Field of Play
Football is played on a large
Each team is permitted a total
The following players are “eligible”
The defensive line includes
In addition to the offensive
Washington Football Team Depth Chart| Washington Football Team
Washington Football Team Depth Chart| Washington Football Team – WashingtonFootball. com
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Formations in football – the development from 1-1-8 to 3-5-2
The core of football tactics is the formation of the team. In football (soccer) the formations are classified in names consisting of numbers that represent defenders, midfielders and attackers (the goalkeeper is unnecessary to involve in this tactical aspect). Here is a historical overview of the most utilized formations in football.
Formations are simplified ways to describe a team’s positional tactic schematically. As Jonathan Wilson writes in Inverting the Pyramid: “designations of formations can at times seem a little arbitrary. Just how far behind the main striker does the second striker have to play for 4–4–2 to become 4–4–1–1? And how advanced do the wide midfielders have to be for that to become a 4–2–3–1?”
You probably never guess the existence of this formation in serious circumstances. It was a while ago, though, more exactly in the 19th century in the pre-modern era of football.
To use only one defense player and one midfielder and put the rest on attack seems crazy today, but the matches looked different at the current time with minimal passing in sideways and instead full attack with much dribbling going on.
The reason for all that dribbling was not just because football in these days lacked sophistication, but more due to the fact that the offside rule was completely different from what it is today. Until 1925, the rules prescribed that a player was not allowed to be ahead of the ball (in some respects more similar to ice hockey than modern football), and as a result had to dribble it forwards.
Another early formation connected with the dribbling game was 2-1-7, among other teams associated with Old Etonians.
In the 1890s, 2-3-5 (“the pyramid”) became popular as a more balanced tactical formation. It would become standard for a long time and was used by all the British teams. The transition from 1-1-8 to 2-3-5 did not happen over a day, though. Other formations, such as 2-2-6 and 1-2-7, had been taken into practice in between.
With the popularity of the set-up, a standardization followed with numbers linked to the position on the field:
The introduction of the offside rule in 1925 started a development of other formation more adapted to the offside.
One of the first side steps from the well-established 2-3-5 was the “W-M” (the attacking cluster is W-formated and the defending cluster is M-formated), or 3-2-2-3. The innovator was the great football theoretician Graham Chapman during his time as manager for Arsenal in the early 1930s.
It was a formation used by many teams in 1950 World Cup, although not by the winning team Uruguay.
After the change of the offside rule in 1925, both attacking and defending strategies would transform and new playing systems as a result emerged. The altered offside rule would benefit the attacking side so a third defender was more often taken into consideration (another formation used at this period was 3-4-4), but it was obviously still an emphasis on attack.
Ahead of the three defenders and two midfielders there was a five-man offense. The offense was organized with one center forward flanked by double wings on both sides. Among the most successful team with this formation was Arsenal.
Instead of the usual defender-midfielder-forward configuration, the so-called Metodo system brought a formation with four units into practice. This formation was used by Italy and helped the team to win the 1934 and 1938 World Cups.
This formation was a product from Brazil. It was first tested in the Brazilian league and later in the 1958 World Cup which Brazil won. It should be mentioned that the 4-2-4 was not a Brazilian novelty, but the Brazilians had most success with it – they would use it again in the 1970 World Cup with supreme result. One of the features of 2-4-2 and of the Brazil national team was the attacking full-backs.
This modern way of organizing the team was executed by England in the 1966 World Cup as an alternative to their 4-1-3-2. It was the first formation ever without wing forwards.
This formation with five defending players was developed by the famous Inter coach Helenio Herrera. The 5-4-1 system was focused on defense, but also allowed counterattacks.
Both Italian clubs and the Italian national team had success with 5-4-1, including the World Cup silver medal won in 1970.
The 4-4-2 formation was a development of the 4-3-3 utilized by Swedish clubs like IFK Gothenburg and Malmo FF which led to some international successes for these teams. The inventing is otherwise attributed to the Soviet Russian coach Viktor Maslov.
The playing system included factors of collective strategy and with players working over a big part of the field. Many teams around the world use the 4-4-2 formation today and it is especially preferred in British top football.
In contrast to the 4-4-2 formation, 3-5-2 would put more emphasis on individual skills. West Germany won the World Cup in 1990 practicing this formation and it is often used in football of today. It is uncertain when it was first used, some say it materialized when Miroslav Blažević coached Dinamo Zagreb in the middle 1950s.
The positions of the players could be arranged in some different ways, one alternative is with an offensive midfielder behind the forwards as the picture above suggests.
The 4-2-3-1 formation is a modification of the 4-4-2 and was first used widely in top-level football in the 2010 World Cup. In front of the four defenders and behind the lonely forward, there are two defensive and three offensive midfielders.
This formation is used by tons of clubs in elite football and is for example the most used system in the Spanish La Liga.
No tactic formation is the “best”
No formation is optimal in all situations. What is best depends on different circumstances. The formation should for example be based on the opponent and the players the manager has to his disposal.
The National Encyclopedia
Jonathan Wilson, Inverting the Pyramid: The History of Soccer Tactics (2013)
Chris Anderson and David Sally, The Numbers Game (2013)
Thomas MM Hemy’s painting “Sunderland v. Aston Villa 1895”
NFL Rules | The Football Girl
Beginner’s Guide to Football
LEARNING NFL RULES
If you are a football beginner, one of your biggest obstacles to achieving full enjoyment of the game is likely understanding football rules. While learning NFL rules may take some time, knowing the basic football rules can dramatically increase one’s enjoyment of the game. Below we explain NFL rules basics for beginners. If you are not a beginner, please go straight to part 2 of our rules tutorial, where we explain some of the more difficult and controversial football rules and specific NFL rules.
How many players are on a football team? Each team is made one of 11 players. One 11-man team has possession of the football. It is called the offense and it tries to advance the ball down the field-by running with the ball or throwing it – and score points by crossing the goal line and getting into an area called the end zone.
The other team (also with 11 players) is called the defense. It tries to stop the offensive team and make it give up possession of the ball. If the team with the ball does score or is forced to give up possession, the offensive and defensive teams switch roles (the offensive team goes on defense and the defensive team goes on offense). And so on, back and forth, until all four quarters of the game have been played.
While only the quarterback, the wide receivers and tight ends, and the running backs can legally handle the ball, it is the quarterback who is the leader of the team and the playmaker. In fact, he’s a man of many talents – he not only throws the ball, he outlines each play to his team.
THE OFFENSIVE PLAYERS
- The quarterback (“QB”) passes or hands off the ball.
- The center snaps the ball to the QB and blocks the defense.
- 2 guards and 2 tackles keep the defense at bay.
- 2/4 wide receivers catch the ball thrown by the QB.
- 1 or 2 running backs take the ball and run with it.
- 1 or 2 tight ends block the defense and can also catches passes.
The job of the defense is to stop the offense. The 11 men on the defensive team all work together to keep the offense from advancing toward the defense’s end zone.
THE DEFENSIVE PLAYERS
- Linebackers defend against the pass, and push forward to stop the run or tackle the QB.
- The defensive line (ends and tackles) battles head-to-head against the offensive line.
- Cornerbacks and safeties defend against the pass from the QB to the wide receiver and help to stop the run.
To see how the offensive and defensive players usually line up click here
What are the dimensions of an NFL football field? The field measures 100 yards long and 53 yards wide. Little white markings on the field called yard markers help the players, officials, and the fans keep track of the ball (note: that yellow line on your screen is generated by a computer for TV viewers). The most important part of the field is the end zone. It’s an additional 10 yards on each end of the field. This is where the points add up! When the offense – the team with possession of the ball-gets the ball into the opponent’s end zone, they score six points.
In the back of the end zone are goalposts that measure 10 feet high. How wide are NFL goal posts? NFL goal posts as 18 feet six inches wide. This is approximately 5 feet narrower than college football goal posts, which are 23 feet, 4 inches wide. As discussed below, kicking the ball through the goal posts is another way for teams to score points.
How long are NFL football games? NFL games are divided into four 15-minute quarters, separated by a 12-minute break at halftime. There are also 2-minute breaks at the end of the first and third quarters as teams change ends of the field after every 15 minutes of play. At the end of the first and third quarters, the team with the ball retains possession heading into the following quarter. That is not the case before halftime. The second half starts with a kickoff in the same way as the game began in the first quarter.
Each offensive team has 40 seconds from the end of a given play until they must snap of the ball for the start of the next play, otherwise they will be penalized for delay of game. The clock stops at the end of incomplete passing plays, when a player goes out of bounds, when a penalty is called, or when a team calls a timeout (thus, it is very important for teams to save their timeouts). The clock starts again when the ball is re-spotted by an official.
If a game is tied at the end of regulation, a 15-minute overtime period will be played. In the NFL, this is sudden death and the first team to score wins. Possession is determined before the period begins by a coin toss.
A game starts with the kickoff. The ball is placed on a kicking tee at the defense’s 35-yard line, and a special kicker (a “placekicker”) kicks the ball to the offense. A kick return man from the offense will try to catch the ball and advance it by running. Where he is stopped is the point from which the offense will begin its drive, or series of offensive plays. When a kickoff is caught in the offense’s own end zone, the kick returner can either run the ball out of the end zone, or kneel in the end zone to signal a touchback – a sign to stop the play. The ball is then placed on the 20-yard line, where the offense begins play.
Unlike a punt (discussed below), it is important not to kick the ball out of bounds, because that allows the receiving team to place the ball at the 40-yard line.
All progress in a football game is measured in yards. The offensive team tries to get as much “yardage” as it can to try and move closer to the opponent’s end zone. Each time the offense gets the ball, it has four downs, or chances, in which to gain 10 yards. If the offensive team successfully moves the ball 10 or more yards, it earns a first down, and another set of four downs. If the offense fails to gain 10 yards, it loses possession of the ball. The defense tries to prevent the offense not only from scoring, but also from gaining the 10 yards needed for a first down. If the offense reaches fourth down, it usually punts the ball (kicks it away). This forces the other team to begin its drive further down the field.
MOVING THE BALL – The Run and the Pass
A football play begins with the snap. At the line of scrimmage (the position on the field where the play begins), the quarterback loudly calls out a play in code and the player in front of him, the center, passes, or snaps the ball under his legs to the quarterback. From there, the quarterback can either throw the ball, hand it off, or run with it.
There are two ways for the offense to advance the ball. The first is called a run. This occurs when the quarterback either runs himself or hands the ball off to a running back, who then tries to gain as many yards as possible by eluding defensive players. During running plays, all other offensive players will try to block defensive players to clear a path for the runner. Blocking is not just about brute force; rather, coaches often diagram very complicated blocking schemes (i.e., misdirection, option, reverse) to try to try to get the defense out of position and open up holes.
The defense prevents the offense from advancing the ball by bringing the ball carrier to the ground by a “tackle.” A player is tackled when any part of his body other than his feet or hands touches the ground. The play is then over. A play also ends when a player runs out of bounds.
The other alternative to running the ball is to throw it. Or as they say in football, pass it! Usually, the quarterback does the passing, though there are times when the quarterback my hand the ball to another player to pass in an effort to confuse the defense (i.e., making them think it’s a running play). Actually, anyone on the offensive team is allowed to pass the ball as long as the pass is thrown from behind the line of scrimmage. A pass is complete if the ball is caught by another offensive player, usually the “wide receiver” or “tight end.” If the ball hits the ground before someone catches it, it is called an incomplete pass.
If the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage before he is able to pass the ball, it is called a sack.
The object of the game is to score the most points. There are four ways to score points in football.
TOUCHDOWN = 6 POINTS
A touchdown is the biggest single score in a football game. How many points is a touchdown worth? It is worth six points, and it allows the scoring team an opportunity to attempt to get an extra point. How is a touchdown scored? To score a touchdown, the ball must be carried across the goal line into the end zone, caught in the end zone, or a fumble recovered in the end zone, or an untouched kickoff recovered in the end zone by the kicking team.
EXTRA POINT and the TWO-POINT CONVERSION = 1 or 2 POINTS
Immediately following a touchdown, the ball is placed at the opponent’s two-yard line, where the offense has two options. Usually the offense will kick an extra point, also called the point after touchdown, conversion, or PAT. If the offense successfully kicks the ball through the goal posts, it earns one point. The offense can also score two points by running or throwing the ball into the end zone in the same manner as you would score a touchdown. Since going for two points is more difficult than kicking an extra point, the offense usually chooses to kick the extra point.
FIELD GOAL = 3 POINTS
If the offense cannot score a touchdown, it may try to kick a field goal through the goalposts at the back of the end zone. How many points is a field goal worth? Field goals are worth three points and often are the deciding plays in the last seconds of close games. They can be attempted from anywhere on the field on any down, but generally are kicked from inside the defense’s 45-yard line on fourth down. For a field goal to be “good,” the placekicker (or field goal kicker) must kick the ball through the goal-post uprights and over the crossbar. The defense tries to block the kick and stop the ball from reaching the goal post.
SAFETY = 2 POINTS
The safety is worth two points is scored by the defense. A safety occurs when the offensive ball carrier is tackled behind his own goal line. It usually occurs on passing plays when the quarterback is sacked before he is able to throw the ball.
While trying to advance the football to the end zone, the offense may accidentally turn the ball over to the defense in one of two ways. In either case, the defense then becomes the offense and is allowed to advance the ball until the ball carrier is tackled.
When the ball carrier or passer drops the ball before he is tackled, that’s a fumble. Any player on the field can recover the ball by diving on it or he can run with it. The team that recovers a fumble either gets-or retains-possession of the ball. As explained in part 2 of our rules tutorial, determining whether a ball is fumbled before a player is tackled is often very controversial.
An aggressive defense can regain possession of the ball by catching (intercepting) passes meant for players on the other team.
PFF Player Grades | PFF
PFF grades have become synonymous with player performance in both the NFL and college football over the last 10-plus years, but what goes into creating those player grades?
Season-level grades aren’t simply an average of every game-grade a player compiles over a season, as the season grade credits the entire body of work. An 80.0 game grade is not close to one of the best games of all-time, but 16 games of 80.0 grades will equal an outstanding season of consistency and likely one of the better seasons in a given year. A simpler example is a three-touchdown game from a quarterback. We’ve seen many three-touchdown games but doing so in all 16 games would be one of the best seasons of all-time.
It is entirely possible that a player will have a season grade higher than any individual single-game grade he achieved because playing well for an extended period of time is harder to do than for a short period.
The grades allow for easy player comparisons, whether using an overall grade or a facet grade. While we believe the grade is an excellent baseline for how well a player performed his given role, we also believe the using the entire context is crucial when evaluating players. Perhaps a slot receiver had to play more than expected on the outside or a nose tackle was forced to play more three-technique than his coaching staff initially desired. Both players are being evaluated based on what they did, and that context is important when using the grades. PFF ELITE allows users to sort by player grades, but they can also see the simple and advanced stats that tell the story for each player.
Want to see who was the best pass protecting offensive tackle? The best run-stopping linebacker? It’s all in Premium Stats 2.0 as part of PFF ELITE.
Premium Stats allows you to not only rank players by position but also filter by teams, to compare the grades of just one team’s cornerbacks, for example. We also combine defensive fronts and group players as either edge defenders, or interior defenders, to save confusion between 4-3 and 3-4 defensive fronts that in today’s NFL are often in the same alignment by defensive technique, just from either a two- or three-point stance.
It’s important to understand that PFF is not grading talent in these numbers, rather strictly performance on the field. Talented players can have bad games, runs, or even seasons, and often players without nearly as much talent can put together impressive play on the field. We are not necessarily telling you who the best players are. Our rankings are more of a performance evaluation and a reflection of how efficiently a player made plays in the time he was on the field.
GRADES VS. STATS
We aren’t grading players based on the yardage they rack up or the stats they collect. Statistics can be indicative of performance but don’t tell the whole story and can often lie badly. Quarterbacks can throw the ball straight to defenders but if the ball is dropped, you won’t see it on the stat sheet. Conversely, they can dump the ball off on a sequence of screen passes and end up with a gaudy looking stat line if those skill position players do enough work after the catch.
PFF grades the play, not its result, so the quarterback that throws the ball to defenders will be downgraded whether the defender catches the ball to notch the interception on the stat sheet or not. No amount of broken tackles and yards after the catch from a bubble screen will earn a quarterback a better grade, even though his passing stats may be getting padded.
The same is true for most positions. Statistics can be misleading. A tackle whose quarterback gets the ball out of his hands quicker than anybody else may not give up many sacks, but he can still be beaten often and earn a poor grade. Receivers that are targeted relentlessly could post big-time numbers but may offer little more than the product of a volume-based aerial attack.
Here’s a great example from the 2016 season as to why grades and stats may not match up:
In 2016, Atlanta Falcons edge rusher Vic Beasley led the NFL in sacks in a breakout season for the NFC Champions, but he was only the 31st-ranked edge rusher in terms of PFF pass-rushing grade. Here are some of the things to note about how Beasley rated in our system:
Not all sacks are created equal
Beasley sacked the quarterback 16 times, but eight of those sixteen were either unblocked or clean-up sacks that owed more to somebody else flushing the quarterback towards where Beasley was than they did to him beating a blocker to make the play. PFF grading takes into account the quality of the play made to get the sack, and excellent plays to defeat blocks will be graded higher than sacks where the quarterback just happened to be flushed past a player as he was being blocked only to get taken down.
All pass-rushers are trying to sack the quarterback, but even the best will only do so on around three percent of their snaps on the field. Hits and hurries combine with sacks to form a much more robust picture of total pressure generated.
Pressure that does not result in a sack is important too, as just pressuring the quarterback sees an average drop in passer rating of 32.0 points from 94.4 to 61.8 over the past 10 years. That’s the equivalent of turning Ben Roethlisberger into Blaine Gabbert just by hurrying him in the pocket.
Beasley led the league in sacks, but he was just 18th even among edge defenders when it comes to total pressures. Compare that to a player like Oakland’s Khalil Mack who led the league with 96 combined sacks, hits and hurries, and Beasley has a significant deficit in total pressure.
When we used our analytics to run numbers to find out just how valuable pressure was compared to sacks, our Expected Points Added data showed that a sack is worth around 2.1 pressures of any other kind. So, a player like Mack would only need to have had an extra 11 hits or hurries to have added more value as a pass-rusher than Beasley despite having five fewer sacks over the season. Mack, in reality, had 40 more pressures, and so had a significantly higher PFF grade than Beasley.
Run defense matters
Mack’s overall grade of 95.2 was also far higher than Beasley’s 74.2 because Khalil Mack was one of the best run defenders in the game, capable of shedding blocks and knifing into the backfield to blow up plays. Beasley wasn’t nearly as accomplished in this area, an area that can get lost in all the talk of sacks but is counted in the PFF grading.
HOW DO WE USE IT?
The PFF grading dates back to 2006 for NFL and 2014 for college football, and we’ve gleaned many unique insights along the way. As mentioned, context is key as each position group comes with its own challenges when trying to isolate each player from a grading perspective. We understand that PFF grade is not perfect, but it’s also a unique look at a player’s production, and when paired with PFF’s advanced data, it’s one of the most powerful tools in the game. PFF grading is both descriptive and predictive, and in many cases, we’ve debunked myths about traditional stats, showing that the production grade is a better indicator of what happened on the field and what will happen going forward.
Season-level Player Grades are included with PFF EDGE
- PFF EDGE gives you access to the most popular Player Grades features, and much more.
- Rankings by position, player grades and snap counts for the current season
- Grades for each facet of a player’s game (receiving, run blocking, coverage etc.) on a 0-100 scale.
- Head to head matchup charts featuring multiple offensive and defensive formations.
- Full grades for each player in the NFL by team roster and position.
Game-Level Player Grades and Premium Stats 2.0 is included in PFF ELITE
- Premium Stats includes 0-100 grades for teams and players by week.
- PFF Signature Stats by position and week.
- Pre-snap position tables show how often a player lined up at each position per game.
- Historical game grades and performance data, including the playoffs, back to 2008.
- Grades for each facet of a player’s game (receiving, run blocking, coverage etc.) on a 0-100 scale.
- PFF Greenline game projections and much more.
Begin your journey into PFF Player Grades today. Choose the subscription that suits you here.
Wing-T Offense – Plays, Strategies and Coaching Tips
Glenn Warner, or as he was better known, Pop, laid the ground work for the Wing-T offense with his single wing scheme. At a time when everyone was concerned with overpowering their opponents, Pop Warner sought to trick it.
Over time, it evolved into the Wing-T, which has been made famous by University of Delaware Coach Harold “Tubby” Raymond. Often considered one of the best misdirection formations in the game, it has fallen out of favor in the pro game in recent years, but is still very effective at the youth level.
The Wing-T has a classic offensive line setup, with 2 guards, 2 tackles, a center, and the quarterback behind center. It’s characterized by having a wingback just off of your tight end on the strong side, and a split end lined up on the weak side. The tailback and the fullback can move around a little bit, but are generally split, and can often end up offset to the strong or weak sides as well.
Basic Wing-T Formation
Famous Wing-T Offenses
- Late 70s Kansas City Chiefs
- Pre 2002 University of Delaware
Wing-T Offense Strengths
- Short Passing Plays
Wing-T Offense Weaknesses
- Power Plays
- Deep Passing Plays
Wing-T Offense Plays
If you’re interested in learning more about Wing-T Offense, make sure you check out our Wing-T Playbook. It’s packed with 10 simple, fun and effective plays designed for youth and high school football. All explained with player responsibilities, step by step diagrams, and implementation tips for coaches.
Below are some sample plays you can check out.
Running Play: Wing-T 21 Dive
Try running the FB dive at the 2 hole a couple of times before you try this fake. This is a great power play for short yardage – so when the defense starts to collapse in to take away the middle, have your QB keep the ball and run a bootleg out left to catch them off guard!
Wing-T Dive is a simple power play that’s great for short yardage situations
- LT: Seals off DE outside.
- LG: Double teams man in front of C.
- C: Double teams man with LG.
- RG: Blocks man outside, away from gap.
- RT: Runs a loop block, pulling inside behind the RG to block weak side ILB.
Backs & Receivers
- TE: Releases from line to block FS.
- SE: Runs an out route; blocks CB.
- WB: Runs an out route; blocks CB.
- FB: Fakes dive to 2 hole, blocks strong side ILB.
- HB: Runs dive through 1 hole.
- QB: Reverses pivot, fakes handoff to FB with left hand, hand off ball to HB with right.
- The blocks of the FB and RT will make or break this play – if your RT can get out in front of the HB and put a block on the weak side LB, the HB can usually get huge yardage.
- While the TE isn’t going to block the DE in front of him, the release inside will keep him occupied long enough that they end up behind the play
Passing Play: Wing-T Waggle Left Throwback
This has big play potential written all over it. That’s why you want to use it sparingly – I prefer to pull it out when I’m still outside of the red zone but in my opponents field. If the TB can beat the outside CB, you’ll be looking at a 2 on 1 with the WB able to lay a good block down on the SS.
This Wing-T passing play has potential for big yardage
- LT: Pass blocks man.
- LG: Pulls left, protecting the back side of the play.
- C: Pass blocks man.
- RG: Pulls left, protecting the back side of the play.
- RT: Pass blocks man.
Backs & Receivers
- Z: Runs a flag route, but instead of a quick double move, runs deep enough inside to occupy FS before cutting back out.
- TE: Runs a deep in to keep MLBs occupied.
- WB: Runs a skinny post, trying to keep the CB and SS occupied.
- FB: Runs a dive track before releasing out into the flat.
- TB: Fakes a sweep, keeps running into a wide swing route.
- QB: Reverse pivots, waggles out left, makes pass to TB.
- The SE, TE, and WB need to really sell their routes – this play hinges on their ability to grab the defense’s attention.
- The QB needs to do his part to sell the pass downfield as well, moving the secondary with his eyes, as he looks for the SE and TE before checking down to the TB for the pass.
For more plays like this, check our complete Wing-T Playbook today!
More Football Offenses
- I-Formation Offense: great for playing smash mouth football and overpowering the defense at the line
- Double Wing Offense: uses two wingbacks to set up power runs and misdirection plays
- Singleback Offense: a versatile passing offense, which also works well for draws and outside runs
- Spread Offense: spreads the defense horizontally, making it easier to isolate man coverage, as well as find and throw to the holes in the zone
- Pro Set Offense: provides excellent balance, allowing you to get the ball to any area of the field very quickly
Or, if you need help develop fundamental offensive skills, don’t miss our drill collections covering quarterbacks, offensive line, running backs and receivers.
Football Tactics basics: The 4-3-3 formation explained
7500 to Holte tactical guide: The 4-3-3
The 4-3-3 is set out in three lines on the pitch – a typical defence of two centre-backs and two full-backs, three central midfielders who may form a triangle and three strikers, one central and two who play on the flanks.
Image from soccer-training-guide.com
Key to this formation are the wide forwards, that flank the lone central striker. These players are all-round attacking players with pace and shooting ability, who use their speed on the wings before cutting in towards goal. Cristiano Ronaldo is the outstanding example. The lone striker himself may be a powerful target man or someone who drops deep to drag defenders away and leave space for the wide forwards, in the famous ´False 9´ style of Lionel Messi .
These strikers are aided by at least two of the central midfielders. Those central midfielders form a tight triangle in the middle of the pitch and often fall into the roles of ‘creator-destroyer-passer’, to attack, defend and maintain possession. Some midfielders combine all of those elements but a well-balanced midfield is key to the formation.
With a compact central midfield, the full-backs can also join the attack and use huge amounts of space due to the high positioning of the wide forwards.
The 4-3-3 is arguably the most potentially overwhelming of all modern formations. There’s a reason why many of the most dominant sides of European football – Chelsea, Real Madrid, Barcelona – use it. These are the sides that expect a win each week, with enough offensive power to overcome sides determined to leave with a draw.
In possession, the 4-3-3 allows at least 7 players to attack, as the wide forwards squeeze the defence, the full-backs come up behind them and two of the central midfielders push forward.
However the special quality of a good 4-3-3 is the strangling quality it brings. This comes from combining two elements, a three man central midfield which can dominate possession via passing triangles and three strikers who can press high up the pitch. Opponents find it hard to get the ball and hard to keep it. Midfielders can´t get a hold of the ball and are pressured quickly when they do. The defenders are faced with three men pressing them and there are no easy balls to the wings when the full-backs push up.
A fully-functioning offensive 4-3-3 is like the tide against a sandcastle – it might take a while, but it’s gonna break through the defences eventually. And there has never been a 4-3-3 that functioned better than the Barcelona side of 2008-09 under Pep Guardiola in his first season, treble winners who dominated Manchester United in the Champions League final and Real Madrid in the league.
The flipside is that a 4-3-3 which can’t keep hold of the ball while attacking is potentially very vulnerable. The only players left back in defence are the centre-backs and the defensive midfielder. That creates a very dangerous situation on the counter as opposing wide players have plenty of space to break into. Anything less than a top defensive midfielder, who is physically strong, has great positioning , lots of pace and accurate passing can leave the centre-backs very exposed. One misplaced pass and the opposing team have a dangerous counter.
The 4-3-3 also requires a huge amount of discipline from its wide players. The potential to be exposed by having wide forwards who fail to track back is enormous. Full-backs who storm up in support of an attack must have the energy to race back and defend for 90 minutes. If not, opposing wide players will run riot on the flanks.
Paul Lambert’s 4-3-3
While the name of Paul Lambert may be mud around Villa Park nowadays, there was a time when Villans were optimistic about the future of the side. That feeling was strongest at the back end of the 2012-13 season, when the all-out attack of Abgonlahor, Benteke and Weimann combined to drive Villa out of the relegation zone. The highlight was the 6-1 victory over Sunderland.
Having identified patterns of circulation in the schedules of a particular team, the researchers then calculated how often the same patterns would be repeated in randomly generated systems with similar parameters (for example, with the same number of interacting elements) . .. To do this, we had to process data on hundreds of thousands of passes.
Photo author, Getty
Messi is ready to dribble, but he can also pass.What he will do next – no one knows
Even at first glance, Barcelona’s statistics were different from other Spanish teams. The Catalans used the A-B-A-C scheme much more often (for example, Xavi-Messi-Xavi-Neymar), and the A-B-C-D scheme – much less often. In other words, Barça’s play was much more structured: according to the researchers, tiki-taka is not endless random passes, but a precise, skillfully constructed pattern. ”
Barcelona’s uniqueness was even more pronounced when the researchers conducted this called cluster analysis, grouping teams according to how often they use each of the five possible four-pass patterns (A-B-A-B, A-B-B-A, etc.)etc.). All other Spanish teams were divided into two groups, and “Barca” stood apart.
If we add clubs from other European leagues to the calculations, the situation does not change much – there are a couple of teams (Torino, West Ham, Juventus) that do not quite correspond to the parameters of the main cluster, where most of the clubs have got. But “Barcelona” differs from others much more significantly.
Is this special punching pattern the key to Barça’s success?
Let’s take a closer look at the statistics of the 2014 World Cup: the Spanish national team played in a similar “Barcelona” style, but the ruthless Dutch rolled it into a pancake, and the Chileans put fillings in this pancake and ate it up with gusto. (Of course, the reasons for the defeat of the Spaniards in Brazil lie not only in the fact that their game was deciphered – the national team has aged elementarily, its players have already won everything that one can dream of, etc. – Ed.)
As we have already We know that Real Madrid also managed to find an antidote to the exhausting “tiki-taki” this time.
Does this mean that due to thoughtful analysis and skillful “game of numbers” you can be guaranteed to defeat even the most famous rivals? Unlikely. The ball, as they say, is round.
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Monitoring of the functional state of highly qualified football players during the competitive season E.N. Bezuglov, Yu.A. Krasnozhan, E.A. Stukalov, S.A. Rossiyskiy. Yardoshvili A.E., Usmanova E.M. ZAO FC Lokomotiv First Moscow State Medical University named after IM Sechenov RGUFKSiT ABSTRACT The article provides data on modern methods of monitoring the functional state of highly qualified athletes using the example of football players, provides characteristics of various types of monitoring, which are divided into groups depending on the tasks.Using specific examples, the effectiveness of the proposed measures as a means of preventing overtraining and determining the orientation of the training process is shown, the main advantages of the research methods introduced into practice are described. Key
overtraining, aerobic and anaerobic performance, body composition analysis, post-exercise recovery Professional football player’s state monitoring during the competitions. Bezuglov E.N., Krasnozhan Y.A., Stukalov E.A., Rossiyskiy S.A., Yardoshvili A.E., Usmanova E.M. FC “Lokomotiv” I.M.Sechenov First MSMU RGUFKS & T 1
There are different facts about modern control methods of functional high qualified footballers state in this article. The following football players example different kinds of methods are given. These methods are divided into groups according to the purpose. Exact examples show the useful activity that were given as prophylactics of overtraining and in what way the process of training will be.Here there is a description of the main advantages of methods in this research. Key words: functional status, overtraining, aerobic and anaerobic performance, analysis of body composition, recovery after exercise recovery. At the present stage of the development of football, revolutionary changes in the construction of the game are practically impossible, which is not surprising, given more than a century of development history. Thanks to careful selection, modern training technologies and the use of innovative pharmacological methods, the physical capabilities of the players’ bodies have also reached threshold values. In this regard, the control of the functional state of the body of athletes during the season becomes very important, which allows not only to adequately assess the current state, but also to predict and prevent the onset of negative changes. Speaking about monitoring during the season, we mean that before its start, the athlete has already undergone an in-depth medical study
to correct the identified limiting factors and assess the baseline functional state.The main tasks of functional monitoring are: – assessment of the current level of the functional state – prevention of overtraining 2
– determination of
of the direction
of the training
process to the set goals and tasks – control over the processes of urgent recovery – control of the main systems for the dynamics of changes in capacity energy supply – timely identification of changes in the body of athletes potentially dangerous for the health of athletes – assessment of the adequacy of the pharmacological support and “point” correction of the identified changes In the course of work, several programs are used that differ in volume and tasks. Based on this, basic, milestone and current studies are distinguished. Despite the differences between them, they must meet the following criteria: -be stereotyped in terms of timing and conditions -easy reproducible – systemic -unambiguously interpreted -be
athletes Each of the types of monitoring in one combination or another includes
testing, body composition analysis, determination of the state of the main energy supply systems, cardiovascular screening. Table No. 1 The volume of hematological monitoring 3
analyzes General blood test
General urine analysis
+ 9000 ALT
creatine2 + 5c.
– Laps total
The indicated volume of hematological parameters allows how to identify the main limiting ph actors and evaluate
used for screening . For example, a change in the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone indicates possible changes in the thyroid gland and dictates the need for further examination. It is also important to determine the level of D-dimer, which is a marker of latent thrombi that do not manifest clinically. I would like to separately note that the definition of
of the reduced
immune status is carried out only before the season, since our own experience of three-year control of the immunograms of football players of all ages did not reveal clinically significant changes in the corresponding indicators in any group of observed and in any mode of games and training.
An important role is played by systemic work to eliminate chronic foci
immunological suppression. Characteristics of types of monitoring Basic monitoring (BM) is carried out twice during the season (before the season and in the off-season) or upon signing the contract and is part of the in-depth medical examination. A distinctive feature of this type of monitoring is a rather long period of absence of training before it. It allows you to assess the level and capacity of the main energy supply systems (treadmill test, MAM and Wingate tests), the rate of post-exercise recovery, fat and muscle content in the body, possible hematological limiting factors (low levels of hemoglobin, testosterone, electrolytes, iron, etc.).and a number of other significant factors that change against the background of physical exertion, which 5
can be selectively used for urgent correction of the training process – the speed of the sensorimotor
reaction , muscle tone, decreased muscle mass
, stress cardiomyopathies. Basic monitoring includes: 1) bioimpedance analysis of body composition 2) biochemical blood test, complete blood count, hormonal spectrum (testosterone / cortisol ratio, thyroid stimulating hormone level) 3) treadmill test
gas analysis (definition
working capacity, maximum heart rate, TANM, rate of recovery in terms of heart rate and lactate ion at 3 and 8 minutes) 4) Wingate test, MAM test (anaerobic performance and its capacity) 5) electrocardiography (stress cardiomyopathies) 6) sensorimotor speed reactions at rest and after exercise 6) muscle tone 7) spirometry at rest and after exercise (detection and prevention in case of physical exertion asthma) The results obtained during this type of study provide not only information for analyzing the current state and their correction, but also allow comparison of the obtained data with subsequent studies. Stage monitoring (EM) Stage monitoring is carried out 6-8 times a year: before the last pre-season collection, and then monthly. All studies are carried out 6
after two days of rest, which facilitates interpretation of the data and reduces the effect of post-load changes. It includes 1) bioimpedance analysis of body composition 2) biochemical blood test, complete blood count, hormonal spectrum (testosterone / cortisol ratio)) 3) Wingate test, MAM test 4) Luscher test 5) speed of sensorimotor reaction before and after load 6) muscle tone Current monitoring can be carried out at different stages of training microcycles, but most often the next morning after matches and hard training sessions or in the middle of the cycle to assess the tolerance of the proposed loads.It includes: 1) hematological control (creatine phosphokinase, urea, hemoglobin) 2) base heart rate and blood pressure
and their processing in various combinations
(Kerdo vegetative index, double product, etc. ) 3) determination of the speed of the sensorimotor reaction 4) Luscher test As
studies is possible only if the medical service and the coaching staff have the necessary equipment and the ability of doctors to competently conduct these studies and interpret them.For these purposes we use: 7
– stress testing system with gas analysis CARDIOVIT AT-104 PC Ergo-Spiro from Schiller – bicycle ergometer Monark Peak Bike 894E – portable laboratory Roche (Switzerland) for the determination of creatine phosphokinase, urea, hemoglobin and lactate – portable lactometers “AKKUTREND LACTAT” (Roche) -spirometer (multifunctional workstation CARDIOVIT AT-104 PC Ergo-Spiro, Schiller firm) -electrocardiograph
AT-1042) – Schiller
9000 computer programs for determining the speed of the sensorimotor reaction and conducting the Luscher test – bioimpedance analyzer of body composition ABC-01 “Medass” – apparatus for measuring muscles in dynamic movement “Myotest”. We consider it possible
to carry out all
studies in the proper volume only on our own (with the exception of ECG decoding, which must be carried out by a sports cardiologist), which dictates high requirements for the qualifications of representatives of the medical service. Another
by the coaching staff
of the significance of the tests carried out and the use of the results obtained in practice.
The fulfillment of
of the conditions listed above
to form a proper attitude towards testing among football players, which is sometimes fundamentally important, especially when performing a test to failure.
The involvement of third-party specialists and organizations makes it practically impossible to carry out all stages of monitoring in the proper volume, both due to organizational difficulties and due to the lack of proper trust on the part of athletes. Below we want to give the main characteristics and features of some studies, as well as their order. As previously mentioned, the activities
of the base and stage
monitoring stages are carried out in the morning after a minimum of two days of rest.They begin with taking blood from a vein of a laboratory employee and conducting an analysis of body composition, since these stages require an empty stomach. After that, the athletes have a snack (sports bars, bananas, cookies) and a study of the motor reaction rate is carried out. The next step is electrocardiography at rest, Luscher’s test and the speed of the sensorimotor reaction at rest. In the absence of pathological changes, the player proceeds to perform the MAM and Wingate tests. And only after all this is a treadmill test with gas analysis and lactate ion determination before and after exercise (3rd and 8th minutes).We consider a two-fold determination of lactate to be fundamentally important, since by the dynamics of changes in its concentration in capillary blood, we can judge the rate of recovery and the level of preparedness – the growth of lactate ion by the 8th minute is an unfavorable sign. It is important to determine the speed of the sensorimotor reaction immediately after exercise, which, when compared with the results obtained at rest, gives an idea of the degree of stability and stability of the sensorimotor reaction . 9
Our own experience testifies that it takes no more than 6 hours to carry out all these studies in 15 people of the main team, which does not burden them with proper planning of the arrival of athletes.The time spent on each player does not exceed 80 minutes. We must not forget that at present most of the high-level sports teams are international in composition and the tests they offer should be simple enough to perform, which is why we use the Luscher test to assess the current psycho-emotional background, and as a technique that most quickly signals the onset of fatigue, the speed of the sensorimotor reactions. All other studies entered into everyday practice either because of their high accuracy or simple reproducibility and relatively uniform interpretation. The first group includes the determination of working capacity by the direct method (treadmill test, MAM and Wingate tests) and hematological control. The second group includes various methods of cardiovascular screening, used on a daily basis and allowing a quick and accurate assessment (in combination with other methods) of the current functional state . As an example of the effectiveness of the developed scheme, the data of one of the basic and stage studies will be given below. Before the 2011 competitive season, the baseline monitoring indicators were assessed as part of the UMO.During the treadmill test, a group of football players with a slowed
recovery was identified
indicators of maximum heart rate, which led to the correction of working heart rate zones on the Polar system, which was used during of the preparatory period and the intensity of the work of these players was 10
is adequate to
the classical formula for calculating the maximum heart rate (220-age) , then the proposed load would be excessive for these athletes. A number of football players showed changes in the work of the heart muscle, which were not pathological, but could limit them when performing the proposed loads – timely pharmacological correction was carried out and the training direction was changed . Two football players had high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, which is a screening hormone to determine the state of the thyroid gland.He underwent an ultrasound scan, which excluded organic damage. Particular attention to this particular organ is dictated by its decisive role in the main metabolism, a decrease in which directly affects the athlete’s performance. According to the results of hematological control, all players were divided into groups with high and relatively low hemoglobin and testosterone levels. Taking into account the data obtained, during all the preparatory camp, measures were taken to increase the level of these indicators . Already during the competitive season, after a staged study, data were obtained on the first low iron content in the body of a number of football players and an excessively high level of the muscle fraction of creatine phosphokinase and urea – an urgent pharmacological and pedagogical correction was started. At the same time, despite rather intense training, not a single football player had an electrolyte deficiency, the levels of hemoglobin and testosterone remained high, which indicated the adequacy of the pharmacological and nutritional support.11
Separately, it should be noted the important role of determining the body composition
by the method of
everyday practice from the very beginning of the preparatory period. The introduction of this technique made it possible to move away from the stereotypical assessment of the effectiveness of the training process depending on the dynamics of the weight of a football player . As a control, not a decrease in total weight was assessed,
in the ratio
components.The main task was to increase the musculoskeletal mass (SCM) with a decrease in the proportion of fat in the body, which does not always lead to a decrease in weight, which is confirmed by our own observations – there is even a slight increase in the weight of football players due to an increase in
components (diagrams 1-3) Weight
77.1 76.7 March
Lokomotiv during the preparatory and competitive periods. % fat
components of FC Lokomotiv footballers during the preparatory and competitive periods.SMM
Diagram 3. Dynamics of changes in the musculoskeletal mass of football players (SCM) of FC Lokomotiv during the preparatory and competitive periods. In addition to these indicators, when determining the body composition, the active cell mass (ACM) and phase angle (FU) were assessed, the dynamics of changes in which makes it possible to fairly accurately judge the degree of effectiveness of the training process.As
can be seen
preparatory period there is a systematic increase in ACM and FU,
the beginning of the
competitive season (diagrams 4-5).
The dynamics of changes in the active cell mass (ACM) of football players of FC Lokomotiv during the preparatory and competitive periods.
Diagram of football players
competitive periods.The above examples once again emphasize the importance of daily systematic work to monitor the functional state of football players, which also includes the formation of a trusting attitude on the part of athletes to the events held. At the same time, the conduct of all examinations should not depend on immediate results and the mood of coaches and football players. 14
In our case, all representatives of the trainer-physician-athlete triangle have an understanding of the importance of the events and their great role in the general complex of building a quick and smart game that we are trying to play.
working capacity in the clinic and sports / Aulik Ivar Vasilievich. – M .: Medicine, 1990, p. 92 2.
Ordzhonikidze Z.G., Ukhlina E.V. Influence of physical activity of different intensity on the immune status of young
physical education and sports medicine, No. 12, p.3338, December 2010 3.
Medical high qualification
before signing the contract, Bulletin of Sports Science, No. 2/2010, pp. 43-46
Gavrilova E. A. Sports heart: stress cardiomyopathy. M.: Sov. sport, 2007.- p. 198
readiness of young athletes-reserve sports of the highest achievements, Publishing house Soviet sport, Moscow, 2011, p.141 6.
O.S. Kulinenko Sports Pharmacology Handbook: Medicines. M., Soviet sport, 2004, p. 308
Nikolaev D.V. Bioimpedance analysis of human body composition. M.: Nauka 2009, p. 390
control in sports, Soviet sport, 2011, p. 228 9.
Makarova G.A. Sports Medicine Textbook. – M .: Soviet sport, 2003.- 480 s
Ordzhonikidze Z.G., Pavlov V.I. Physiology of football. Publisher: Olympia-Press, 2008 240 pages
How to choose the right chart or graph for the annual report
The target audience of your presentation or report – investors, management and just people – expect to receive not a bunch of numbers, but already formulated conclusions or clearly placed accents. It becomes necessary to draw the attention of the audience to factors and circumstances, to show plans and strategy.
Graphic display of information helps to convey the desired idea, to support the formulated conclusion or to emphasize the emphasis
But there is one problem – the perception of positive and negative results. At the same time, different audiences have different attitudes even towards positive ones. For example, journalists may be skeptical about achievements. Shareholders tend to react painfully to losses. And here a subtle, thoughtful approach is needed.
It is very boring and tedious to tell about failures and negativity, and an interesting and cheerful story about successes can be supported by a visual demonstration, including a presentation with impressive graphs.At the same time, a correctly chosen chart can radically change the perception of information: if you simply show how the company’s income grew over the year, it will not be as impressive as if the dynamics of your competitor’s subsidence is shown next to it.
One of the challenges that slows down reporting and analytical work significantly is finding the right chart type. Choosing it incorrectly can cause confusion in the minds of viewers or lead to misinterpretation of the data.
Let’s take a look at an infographic about world oil production.
Top Lead infographic for Baker Tilly. View in full size.
Everything is here – and production volumes, exports, forecasts, demand, consumers and tons of information. This infographic contains, in fact, a huge amount of data for an entire industry. However, it is easy to understand and certain trends are clearly visible on the graph.
To create a chart that explains and demonstrates accurate analytics, you first need to understand the reasons why you might need it at all. In this article, we will look at five questions that arise when choosing a chart type. Then we will give an overview of 13 different types of charts, from which you can choose the most suitable one.
5 questions to ask yourself when choosing a chart
1. Do you need to compare values?
Graphs are ideal for comparing one or more sets of values and can easily display the lowest and highest readings.
Use the following types to create a comparison chart: bar, pie, scatter, scale with values.
2. Do you want to show the structure of something?
For example, you want to talk about the types of mobile devices that site visitors use or the total sales by segment.
Use the following charts to show the structure: Pie, Stacked Bar, Vertical Stack, Area, Waterfall.
3. Do you want to understand how the data is distributed?
Breakdown tables help you understand major trends and point out what is outside the box.
Use these charts: scatter chart, line chart, bar chart.
4. Are you interested in analyzing trends in a specific dataset?
If you want to know more about how numbers behave over a specific time period, there are chart types that represent this very well.
You will need: line chart, double axis (bar and line), bar chart.
5. Want to better understand the relationship between the set values?
Relationship plots are suitable for showing how one variable relates to another or several different variables. This can be used to show a positive, negative, or zero effect on another digit.
Use the following charts for this: scatter chart, bubble chart, line chart.
13 different types of charts for analyzing and presenting data
To better understand each chart and its uses, we will look at all chart types.
A bar graph is used to show comparisons between different items, and it can also compare items over a period of time. This format can be used to track the dynamics of conversions to the landing page or the number of customers over a certain period.
Top Lead Infographic for AEQUO Law Firm
Design Guidelines for Column Charts
1. Choose a consistent color scheme and accentuate the places that you want to highlight as significant moments in time or changes over time …
2. Use horizontal labels to improve readability.
3. Start the y-axis at 0 to correctly plot the values on the graph.
Horizontal bar chart
A bar chart — mostly horizontal bar — should be used to avoid confusion when one data bar is too long or when comparing more than 10 items. This option can also be used to render negative values.
Top Lead infographic for Aggeek online edition. View in full size.
Design guidelines for bar charts
1.Choose a consistent color scheme and accent color places that you want to highlight as significant breakpoints or changes over time.
2. Use horizontal labels to improve readability.
3. Start the Y-axis at 0 to correctly plot the values on the graph.
Line Chart displays trends or progress and can be used to visualize a wide variety of data categories. It should be used when you are creating a graph based on long-term data collection.
Top Lead Infographic. Line chart – bottom.
Design guidelines for line charts
1. Use solid lines.
2. Draw no more than four lines to avoid visual distractions.
3. Use the correct height so that the lines occupy about 2/3 of the Y-axis height.
Dual-axis chart allows you to plot data using two axes, X and Y.Several datasets are used, one of which, for example, is data for a period, and the other is better suited for grouping into categories. Thus, you can demonstrate the correlation or lack thereof between different indicators.
Top Lead Infographic for Growth Up. The double axis diagram is at the top.
Design Considerations for Dual Axis Charts
1. Use the left Y axis for the primary variable because it is natural for people to look left first.
2. Use different plot styles to illustrate the two datasets.
3. Choose contrasting colors for the datasets to be compared.
The area chart generally looks like a line chart, but the space between the X-axis and the graph line is filled with color or pattern. This option is suitable for demonstrating the relationship between parts of a whole, for example, the contribution of individual sales representatives to the total sales for the year.This will help to analyze both the whole picture as a whole and information about trends in individual areas.
Top Lead infographic for Baker Tilly. From top to bottom: pie chart, two area charts, pie charts.
Design guidelines for area charts
1. Use semi-transparent colors.
2. Use up to four categories to avoid confusion.
3.Organize data with a high frequency of volatility at the top of the chart to make it easier to perceive dynamic changes.
This can be used to compare many different items. For example, the frequency of visiting several sites and each page separately.
Infographics and layout – Top Lead. For Naftogaz Ukraine. The stacking chart is at the bottom left. View in full size.
Design guidelines for stacking charts
1. It is best used to illustrate part-whole relationships. Choose contrasting colors for greater clarity.
2. Scale the diagram large enough to see the sizes of the groups in relation to each other.
A pie chart displays a static number and how the parts add up to a whole – the composition of something.The pie chart shows numbers as percentages, and the sum of all the segments should be 100%.
Infographics and layout – Top Lead. For Naftogaz Ukraine. View in full size.
Design Guidelines for Pie Charts
1. Do not add too many categories to make the difference between slices clearly visible.
2. Make sure that the sum of all parts is 100%.
3.You need to arrange the pieces according to their size.
Top Lead infographic for Baker Tilly. View in full size.
Waterfall Chart is used to demonstrate how intermediate values - positive and negative – affect the initial value and lead to the final result. An example would be visualization of how the total revenue of a company depends on different departments and turns into a specific amount of profit.
Infographics and layout – Top Lead. Annual report “Naftogaz Ukraine”. Waterfall diagram in the upper half of the layout. View in full size.
Design Guidelines for Waterfall Charts
1. Use contrasting colors to highlight differences in your datasets.
2. Choose warm colors for growth and cool colors for fall.
A funnel chart displays the sequence of stages and the speed at which each stage is completed.It can be used to track the sales process or user interaction with the site.
Top Lead Infographic.
Design Guidelines for Funnel Plots
1. Scale the size of each section to accurately represent the size of the dataset.
2. Use contrasting colors or shades of the same color from darkest to lightest as the funnel narrows.
There are several other types of graphs – they are not used very often, but they can also be useful for visualizing large amounts of data.Among them:
A scatter plot shows the relationship between two different variables or shows distributional trends. It is suitable if you have many different point data and want to find commonality in the dataset. Such visualization works well in finding exceptions or data distribution patterns.
Design guidelines for scatter charts
1. Include more variables such as different sizes to combine more data.
2. Start the Y-axis at 0 for an accurate distribution of the data.
3. If you use trend lines, you need to limit yourself to a maximum of two so that the graph is clear.
A bubble chart is similar to a scatter plot. But only in the sense that it can show distribution and interconnection. There is a third set of data, which is denoted by the size of the circle.
Design guidelines for bubble charts
1.Grade the bubbles based on the area they occupy, not the diameter.
2. Make sure the marks are clear and visible.
3. Use only circles.
Scale with values
This graph shows the progress towards the goal, compares it according to different criteria and displays the result as rating or performance.
Design guidelines for scale with values
1. Use contrasting colors to show dynamics.
2. Use the same color in different shades to measure progress.
A heat map shows the relationship between two elements and provides rating information. Rating information is displayed using different colors or different saturations.
Heatmap Design Guidelines
1. Use a basic and clear map outline to avoid distracting viewers from the data.
2. Use different shades of the same color to show changes.
3. Avoid using multiple templates.
There can be a huge number of design options.
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