returned to the game and was able to win. My tasks on the ice – I try to act according to the plan that the coaches require of me: give a lot of energy to our team, try to control the puck, play in the minority. I understand everything perfectly, there are matches when I have a lot of chances to score.Naturally, I understand that I can play better. Now the games against Avtomobilist are no longer fundamental for me. Yes, I know a lot of people from this organization, but since the time when I moved to Ufa, a sufficient number of players have changed here. I look forward to playing with Magnitogorsk. If you remember, it was after our victory that the opponent began this record winning streak. I hope we can find in ourselves the energy that we need now. There will be a powerful confrontation that the fans are waiting for.We have every chance to win.
“Salavat Yulaev” very actively started the second twenty minutes, earning the first majority in the game, which, however, did not convert. Gradually the teams began to reveal their rear: Shakir Mukhamadullin and Ryan Spooner exchanged really dangerous moments. On the other hand, in the 4 vs 4 arrangement, the Avtomobilist striker Alexei Makeev flashed with skill, equalizing the score in the match . The initiative now and then passed from hand to hand, but the brilliantly playing goalkeepers prevented the teams from going forward.
Tomi Lyamsya, head coach of Salavat Yulaev:
– A very hard game. Despite the fact that we scored a fast puck, we started the meeting very slowly. We understood perfectly well that if we play patiently, we will definitely create scoring chances. And so it happened – they scored their own goals, but it lasted for 55 minutes. The opponent took advantage of our mistakes, and a new game began. In overtime, the teams acted on equal terms. The opponent managed to break through to the goal in the last seconds.Naturally, we are very unhappy with this result. Now we are facing difficult matches, through which we need to go. We have accumulated injuries, the games go on every other day. Hockey players returning to the squad do not have time to recover. All this accumulates and in the aggregate is reflected in the result. To be honest, at the moment we are showing not the best game. We need to find a way out of this situation, make certain changes. I think everything will be fine. Tikhonov skates on ice in Ufa, gets a little practice.We will receive detailed information on it next week, because a detailed examination needs to be carried out in order to finally understand the nature of the damage.
In the third period, guests were closer to the goal, who acted very persistently in the attacking zone. The guests’ efforts led to logical washers performed by Stepan Sannikov and Markus Granlund , which allowed Salavat Yulaev to make a comfortable start. The angry Yekateriburians first realized the majority well thanks to Stanislav Bocharov, and then Stefan Da Costa said his weighty word, bringing Avtomobilist back into the game.A second before the end of the additional five-minute period, Da Costa brought a strong-willed victory to the hosts.
Bill Peters, head coach of Avtomobilist:
– I think the fans were happy with the show for their money. A very difficult game, a victory on character. An excellent third period, when we managed to recoup the score, equalize and snatch the victory in extra time. Our minority game looked great today. The special teams have come a long way, especially at the end of the match.Vladimir Galkin saved the team in overtime, left us in the game, so I’m happy with the result. Alexei Vasilevsky will go with the team on the road and, possibly, will play in the first away game. As for Schemerov, he was injured yesterday in training, so it’s too early to say anything. We are waiting for the return of Ovchinnikov, who should return from day to day, Shane Prince is recovering quite well. Upon arrival, we will see when the guys can help our team.
Stefan Da Costa
Equalized the score and brought the victory to Avtomobilist
Got three assists
He was on fire, scoring two points on the goal + pass system
Position of teams before the game
Position of teams after the game
Before the game
Official website of the Novosibirsk Institute of Hygiene
October 15, 2021FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” Rospotrebnadzor held a kick-off meeting with the Department of Education of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
On October 15, 2021, the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene of Rospotrebnadzor held a kick-off meeting with the Department of Education of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug to connect the region to work in the Nutrition and Health Monitoring software developed by the Institute within the framework of the Demography NP.
During the meeting, it was decided to include the region in the project on monitoring nutrition and children’s health.
At the meeting, the stages of including the region in the program were discussed, the terms and responsible persons were determined, the procedure for registration, entering information on the menu and contingents of food, evaluating the menu, conducting parental control procedures.
07.10.2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the scientific and practical conference “Development of human resources for preschool education in the Russian Federation” (Sochi – 07.10.2021)
07.10.2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the scientific and practical conference “Development of human resources for preschool education in the Russian Federation”, which was held within the framework of the XII All-Russian professional competition “Educator of the Year”. In the plenary part, the institute made a report on the topic “Health-preserving and safe environment of preschool childhood as a condition for high-quality implementation of educational programs of preschool education.”
The report provided information on the dynamics of morbidity in children since 2005.by 2020 myopia and diseases of the musculoskeletal system; the results of a comparative assessment of the prevalence of posture disorders in children, including the results of examinations using the method of computer topography, conducted by the Institute. The practical results of the work of preschool organizations in the software “Monitoring Nutrition and Health”, developed by the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene, Rospotrebnadzor, typical menus for children in age groups from 1 to 3 years and from 3 to 7 years are presented.The substantiation of the key risk factors for the health of preschool children in modern conditions is given, the procedure for regulating the requirements of sanitary legislation, ensuring the safety of life and health of children in preschool organizations, is explained. Attention is drawn to the importance of compliance with the requirements of sanitary legislation in ensuring the population level of prevention of children’s health disorders.
During the discussion, exhaustive answers were given to all the questions received.
October 1, 2021The Institute took part in the international scientific and practical conference “Health and the Environment”, dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of the Republic of Belarus
On October 1, 2021, the Institute took part in the international scientific and practical conference “Health and the Environment”, dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of the Republic of Belarus, Minsk. A large number of experts of the hygienic profile of Russia and Belarus took part in the conference.During the conference, the participants noted the importance of such scientific events that contribute to the updating of scientific research, the exchange of experience among scientists of various specialties: researchers, hygienists, toxicologists, bacteriologists, virologists, laboratory diagnostics doctors, microbiologists, biologists , teachers of educational institutions of the health care system to research work. The unification of representatives of different scientific generations and scientific schools, the novelty and relevance of the fundamental and applied problems under consideration was of great value.The high scientific level and practical significance of the reports were noted.
The Institute also took an active part in the work of the conference and reported on the work carried out within the framework of the implementation of the activities of the NP “Demography” in terms of the development of typical regional-oriented diets for children in organized groups. The report was actively supported in the discussion, exhaustive answers were given to all the questions that were received.
September 24, 2021FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the scientific conference “Physiological and psychophysiological characteristics of the organism in ontogenesis”
September 24, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” Rospotrebnadzor took part in the scientific conference “Physiological and psychophysiological characteristics of the organism in ontogenesis” dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor Velikanova Larisa Konstantinovna.
A large number of experts in the field of pedagogy took part in the conference.The questions of the influence of the teaching load on the physiological and psychophysiological parameters of students, psychological, pedagogical and methodological approaches to teaching, teaching methods of certain disciplines, etc. are discussed.
The Institute reported on the results of research work carried out as part of a hygienic assessment of the use of the resources of the digital educational environment in the context of distance learning. The report was supported in the discussion, exhaustive answers were given to all the questions that were received.
September 15-17, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took an active part in the XIII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists of Rospotrebnadzor “Modern Problems of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Hygiene
September 15-17, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the XIII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists of Rospotrebnadzor “Modern Problems of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Hygiene”.During the plenary session, a report was presented on the topic “Posture disorders in children – an urgent problem of our time.” The report reflects the issues of organizing systematic work on monitoring and screening posture disorders in schoolchildren, the effectiveness of preventive measures.
Members of the Joint Council of Young Scientists and Specialists of Rospotrebnadzor in the Novosibirsk Region participated in the work of the Council of Young Scientists and Specialists of Rospotrebnadzor, which took place on September 16, 2021 as part of the XIII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference.At the meeting, the interim results of the Council’s activities for 2021 were discussed, the tasks for 2022 were defined.
September 16, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” Rospotrebnadzor took part in the Republican parent meeting on control over the organization of hot meals in educational institutions of the Republic of Khakassia
September 16, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” Rospotrebnadzor, together with the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Khakassia, took part in the republican parent meeting dedicated to the control over the organization of hot meals in educational organizations.
Parents were presented with the results of assessing the structure and dynamics of morbidity in children for the period 1991-2019, explanations were given of the reasons for the main trends, the effectiveness of the implemented measures of population prevention of health disorders, regulated at the federal level. Attention is drawn to risk factors and measures to prevent them. The algorithm of parental control and organization of nutrition for children suffering from diseases requiring an individual approach to nutrition is considered in detail.The principles of healthy nutrition are considered in detail and attention is paid to the need for continuity of home nutrition with school meals, and not vice versa.
On September 15, 2021, a memorial plaque will be opened in memory of the director of the Institute, Evgeny Matveyevich Gorbachev.
A memorial plaque in memory of the director of the Institute, Evgeny Matveyevich Gorbachev, will be unveiled at the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene of Rospotrebnadzor on 15.09.2021.
Evgeny Matveyevich in 1942graduated from the Novosibirsk Medical Institute. From 1951 to 1995 worked at the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene, first as head of the toxicology laboratory. In 1958 he defended his Ph.D. thesis on the topic: “To the toxicology of some aliphatic amines”. From 1959 to 1990 he was the director of the Novosibirsk Scientific Research Sanitary Institute. From 1990 to 1992 he was a leading researcher of the medical information department of the institute, from 1992 to 1995 he was engaged in statistics in the clinical department.
From 1960 to 1990 Gorbachev was the permanent chairman of the board of the Novosibirsk branch of the All-Russian Society of Hygienists and Sanitary Physicians, a member of the Board of the All-Union and Republican Societies of Hygienists and Sanitary Physicians, a member of the editorial board of the journal “Hygiene and Sanitation”.
Awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor, the jubilee medal “For valiant labor in honor of the 100th anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin”, the badge “Excellence in Public Health”. In 1981, Gorbachev was awarded the honorary title “Honored Doctor of the RSFSR”.
August 27, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” Rospotrebnadzor took part in the talk show “Scientific refrigerator” from the Information Center for Atomic Energy of Novosibirsk
On August 27, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the talk show “Scientific Refrigerator” from the Information Center for Atomic Energy of Novosibirsk.
Speaker of the talk show from the Institute was:
Sergey Pavlovich Romanenko, Ph.MD, junior researcher.
Participants of the talk show “Scientific Refrigerator: Chips” learned about modern technologies of growing potatoes, the peculiarities of creating new varieties and hybrids; were able to get into the secrets of the chemical processes of turning potatoes into chips, examined the role of food additives in the preparation and storage of a crispy treat. The participants were explained about the causes and consequences of sustainable consumption of fast food, the pros and cons of consuming fast food in general and chips in particular, the main risks of fast food consumption by children and adults, modern trends in the transformation of gastronomic culture and the basic principles of healthy eating.
FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor summed up the results of monitoring on the organization of the daily routine and leisure of schoolchildren in August 2021.
The monitoring was carried out using a cross-platform software tool specially developed by the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene of Rospotrebnadzor.
Representatives of 56 constituent entities of the Russian Federation – 56 481 schoolchildren, incl. by the age group “7-10 years old” – 22 166 respondents, by the age group “11-15 years old” –
29 690 respondents and by the age group “16-17 years old” – 4 625 respondents.
It should be noted that the rate of coverage of schoolchildren with summer vacations and health improvement in August was significantly lower than in June and July, and amounted to 10.5% (June – 33.8%; July – 15.2%). In the age aspect, the total indicator of the coverage of children with organized forms of recreation and health improvement in the group “7-10 years old” was 9.8% (June – 44.0%; July – 15.7%), in the group “11-15 years old” – 15.3% (June – 18.1%; July – 15.4%), “16-17 years old” – 8.3% (June – 5.3%; July – 10.9%).
6.4% of respondents studied with tutors in August (June – 10.6%; July – 6.4%), incl.in the age group “7-10 years old” – 7.1% (June – 3.6%; July – 7.1%), in the age group “11-15 years old” – 5.3% (June – 14 , 7%; July – 5.1%), in the group “16-17 years old” – 10.4% (June – 28.1%; July – 11.3%).
In August, 21.5% of children attended sports sections and circles (June – 16.9%; July – 17.2%) of children, incl. in the age group “7-10 years old” – 19.2% of respondents (June – 11.6%; July – 18.8%), in the age group “11-15 years old” – 22.5% (June – 18, 6%; July – 20.1%), in the group “16-17 years old” – 26.2% (June – 28.6%; July – 29.8%).
Did morning exercises in August – 61.3% of children (June -25.6%; July – 65.5%), incl. in the age group “7-10 years old” – 64.9% of respondents (June – 32.0%; July – 71.3%), in the age group “11-15 years old” – 59.7% (June – 21, 0%; July – 61.6%), in the age group “16-17 years old” – 54.8% (June – 12.0%; July – 59.3%).
73.4% of the respondents spent more than three hours walking every day (June – 22.3%; July – 78.1%), incl. in the age group “7-10 years old” – 81.3% (June – 17.9%; July – 87.6%), in the group “11-15 years old” – 69.6% (June – 23.9% ; July – 76.2%), in the group “16-17 years old” – 60.7% (June – 33.1%; July – 63.5%).
More than three hours a day in August were engaged with gadgets – 22.1% of respondents (June – 27.6%; July – 23.2%), incl. in the age group “7-10 years old” – 8.4% (June – 15.0%; July – 10.0%), in the group “11-15 years old” – 28.6% (June – 35.0% ; July – 30.6%), in the group “16-17 years old” – 45.0% (June – 48.1%; July – 43.9%).
7.3% of respondents spent more than three hours daily in August for watching TV and listening to audio files (June – 25.0%; July – 11.7%), incl. in the age group “7-10 years old” – 2.3% of children (June – 13.2%; July – 6.4%), in the age group “11-15 years old” – 9.1% (June – 33, 2%; July – 15.0%) in the group “16-17 years old” – 19.3% (June – 43.2%; July – 43.9%).
The results of the questionnaire showed a reduction from June to August in the coverage of children with organized forms of recreation and health improvement from 33.8% to 10.5%. Stable throughout the summer period, more than 5.0% of schoolchildren studied with tutors, more than 15% of children studied during the summer period in organizations of additional education. By August, for the majority of schoolchildren, the restructuring of the usual daily routine for the school year led to an increase in the duration of walks, incl.with a dynamic component and a reduction in the total time of using gadgets and watching TV. Over the summer period, the number of children who began to do exercises increased significantly (from 25.6% to 61.3%).
The survey was carried out using the resources of the official website of the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene of Rospotrebnadzor with the support of the Office of the Ombudsman for Children’s Rights in the Novosibirsk Region.
On August 26, 2021 FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the VIII International Forum of Technological Development “TECHNOPROM – 2021”
August 26, 2021FBSI “Novosibirsk Research Institute of Hygiene” of Rospotrebnadzor took part in the VIII International Forum of Technological Development “TECHNOPROM – 2021” in the work of the strategic session “Environment and Public Health”.
The session was moderated by the Chairman of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, RAS Academician Parmon Valentin Nikolaevich. The session discussed priority issues of ecology and health in the Siberian Federal District, the results of the implementation of the national project “Ecology”, strategies for solving the problems of maintaining health and maintaining a comfortable living environment.The issues of the problem on Lake Baikal, issues of climate change, environmental problems of the Eastern Arctic were also touched upon.
The Institute made a report prepared jointly with the Office of Rospotrebnadzor in the Novosibirsk Region, on the topic “Innovative approaches to assessing non-carcinogenic health risks for the population living in zones affected by stationary sources of air pollution”. In the course of the report, the methodological aspects of assessing group and individual risks were discussed, the results of toxicological studies on cement dust, studies of snow cover pollution and the results of using a low-parameter model of the inter-media transfer of chemical compounds, which makes it possible to determine the amount of atmospheric air pollution according to the content in the snow cover, were presented.An innovative model for the prevention of diseases caused by air pollution in the residential area was also proposed. This work was carried out jointly with the Research Institute of the Siberian Branch of Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Institute of Organic Chemistry named after N.N. Vorozhtsov, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry named after A.V. Nikolaev).
The report caused a discussion, all the questions were given comprehensive answers.
Following the session, a decision was made on the feasibility of holding an environmental forum with a detailed consideration of modern climate and environmental challenges, decision-making and consolidation of interdisciplinary efforts in addressing issues, planning research and their practical implementation.
90,000 Billion as protection. Why Barca prescribes space compensation for their players
Recently it became known that Barcelona signed a new contract with midfielder Pedri. Under the terms of the new agreement, the amount of compensation for the player will be 1 billion euros.
In Catalonia, a new generation is finally growing up, which can pull the club out of the abyss into which it has fallen in all recent years. It is only natural that Joan Laporta wants to protect the work of the academy and keep all talented youth in the team.The new contract with Pedri until 2026 and with a compensation of one billion euros is only the first step towards complete transfer security. Barça has no right to take risks – in such a position it is. The player himself tries not to pay too much attention to his price:
– The giveaway is what the club is betting on you. I am more worried about the development of our project than this figure. I just want to win trophies every year. We have a difficult moment right now, but Barcelona are still the best club in the world.
Pedri: “Barcelona are the best club in the world and we’ll be back. I signed until 2026, but I hope it will be for many more years to come”. 🔵🔴 #FCB pic.twitter.com/ernqOCa9FH— Fabrizio Romano (@FabrizioRomano) October 15, 2021
In addition to Pedri, there are several other young players in the team who must be kept at home by all means. First, of course, the newly minted “ten” – Ansu Fati. The club is also going to offer him a new contract with the same compensation as Pedri. Yes, the 18-year-old striker suffered a serious injury, and it is not known how long he will have to get in shape. But at Camp Nou they believe in him. In addition, barely returning to the field, Fati scored a goal against Levante (3: 0).
Another footballer in need of protection is Gavi. The 17-year-old midfielder already plays for the senior Spanish national team with might and main, delighting journalists and fans, and also shows himself very well in matches for the club. Now the compensation, which is spelled out in his contract, is only 50 million euros. This is definitely not enough, because the rapidly progressing Catalan, for sure, will soon be interested. Barcelona Vice President Rafa Yuste says:
– I am very happy for Gavi, who for his 17 years shows incredible maturity.We’re going to give him confidence that Barça can be his home for years to come.
🚨 Barcelona are set to offer Gavi a new 5-year contract at the club, which will see his salary increase every season. (Source: AS) pic.twitter.com/PfFj9aXQU4— Transfer News Live (@DeadlineDayLive) October 7, 2021
But why such a strong emphasis on compensation? It’s simple. La Liga rules state that anyone who pays the required amount can safely redeem any player. Theoretically, you can not even notify the club that owns the contract about the purchase. This is exactly what London’s Arsenal did about a year ago when they bought Thomas Party from Atlético for 50 million euros.The bosses of the “mattress” then were extremely outraged by the behavior of the “gunners”, who simply laid out the money in the last hours of the transfer window and agreed with the footballer behind the back of the Madrid leadership.
“Arsenal” acted sneakily, but now everyone understands the risk involved in the Spanish transfer system and are trying to protect themselves. They expose completely unaffordable compensation so that the buying clubs were forced to enter into negotiations one way or another. At the moment, three La Liga players are valued at 1 billion euros.Besides Pedri, these are Real Madrid players Federico Valverde and Karim Benzema. They are followed by David Alaba (850 million) and Antoine Griezmann (800 million). It is curious that in the top ten there are mostly Real Madrid players and only one each from Barcelona and Atlético. But this situation is likely to change soon.
Spanish clubs need to be careful especially in the context of the fact that a buyer with huge resources will soon appear on the market. Newcastle, now owned by the Saudi prince, can take advantage of the fact that someone did not bother to prescribe decent payoffs to their players.The oil kings are clearly not into football to hang out in the basement of the Premier League table. They will definitely spend money – and very large ones.
Newcastle United be like… pic.twitter.com/YVNTGOyxdp— Troll Football (@TrollFootball) October 13, 2021
Not long ago Barcelona was under the threat of bankruptcy – and this is not an exaggeration. Club sources claim that Blue Garnet as an organization could have almost been eliminated. Now Laporta has collected credits and somehow rectified the situation, but this is still not the end of the story.The management partly continues to hope for the Super League project. According to the president, the courts are being won and the project is still alive. Completing the team is a matter no less important than all financial problems. After all, players are also assets. Their youth can become a support for Barça for many years to come, as well as bring symbolic capital to the club. Fan love cannot be fully converted into money, but making money on it is much easier when fans feel connected to the team.
Cholera is an acute diarrheal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae when contaminated food or water is ingested.Cholera remains a global public health threat and an indicator of social inequality and lack of social development. Researchers estimate that there are between 1.3 million and 4.0 million cholera cases and 21,000-143,000 cholera deaths annually worldwide. 1 .
Cholera is an extremely dangerous disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhea. Between 12 hours and 5 days between ingestion of contaminated food or water and the onset of symptoms 2 .Cholera affects both children and adults and, if untreated, can lead to death within hours.
Most people infected with V. cholerae do not develop any symptoms, although within 1-10 days after infection, bacteria are present in their feces that, if released back into the environment, could potentially infect others.
When symptoms occur, they are generally mild to moderate, while a minority of those affected develop acute watery diarrhea with severe dehydration.If left untreated, this can be fatal.
In the 19th century, cholera spread throughout the world from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India. Later, there were six pandemics that claimed the lives of millions of people on all continents. The current (seventh) pandemic began in 1961 in South Asia, spread to Africa in 1971, and to America in 1991. Cholera is now endemic in many countries.
Strains Vibrio cholerae
There are many V. cholerae serogroups, but only two of them – O1 and O139 – cause outbreaks. The V. cholerae O1 strain has been responsible for all recent outbreaks. V. cholerae O139, which was first identified in Bangladesh in 1992, has caused outbreaks in the past, but has recently been detected only in sporadic cases. It has never been detected outside of Asia.Disease caused by bacteria from either of the two serogroups proceeds in the same way.
Epidemiology, risk factors and disease burden
Distinguish between endemic and epidemic cholera. A cholera-endemic area is an area in which confirmed cases of cholera have been detected in the past three years and there is evidence of local transmission of the disease (that is, the cases are not imported from anywhere). An outbreak or epidemic of cholera can occur both in endemic countries and in countries where cholera does not occur regularly.
In cholera-endemic countries, an outbreak can be seasonal or sporadic and is defined as an excess of expected cases. In a country where cholera does not occur regularly, an outbreak is defined as the occurrence of at least one confirmed case of cholera with actual evidence of local transmission in an area where cholera is usually absent.
Cholera transmission is closely related to the lack of adequate access to clean water and sanitation.Typical high-risk areas include slums adjacent to urban areas and camps for internally displaced persons and refugees.
Consequences of a humanitarian crisis, such as the collapse of water and sanitation systems or the displacement of populations to overcrowded and inadequately equipped camps, can increase the risk of transmission of cholera if bacteria are present or imported. The corpses of people not infected with cholera have never been the cause of epidemics.
The number of cholera cases reported to WHO has remained high over the past few years.In 2019, 923,037 cases were reported in 31 countries, of which 1,911 were fatal 90,977 3 90,978. The discrepancy between these data and the estimated burden of disease is due to the fact that many cases are not reported due to the limited capacity of surveillance systems and fears that statistics may negatively affect trade and tourism.
Prevention and control of cholera
A multi-pronged approach is critical in combating cholera and reducing deaths from the disease.It includes a combination of surveillance, water, sanitation and hygiene, community mobilization, treatment and oral cholera vaccines.
Cholera surveillance should be part of a comprehensive disease surveillance system that includes local feedback and global sharing of information.
Cases of cholera are diagnosed based on clinical suspicion of the disease in patients with severe acute watery diarrhea.The suspicion is further confirmed by detecting V. cholerae bacteria in stool samples from the respective patients. Case detection can be facilitated by the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) when a positive test result on one or more specimens warrants the reporting of cholera cases. Samples are sent to the laboratory for culture or PCR testing to confirm the diagnosis. Local capacity to detect (diagnose) and monitor (collect, compile and analyze data) of cases is central to effective surveillance and planning for cholera control.
Countries affected by cholera are urged to strengthen disease surveillance and improve national preparedness for rapid outbreak detection and response. In accordance with the International Health Regulations (IHR), notification of all cases of cholera is no longer mandatory. However, public health events associated with cholera should always be assessed according to the criteria outlined in the Regulations (IHR Appendix 2 – Decision Tree) to determine if there is a need for formal notification.
For more information on Annex 2 to the IHR, please visit https://www.who.int/ru/publications/i/item/9789241580496
Water supply and sanitation activities
cholera control is about economic development and ensuring universal access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Environmental actions include the implementation of long-term adapted sustainable water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) solutions to ensure that in highly endemic areas known as hot spots, people enjoy safe water sources, basic sanitation and good practice. hygiene.Such interventions help prevent not only cholera, but many other waterborne diseases as well, and contribute to the goals of poverty, malnutrition and public education. WASH cholera solutions are in line with the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6).
Cholera is an easily curable disease. Most people can be successfully treated with timely oral rehydration salt (ORS) solutions.The standard WHO / UNICEF ODP package is diluted in 1 liter (l) of pure water. Adult patients may require up to 6 L of ORS solution on the first day of moderate dehydration treatment.
Patients with severe dehydration are at risk of dehydration shock and require urgent intravenous fluids. These patients are also prescribed appropriate antibiotics to shorten the duration of the diarrhea, reduce the volume of rehydration fluids needed, and reduce the number and period of excretion of V.cholerae in feces.
Massive use of antibiotics is discouraged as it has no proven effect on the spread of cholera and may increase antimicrobial resistance.
Rapid access to treatment is key during a cholera outbreak. Oral rehydration capacity must be provided in the community, but at the same time it must be possible to reach out to larger treatment centers that are equipped with intravenous fluids and round-the-clock care.With timely and appropriate treatment, the case fatality rate should not exceed 1%.
An important adjunctive therapy for children with cholera under the age of five is zinc supplementation, which also shortens the duration of diarrhea and may further prevent episodes of acute watery diarrhea from other causes.
Breastfeeding should also be encouraged.
Strengthening hygiene skills and community mobilization
Health education campaigns adapted to local culture and beliefs should promote good hygiene practices such as hand washing with soap, safe preparation and storage of food, and safe disposal of baby faeces.Funerals for people who have died of cholera should be organized to avoid contamination of those present at the ceremony.
In addition, awareness campaigns should be organized during outbreaks and communities should be provided with information on the potential risks and symptoms of cholera, preventive measures to avoid contamination, and where and when to report cases and how that if symptoms appear, you should seek immediate medical attention.It is also necessary to disseminate information on the location of the relevant points of care.
Community engagement is key for lasting behavioral change and success in cholera control.
Oral cholera vaccines
There are currently three WHO prequalified oral cholera vaccines: Dukoral®, Shanchol ™ and Euvichol-Plus® 5 .To ensure complete protection against disease, all three mentioned vaccines must be provided on a two-dose basis 4 .
Dukoral® is used in a buffer solution that requires 150 ml of pure water to prepare for adult patients. Dukoral® can be administered to all persons over two years of age. The interval between doses of each dose should be at least seven days, but not more than six weeks. Children between the ages of two and five should receive a third dose. Dukoral® is primarily used by people who travel.Two doses of Dukoral® provide protection against cholera for two years.
Shanchol ™ and Euvichol-Plus® are formulated as the same vaccine from two different manufacturers. No buffer solution is required for their use. They are available to all persons over one year of age. The interval between each dose of these two vaccines should be at least two weeks. Two doses of Shanchol ™ and Euvichol-Plus® provide three-year protection against cholera, while one dose provides short-term protection.
Shanchol ™ vaccine has been prequalified for use in a temperature controlled system, an innovative approach to vaccine handling that allows vaccines to be stored at temperatures outside the standard cold chain between + 2 ° C and + 8 ° C in for a limited period of time subject to monitoring and control.
Further information on the temperature controlled system can be found at https: // www.who.int/immunization/programmes_systems/
supply_chain / ctc / en / – in English
It is the Shanchol ™ and Euvichol-Plus® vaccines that are currently available for mass vaccination campaigns thanks to the global stockpile of oral cholera vaccines supported by the Alliance for GAVI vaccines.
The WHO evidence-based position paper on cholera vaccines issued in August 2017 notes:
- oral cholera vaccines should be used in cholera-endemic areas, in humanitarian high risk of cholera and during cholera outbreaks – always in conjunction with other cholera prevention and control strategies.
Vaccination should not interfere with other high priority health interventions to control and prevent cholera outbreaks.
More than 70 million doses of oral cholera vaccine have been used in massive vaccination campaigns. These campaigns were carried out in areas affected by the outbreak, in areas of increased vulnerability during humanitarian crises, and among populations living in highly endemic areas known as hotspots.
For more information on cholera vaccines, see http://www.who.int/cholera/vaccines/en/ – in English
WHO position paper on oral cholera vaccines can be found at http : //www.who.int/wer/2017/wer9234/en/ – in English
In 2014, the WHO-based Global Task Force on Cholera Control received a new impulse to revitalize their activities.The Global Task Force is a network of more than 50 partners, including academia, nongovernmental organizations and UN agencies, that are actively involved in global cholera control efforts.
Through the Global Cholera Task Force and with donor support, WHO is working in the following areas:
- supporting the development and implementation of global strategies to support capacity-building for cholera prevention and control globally;
- Provide a platform for the exchange of technical knowledge, coordination and cooperation on cholera-related activities to strengthen countries’ capacities for cholera prevention and control;
- Supporting countries to implement effective cholera control strategies and monitor progress;
- Dissemination of technical guidelines and operational guides;
- Contribute to the development of a research agenda with a focus on evaluating innovative approaches to cholera prevention and control in affected countries;
- Raise awareness of cholera as an important global public health issue by disseminating information on cholera prevention and control, as well as advocacy and resource mobilization activities in support of cholera prevention and control nationally, regionally and globally levels.
For more information on the Global Cholera Task Force, see http://www.gtfcc.org – in English
Cholera Eradication: A Roadmap to 2030
In October 2017, the partners of the Global Task Force presented the Cholera Eradication Strategy 2030 Roadmap. The country-driven strategy aims to reduce cholera deaths by 90% and eliminate cholera in at least 20 countries by 2030.
The global roadmap focuses on three strategic areas:
- Early detection of outbreaks and rapid response to contain them. This strategy aims to contain outbreaks wherever they occur through early detection and rapid multi-sectoral responses, including community engagement, strengthening surveillance and laboratory capacity, health system and supply preparedness, and team support. quick response.
- Targeted multisectoral approach to prevent cholera re-emergence. The Global Strategy calls on countries and partners to pay particular attention to cholera hot spots, the relatively small areas most severely affected by cholera. Cholera transmission in these areas can be stopped through a number of measures, including water, sanitation and hygiene improvements and oral cholera vaccines.
- Effective mechanism for coordinating technical support, advocacy, resource mobilization and partnerships at the local and global levels.The Global Task Force is a robust mechanism to assist countries in strengthening their cholera control efforts, building on country-led multisectoral cholera control programs and supporting them with human, technical and financial resources.
In May 2018, the 71st World Health Assembly adopted a resolution in support of cholera control endorsing the End Cholera Strategy 2030 Roadmap.
For more information on the strategy, please visit http://www.who.int/entity/cholera/publications/global-roadmap.pdf?ua=1 – in English
Cholera control kits
WHO has developed a cholera control kit to ensure the efficient and effective use of materials needed to investigate and confirm cholera outbreaks and to treat patients.
After consultation with implementation partners in 2016WHO has revised the composition of the kits to better meet local needs. We are talking about six sets:
- 1 – for research;
- 1 – with materials for laboratory confirmation of the results of the analysis for inoculation;
- 3 – for treatment at the community, peripheral and central levels;
- 1 kit with accessories such as solar lamps, fences, flexible tanks and water taps.
Each treatment kit contains enough supplies to treat 100 patients. The revised cholera control kits are designed to help prepare for a potential cholera outbreak and provide support for the initial response during the first month of implementation.
For more information on cholera control kits, see http://www.who.int/cholera/kit/en/ – in English
1 Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries …
Ali M, Nelson AR, Lopez AL, Sack D.